Marine Pollution Control. - Dr. J.S. Pandey


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Elaborating about the control of marine pollution. Various types of wastes such as sewage, agricultural run-off, industrial wastes including radioactive waste, and oil spills being sent into the sea. Chemical pesticides find entry into the food chain. Harmful impact of oil spill. Discussing some of the positive features of CRZ Notification 2011, which included the inclusion of seawater as CRZ IV and the concept of hazard line. Ports and associated ship movement for business purposes cause marine pollution.

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Marine Pollution Control. - Dr. J.S. Pandey

  1. 1. Marine Pollution Control Dr. J.S. Pandey Senior Principal Scientist First Science Secretary CSIR-NEERI NAGPUR – 440020, India
  2. 2. Oil Pollution, Ocean and Climate Change Dr. J.S. Pandey Senior Principal Scientist CSIR [Council of Scientific & Industrial Research] – NEERI [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute} NAGPUR – 440 020, India
  3. 3. climate-change-man-made-disaster-or-
  4. 4. Ocean Pollution • Ocean Pollution is caused due to several reasons : – Oil pollution – Marine debris – Toxic materials – Ocean dumping and mining – Tanker spills – Runoff from land and industrial wastes
  5. 5. Sewage Disposal • In many parts of the globe, sewage flows into the oceans, seas and gulf untreated or undertreated. • For example, 80% of URBAN SEWAGE discharged into the Mediterranean Sea is untreated. • Sewage can lead to eutrophication, and ultimately many types of microrganism- related human diseases.
  6. 6. Contamination from various Chemicals including Pesticides • Pesticides, herbicides and many other chemicals are used in common consumer products. • Some of these chemicals including radio-active wastes find their way (through run-off) to the sea or ocean. • Oceans have been very convenient dumping ground for waste generated on land.
  7. 7. Bio-accumulation & Bio-Concentration • One of the most important contaminants / pollutants are the nets and plastics, which can be swallowed and caught in an animal’s (whales, dolphins, seals, turtles etc.) digestive system. • There is an accumulation of various toxic materials also. For example, mercury, dioxin, PCBs, PAHs and even radio- active substances.
  8. 8. Food-chain and Bio- concentration • Small species at the bottom of the food- chain, such as planktons in the ocean absorb the chemicals as they feed. • The chemicals accumulate in these organisms and become much more concentrated in their bodies than in the surrounding water or soil. • These organisms are eaten by small animals, and the concentration rises again. • These animals are in turn eaten by larger animals, and this leads to even further increased chemical load in them (some times even million times higher). • Polar beers, which feed on seals, can have contamination levels up to billion times higher than their environment.
  9. 9. Impact of Oil Pollution • When there is an oil spill on water, spreading immediately takes place. • The gaseous and liquid components evaporate. • Some get dissolved in water and even oxidize. • Some undergo bacterial changes and eventually sink to the bottom by gravitational action.
  10. 10. Harmful Effects of Oil Spill • Oil kills plants and animals in the estuarine zone. • Oil settles on beaches and kills organisms that live there. • It also settles on ocean floor and kills benthic (bottom-dwelling) organisms such as crabs. • Oil poisons algae and disrupts the major food chain. • It also coats birds, impairing their flight or reducing the insulative property of their feathers. • This makes them (birds) more vulnerable to cold. • Oil endangers fish hatcheries in coastal waters and contaminates the flesh of commercially valuable fish. • One of the most significant impact is on MANGROVES
  11. 11. • Pollution is a current COST and a future THREAT. It is an environmental tragedy. • We have 17000 drilling platforms in the ocean, and thousand more are under consideration. • Interaction of radiation, humidity and CO2 at land-air, land-water and water-air interfaces • Health of our fisheries
  12. 12. Long Term Economic and Environmental Effects of the Oil Spill [Source :…./8-Long-Term-Economic-and- Environmental-Effects-Gulf-Oil-Spill.html] • At least 4.2 million gallons of oil are already in the Gulf of Mexico having unpredictable ecological damage. • The Sea-food (Fishing, Shrimp and Oyster) Industries in the Gulf are being destroyed. Seafood is a 2.4 billion dollar industry in the state of Louisiana and Lousiana produces more than 30 % of the seafood originating in the continental United States. • Global food-chain is continuously getting poisoned. • Tourism along the Gulf Coast is almost dead. • It is pertinent to mention that seafood and tourism are two of the most important industries in the Gulf region.
  13. 13. Long term ecologic and economic impacts of oil spill (…..contd….) • Oil exploration is going to be more risky and challenging venture. • Oil prices are likely to keep on continuously rising as demand continues to increase while supply is reducing day by day.
  14. 14. Environmental Impact & Risk Assessment Presentation by Dr. J.S. Pandey Senior Principal Scientist CSIR [Council of Scientific & Industrial Research] – NEERI [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute} NAGPUR – 440 020, India NEERI, Nagpur
  15. 15. Coastal Activities
  16. 16. Coastal Regulation Zone Notification & Evaluation • On February 19, 1991, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (“MOEF”) issued a notification under Section 3 of the Environment Protection Act of 1986, seeking to regulate development activity on India’s coastline. • The approach adopted by the first notification was to define the ‘High Tide Line’ (“HTL”) and ‘Coastal Regulation Zone’ (“CRZ”) and thereafter specify the activities permitted and restricted in the vicinity of the CRZ. • This regulated zone was further divided into four categories (CRZ I-IV) as per permitted land use.
  17. 17. Coastal Regulation Zone Notification & Evaluation • There have been about 25 amendments to this notification between 1991 and 2009, some of which have been based on the directions of the Supreme Court. • In May 2008, the MOEF brought out a new draft CRZ notification that evoked much criticism from all sections of stakeholders. • Eventually this notification was allowed to lapse and the Ministry brought out a fresh notification in September 2010, which after much discussions and deliberations, was finally passed as Coastal Regulation Zone Notification 2011 on January 6, 2011.
  18. 18. The current notification has several new positive features • It widens the definition of CRZ to include the land area from HTL to 500 m on the landward side, as well as the land area between HTL to 100 m or width of the creek, whichever is less, on the landward side along tidal influenced water bodies connected to the sea. • The CRZ also includes, for the first time, water area up to 12 nautical miles in the sea and the entire water area of a tidal water body such as creek, river, estuary without imposing any restrictions of fishing activities. • Thus, the main change in the scope of regulation has been to expand the CRZ to include territorial waters as a protected zone. This may have been in response to the criticism that while the earlier CRZ notification regulated development on the coastal stretches, it did not per se deal with pollution of the sea in any direct terms.
  19. 19. The current notification has several new positive features .....contd. • The concept of a ‘hazard line’ has been introduced. • While the notification merely states that the hazard line will be demarcated by the MOEF through the Survey of India, by taking into account tides, waves, sea level rise and shoreline changes, this concept owes its introduction to the realisation of natural disasters such as tsunami and floods that may take place in this zone. • In May 2010, the MOEF signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Survey of India for undertaking this exercise over a period of four-and-a-half years, at an estimated cost of Rs 125 crore.
  20. 20. Classification of CRZ into 4 Zones • CRZ I - ecologically sensitive areas such as mangroves, coral reefs, salt marshes, turtle nesting ground and the inter-tidal zone. • CRZ II - areas close to the shoreline, and which have been developed. • CRZ III - Coastal areas that are not substantially built up, including rural coastal areas. • CRZ IV - water area from LTL to the limit of territorial waters of India
  21. 21. Island Protection Zone 2011 • A new category called areas requiring special consideration has been created which consists of (i) CRZ areas of Greater Mumbai, Kerala and Goa, and (ii) Critically vulnerable coastal areas such as Sunderbans. • Clearances for obtaining CRZ approval have been made time-bound. Further, for the first time, post-clearance monitoring of projects has been introduced in the form of the requirement to submit half-yearly compliance reports, which are to be displayed on the Ministry’s website.
  22. 22. Rules & Exceptions • With respect to the list of prohibited activities, one of the most important changes has been that of expanding the list of exceptions to the rule prohibiting setting up of new industries and expansion of existing industries. • While the earlier exception was limited to those activities which required access to the water front, four other exceptions have been now incorporated which include: • Projects of Department of Atomic Energy; • Facilities for generating non-conventional energy sources and desalination plans, except for CRZ-I zones on a case-by-case basis after doing an impact assessment study; • Development of Greenfield airport permitted only at Navi Mumbai; and • Reconstruction, repair works of dwelling units of local communities including fisheries in accordance with local town and country planning regulations.
  23. 23. Some Other Important Aspects • Another important aspect is the introduction of the Coastal Zone Management Plans, which will regulate coastal development activity and which are to be formulated by the State Governments or the administration of Union Territories. • In Greater Mumbai, the redevelopment of approximately 146 existing slums in CRZ areas has been permitted, provided that the stake of the state government or its agencies in these projects is not less than 51%. • Redevelopment and reconstruction of old, dilapidated, and unsafe buildings in the CRZ-II area has also been permitted. Also, the floor space index (FSI) or floor area ratio (FAR) prevailing in the Town and Country Planning Regulations as on the date of the project being sanctioned, will apply. • In order to ensure that the redevelopment of slums and dilapidated structures in Mumbai are done in the most transparent and accountable manner the Right to Information Act, 2005 will be applicable and auditing will be done by the office of the Comptroller and Auditor General (C&AG) of India.
  24. 24. While the CRZ Notification 2011 has introduced several positive concepts seeking to protect the interest of the local traditional communities, it does have a few drawbacks namely : • Although the no-development zone of 200 metres from the HTL is reduced to 100 metres, the pro-vision has been made applicable to “traditional coastal communities, including fisher-folk”, thereby giving the chance for increased construction on the coast and higher • Disallowing Special Economic Zone (“SEZ”) • There are no restrictions for expansion of housing for rural communities in CRZ III.
  25. 25. Significant Changes • The CRZ Notification 2011 is a major step-up from the 1991 Notification and the MOEF has made special efforts to include specific provisions to benefit the fisher-folk community in all the coastal areas and address the shortcomings of the 1991 Notification such as time-bound clearances, enforcement measures, special provisions for specific coastal stretches etc. • There is a significant change in the new notification but there is always need for further improvement.
  26. 26. CRZ Notification -2011 • As per the CRZ Notification, 2011, a CRZ clearance is valid for a period of five years. As such, the clearance given for the captive port project on 15th May 2006 had already expired. • Under the CRZ Notification, 2011, there is no provision for revalidation of CRZ clearance. Hence, it is required to apply as a new project. • Other Requirements : • Rapid environment impact assessment (EIA) report including marine and terrestrial component, • Comprehensive updated EIA with cumulative studies, • Disaster Management Report and Management Plan, • CRZ map indicating HTL (high tide line) and LTL (low tide line), • NOC from the State Pollution Control Board etc.
  27. 27. Ports & Pollution
  28. 28. climate-change-man-made-disaster-or-
  29. 29. climate-change-man-made-disaster-or-
  30. 30. Bio-accumulation & Bio-Concentration • One of the most important contaminants / pollutants are • the nets and plastics, • which can be swallowed and caught in an animal’s (whales, dolphins, seals, turtles etc.) digestive system. • There is an accumulation of various toxic materials also. For example, • mercury, dioxin, PCBs, PAHs and • even radio-active substances.
  31. 31. climate-change-man-made-disaster-or-
  32. 32. climate-change-man-made-disaster-or-
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Emissions Air Water Soil Plants Animals Human Receptor Health Impacts [Environmental Distribution & Fate] [Exposure Risk Assessment] [Dose-Response Relationships] Integrated Health Risk Assessment : Exposure Risk and Dose Response Relationships
  36. 36. There are high concentrations of dolphin meat sold in Japan
  37. 37. Numbers of large spills (over 700 tonnes) 1970-2011 © Maritime Knowledge Centre 6 March 2012
  38. 38. Incidence of spills 7-700 tonnes by cause, 1970-2011 © Maritime Knowledge Centre 6 March 201 2
  39. 39. ntos/2012_%20SETAC %20Congress/Poster_SETAC_EF_APV.pdf
  40. 40. The World’s Cargo carrying Fleet is 54,897 ships of 1,349.4 million Dwt and average age of 19 years • More than 90 % of global trade is carried by sea. • Annual sea trade is about 8 billion tons. • It is estimated that by 2060, it will grow to 23 billion tonnes. • And, unless adequate measures are taken the associated Carbon Footprint (CF) would grow by 300%.
  41. 41. tation/studies/documents/report_tourist_facili ties_en.pdf
  42. 42. Table III.3 : Monetary values of emissions in the top five ports Livorno € 10 536 863 Civitavecchia € 15 788 177 Piraeus € 19 390 289 Naples € 23 095 597 Barcelona € 35 357 049 Port Monetary values of emissions Source: Policy Research Corporation tation/studies/documents/report_tourist_facili ties_en.pdf
  43. 43. Table III.4 : Average waste production for a specific ship Type of waste Liter per month Liter per week Bilge water 125 000 31 250 Sewage 5 744 000 1 436 000 Grey Water 22 960 000 5 740 000 Solid waste 675 000 168 750 Source: Policy Research Corporation tation/studies/documents/report_tourist_facili ties_en.pdf
  44. 44. rs/documentation/studies/docum ents/report_tourist_facilities_en.p df
  45. 45. affairs/documentation/studie s/documents/report_tourist_f acilities_en.pdf
  46. 46. _lawson.pdf
  47. 47. _lawson.pdf Criteria air contaminants (CACs)
  48. 48. _lawson.pdf
  49. 49. _lawson.pdf
  50. 50. Different Shipping Operations
  51. 51. Marine Technology • The use of liquefied natural gas as a fuel • Air lubrication, aimed at reducing the friction between hull and the sea water so as to reduce the fuel consumption • Application of fuel cell technology as a replacement for auxiliary engines aboard larger ships
  52. 52. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) Adoption: 1973 (Convention), 1978 (1978 Protocol), 1997 (Protocol - Annex VI); Entry into force: 2 October 1983 (Annexes I and II) [ the-prevention-of-pollution-from-ships-(marpol).aspx] . • The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes. • The MARPOL Convention was adopted on 2 November 1973 at IMO. • The Protocol of 1978 was adopted in response to a spate of tanker accidents in 1976-1977. As the 1973 MARPOL Convention had not yet entered into force, the 1978 MARPOL Protocol absorbed the parent Convention. • The combined instrument entered into force on 2 October 1983. • In 1997, a Protocol was adopted to amend the Convention and a new Annex VI was added which entered into force on 19 May 2005. MARPOL has been updated by amendments through the years.
  53. 53. •The Convention includes regulations aimed at preventing and minimizing pollution from ships - both accidental pollution and that from routine operations - and currently includes six technical Annexes. Special Areas with strict controls on operational discharges are included in most Annexes. • Annex I Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil (entered into force 2 October 1983) • Covers prevention of pollution by oil from operational measures as well as from accidental discharges; • the 1992 amendments to Annex I made it mandatory for new oil tankers to have double hulls and brought in a phase-in schedule for existing tankers to fit double hulls, which was subsequently revised in 2001 and 2003. • tional-convention-for-the-prevention-of-pollution-from-ships- (marpol).aspx
  54. 54. Annex II Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk (entered into force 2 October 1983) • Details the discharge criteria and measures for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances carried in bulk; some 250 substances were evaluated and included in the list appended to the Convention; • the discharge of their residues is allowed only to reception facilities until certain concentrations and conditions (which vary with the category of substances) are complied with. • In any case, no discharge of residues containing noxious substances is permitted within 12 miles of the nearest land. •
  55. 55. • Contains general requirements for the issuing of detailed standards on packing, marking, labelling, documentation, stowage, quantity limitations, exceptions and notifications. • For the purpose of this Annex, “harmful substances” are those substances which are identified as marine pollutants in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code) or which meet the criteria in the Appendix of Annex III. • convention-for-the-prevention-of-pollution-from-ships-(marpol).aspx Annex III Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form (entered into force 1 July 1992)
  56. 56. Annex IV Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships (entered into force 27 September 2003) • Contains requirements to control pollution of the sea by sewage; • the discharge of sewage into the sea is prohibited, except when the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant or when the ship is discharging comminuted and disinfected sewage using an approved system at a distance of more than three nautical miles from the nearest land; • sewage which is not comminuted or disinfected has to be discharged at a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land. • In July 2011, IMO adopted the most recent amendments to MARPOL Annex IV which are expected to enter into force on 1 January 2013. • The amendments introduce the Baltic Sea as a special area under Annex IV and add new discharge requirements for passenger ships while in a special area • convention-for-the-prevention-of-pollution-from-ships-(marpol).aspx
  57. 57. Annex V Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships (entered into force 31 December 1988) • Deals with different types of garbage and specifies the distances from land and the manner in which they may be disposed of; • the most important feature of the Annex is the complete ban imposed on the disposal into the sea of all forms of plastics. • In July 2011, IMO adopted extensive amendments to Annex V which are expected to enter into force on 1 January 2013. • The revised Annex V prohibits the discharge of all garbage into the sea, except as provided otherwise, under specific circumstances. • convention-for-the-prevention-of-pollution-from-ships-(marpol).aspx
  58. 58. Annex VI Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships (entered into force 19 May 2005) • Sets limits on sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ship exhausts and prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances; • designated emission control areas set more stringent standards for SOx, NOx and particulate matter. • In 2011, after extensive work and debate, IMO adopted ground breaking mandatory technical and operational energy efficiency measures which will significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from ships; • these measures were included in Annex VI and are expected to enter into force on 1 January 2013. • convention-for-the-prevention-of-pollution-from-ships-(marpol).aspx
  59. 59. MARPOL Covention • The MORPOL convention remains the most important International Treaty instrument covering the prevention of pollution by ships. • It sets out regulations dealing with pollution • From Ships by oil; • By noxious liquid substances carried in bulk; • By harmful substances carried by sea in packaged form; • By sewage; • By garbage; and • Prevention of air pollution from ships. • The issue of SHIP RECYCLING has also become a growing concern, not only from the environmental point of view but also with regard to the occupational health and safety of workers in that industry • In May 2007, IMO adopted a new convention on the removal of Wrecks that may present either a hazard to navigation or a threat to the marine and coastal environments, or both
  60. 60. IMO’s Environmental Work • IMO’s Environmental Work in recent years has covered a remarkably broad canvas, embracing every thing, from the management of ship’s ballast water and the removal of shipwrecks from the sea-bed to the prohibition of certain toxicsubstances in ships’anti-fouling systems. • Other IMO Conventions deal with issues such as preparedness, response and co-operation in tackling pollution • from oil and from hazardous and noxious substances; • the right of states to intervene on the high seas to prevent, mitigate or eliminate danger to their coastlines or related interests from pollution following a maritime casualty; and • The safe and environment-friendly recycling of ships that have reached the end of their lifetimes. • Furthermore, IMO has also developed a comprehensive range of measures aimed at ensuring that proper compensation is paid to the marine pollution victims.
  61. 61. Other Potential Impacts • IMO is also tackling various issues connected with the protection and preservation of Marine Biodiversity, such as • The transfer of invasive species through ships’bio-fouling; • Effects of under water noise from ships on living sea creatures
  62. 62. Pollution from Land-based Activities • Estimates by GESAMP (The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection) suggested that land-based discharges – Such as sewage, industrial effluents and urban / river run-off, together with atmospheric inputs from land industry sources – accounted, in 1990, for some 77% of marine pollution generated from human activities, – While maritime transport was estimated to be responsible for only 12 % of the total. • According to the report (2002) of UNEP’s Global Programme of Action for the Protection of Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities, • 80% of the pollution in the world’s oceans originate from the land- based activities, • With the maritime sector representing just 10% of human sources of marine pollution.
  63. 63. Overview of Total Sea-Pollution Source: Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP)
  64. 64. Anthropogenic Sources of Pollution
  65. 65. energy-mix-and-carbon-emissions-country-by-country/
  66. 66. Ship in search of Sustainable Development !!
  67. 67. Can money save us from drowning !!
  68. 68. “It has been left to our generation to discover that you can move heaven and earth to save five minutes and then not have the faintest idea what to do with them when you have saved them. “ ~C.E.M. Joad "To get all there is out of living, we must employ our time wisely, never being in too much of a hurry to stop and sip life, but never losing our sense of the enormous value of a minute." - Robert Updegraff
  69. 69. Virus Concentration in Raw waste Water Virus Concentration in Irrigation Water Virus Concentration in Crop Products after Irrigation Virus Concentration in Crop Products at Consumption Daily Ingested Dose Daily Risk of Infection Annual Risk of Infection Exposure Frequency Dose – Response Model Treatment Characteristics Irrigation Characteristics Virus Decay Model Human Consumption Patter Exposure Model FUTURE ACTIVITIES Water Pollution & Health Risk Assessment
  70. 70. 6.6 0.75 46.6 75.839 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 PARADIP Sewage (MLD) Population (Lakhs) BOD [g /(c*d)] Methane (Gg/Year) 17.5 4 23.19 31.273 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 TUTICORIN Sewage (MLD) Population (Lakhs) BOD [g /(c*d)] Methane (Gg/Year) 68 13 27.1 38.715 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 VISAKHAPATTNAM Sewage (MLD) Population (Lakhs) BOD [g /(c*d)] Methane (Gg/Year) 36 6 31.8 47.662 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 COCHIN Sewage (MLD) Population (Lakhs) BOD [g /(c*d)] Methane (Gg/Year) 28 5 29.68 43.626 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 MANGALORE Sewage (MLD) Population (Lakhs) BOD [g /(c*d)] Methane (Gg/Year) Gross Methane Emissions (Gg/y) 34 42 62 85 y = 34.179e 0.016x R 2 = 0.486 y = 1.9035x - 12.869 R 2 = 0.5987 y = 0.1045x2 - 10.579x + 317.57 R2 = 0.9334 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 20 40 60 80 100 BOD (g per person per day) MethaneEmissions(Gg/y) Key Words : Oil Spills, Oil Prices, Methane-Emission, Ecological Footprint (EF), Carbon Footprint (CF), Coastal Zones, Carbon-Vulnerability (CV) OIL SPILLS, OIL PRICES AND CARBON-VULNERABILITY (CV) OF INDIAN COASTS Authors : J.S. Pandey , Vaibhav Pandey and R. Kumar
  71. 71. • Three themes will dominate the Shipping Industry : • Shipyard Over-Capacity; • Energy Costs; and • The Environment • Solutions : • New Technologies, such as Dual-Fuel Engines • Cutting Energy Costs by lowering Speed, Modifying Design and Using Multiple Fuel Systems
  72. 72. Thank You