“Everything that people have, think, and do as
members of a society” (Ferraro, 2005)
Refers to the beliefs, values, behavior and ways of
Shared by group of people
Affects everything we do
Impacts every aspect of society
Influences international advertising strategy
Important environmental factor
CULTURAL VALUES :
Governing ideas and guiding principles
Important variables in advertising research
Culture is the lens through which people view products as well
as your company
Culture influences the overall priorities consumers attach to
different activities and products
Determines the success or failure of specific products or services
Determines the success or failure of marketing communications
Advertising is any paid form of non-personal
presentation and promotion of goods, services, or
ideas by an identified sponsor.”
The purpose of this presentation is to explore the
relationships between cultural dimensions and
particular characteristics of advertising .
From these perspectives, mass media and culture are
closely related and are not easily separated.
culture provides mass media with sources for content.
All content must be derived from culture, including
entertainment, news and advertisements, otherwise it
could not be understood
By taking the example of music we can make our
advertisement more effective. The musical advertisement
sounds melodious to the ears. It easily captures the attention
of viewers and increases customer recall AND increases the
persuasiveness of the advertisement.
Good music can contribute to the effectiveness of an
advertisement merely by making it more attractive.
A good ad engages the attention of an audience, and the
most straightforward way of achieving this is to fashion an
appeal which is entertaining
Music in advertising is “the most common musical
technique for aiding memorability and hence product recall.
To increase the memorability of a product or the products
For providing rational facts in the same time “mixtures of
speech and song provide advertisers with opportunities for
both logical, factual appeals [through spoken and written
language] and emotive, poetic appeals [through music].
Identify key cultural values that affect the consumption of
Ensure the marketing mix appeals to these values
Examine changes in cultural values and adapt the
marketing mix if needed
Modify marketing mix to subcultures if the culture is
Be aware of symbols and ritual
Types of Symbols
Animals (animate objects)
Symbolism used in advertising are designed to represent
a particular brand or company
Unwritten rules of culture
Performed by most members of society for
Remind people of their cultural kinship
advertising is what most people think of when talking about
advertising or marketing.
McDonald’s Strange Menu Around the World
So you think you know the McDonald’s menu like
the back of your hand? Think again.
From McDonald’s international, here are some
menu items you have probably never tried before:
McDonalds is committed to
serving the highest quality of
Halal products to its
customers with strict attention
to every single detail in this
objective. The company
dedicates enormous effort,
research, time and money to
ensure that all products that
are served in McDonalds s
restaurants in the Pakistan are
100% Halal inspected and
•No big Macs because
Hindu people don’t eat
•They have Maharaja
Mac, which is a Big
Mac made of Lamb or
•There is also a
vegetarian burger, Mc
Fried Roast Beef
The Dinner Menu
2) Kellogg's Corn Flakes
Kellogg was the wholly owned Indian subsidiary of the
Kellogg company based in Battle Creek, Michigan in the
Founded in 1906,had manufacturing facilities in 19
countries and marketed its products in more than 160
In the 1990’s there was the desire by Kellogg’s to
Stagnating sales in the U.S strengthened this need.
Set up its 30th
manufacturing facility in India with a
total investment of $30million.
Launched in September, 1994, Kellogg’s initial
offerings in India included corn-flakes, wheat-flakes
and Basmati rice flakes.
Despite offering good quality products and being
supported by the technical, managerial and financial
resources of its parent, Kellogg's products failed in the
Indian market. Kellogg’s knew it will be difficult to
get Indian customers to accept its products hence it
relied heavily on the quality of its crispy flakes.
Indians liked to boil their milk and consume it warm
or lukewarm, they also like to add sugar to their milk.
The rice and wheat versions did not do well because
sugar could not easily dissolve in cold milk which
made it not sweet enough for the Indians. Some
consumers called the rice flakes, rice corn flakes.
Analysts believe that the major reason for Kellogg’s
failure in the Indian market was the fact that the taste
of its products did not suit Indian breakfast habits.
In most third world countries pricing is believed to
play a dominant role in the demand for any product
but Kellogg did not share this position and this
affected the demand for its products. At an average
cost of Rs. 21 per 100 gm, Kellogg products were
clearly priced way above the product of its main
competitor, Mohun Corn-flakes (Rs. 16.50 for 100 gm).
Another small-time brand, Champion was selling at
prices almost half that of Kellogg’s.
Mooij, M. D. (1998). Global marketing and
advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. SAGE
Mooij, M. D. (2005). Global marketing and
advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes (2nd
ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc.