MANAGEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Presented by Pintu Kabiraj
Department of Geography
Presidency University, Kolkata
This article will help to understand :
1) What is environment ?
1) What is Environmental Management ?
2) Why Environmental Management ?
3) What is environmental Management
4) Scope of Environmental Management
5) Approaches of Environmental Management
6) Principles of Environmental Management
• All the things around us with which we interact:
• Living things
• Animals, plants, forests, fungi, etc.
• Nonliving things
• Continents, oceans, clouds, soil, rocks
• Our built environment
• Buildings, human-created living centers
• Social relationships and institutions
Environment: the total of our surroundings
What is Environmental Management..?
Environmental management is a mixture of science, policy,
and socioeconomic applications.
1) It focuses on the solution of the practical problems that
humans encounter in cohabitation with nature, exploitation of
resources, and production of waste.
2) In a purely anthropocentric sense, the central problem is
how to permit technology to evolve continuously while
limiting the degree to which this process alters natural
3) Environmental management is thus intimately intertwined
with questions regarding economic growth, equitable
distribution of consumable goods, and conserving resources
for future generations.
Why Environmental management?
• Humans change the environment, often in ways not fully understood
• We depend completely on the environment for survival
– Increased wealth, health, mobility, leisure time
– But, natural systems have been degraded
• i.e., pollution, erosion and species extinction
– Environmental changes threaten long-term health and survival
And Environmental Management is the study of:
– How the natural world works
– How these problems can be solved associated with the
… can help us avoid mistakes made by past civilizations.
The lesson of Easter Island: people annihilated their
culture by destroying their environment. Can we act
more wisely to conserve our resources?
We face challenges in agriculture
• Expanded food production led to increased
population and consumption
• It’s one of humanity’s greatest achievements,
but at an enormous environmental cost
• Nearly half of the planet’s land surface is used for
• Chemical fertilizers
• Changed natural systems
We face challenges in pollution
• Waste products and artificial chemicals used
in farms, industries, and households
Each year, millions of people die from
We face challenges in climate
• Scientists have firmly concluded that humans are
changing the composition of the atmosphere
• The Earth’s surface is warming
• Melting glaciers
• Rising sea levels
• Impacted wildlife and crops
• Increasingly destructive weather
Since the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric carbon
dioxide concentrations have risen by 37%, to the
highest level in 650,000 years
We face challenges in biodiversity
•Human actions have driven many species extinct,
and biodiversity is declining dramatically
• We are at the onset of a mass extinction event
Biodiversity loss may be our biggest environmental problem; once a species is
extinct, it is gone forever
What is Environmental Management System
Environmental management system (EMS) refers to the management of an
organization's environmental programs in a comprehensive, systematic,
planned and documented manner.
It includes the organizational structure, planning and resources for
developing, implementing and maintaining policy for environmental
More formally, EMS is "a system and database which integrates procedures
and processes for training of personnel, monitoring, summarizing, and
reporting of specialized environmental performance information to internal
and external stakeholders of a firm.“
EMS is typically reported using International Organization of Standards (ISO)
14001 to help understand the EMS process.
Scope of Environmental Management
Environmental resource management can be viewed from a variety of
1) Environmental resource management involves the management of all
components of the biophysical environment, both living (biotic) and non-
living (a biotic).
2) This is due to the interconnected and network of relationships amongst
all living species and their habitats. The environment also involves the
relationships of the human environment, such as the social, cultural and
economic environment with the biophysical environment.
3) The essential aspects of environmental resource management are
ethical, economical, social, and technological. These underlie principles
and help make decisions.
Principles of Environmental Management
There are five guiding principles for incorporating environmental
concerns in to decision making.
These principles can be used to design environmental instruments
and to raise funds to finance environmental public investments
plans in the spectral and overall budget.
1. Polluter pays principle (PPP)
2. User pays principle (UPP) (or resource pricing principle).
3. Precautionary principle (PP).
4. Subsidiary principle (SP)
5. Intergenerational equity principle (IEP
1) Polluter pays principle
The Polluter Pays Principle was first widely discussed in the
United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro of Brazil
in June 1992. This principle was endorsed by all the attending
representatives of the countries
The PPP required that the polluter has to bear
the cost of complying with environmental
standards, which are predetermined by public authorities. If the
polluters have to pay for the cost of any pollution they cause,
2) User pays principle
The UPP states that the beneficiaries should pay for the full cost of using the
resources and its related service; the full cost included the cost of losses for
Both PPP and UPP principle considered as equitable and both offer the
prospect of achieving efficiency.
3) precautionary principle
The Precautionary Principle was adopted by the UN Conference on Environment and
Development (the Earth Summit) in 1992.
According to Rio Declaration on Environment and Development Precautionary Principle
as meaning that where there are threats
of serious or irreversible damage to environment, lack of scientific certainty should not
be used as s to environment for postponing cost effective measures to prevent
4) Subsidiary principle
Subsidiary principle (SP), was not designed for as an environmental principle, but it
provides useful guidance when applying the PPP and UPP and the PP. SP states that
political decisions should be taken by lowest possible level of public authority
dependence with effective action.
5) Intergenerational equity principle
The IEP is the central principle in the definition of sustainable development.
According to the Brundtland Report sustainability states that‘s meeting
needs of present generations without compromising the needs of future
Generally this principle is considered with the trilogy of economic,
environmental and social objectives underlying sustainable development.
This principle is the basis of the environmental accounting measures of
All the above five environmental management principles will be used
to guide the sectoral policies and budgeting process.
• Environmental management helps us to understand
our relationship with the environment and informs
our attempts to solve and prevent problems.
• Identifying a problem is the first step in solving it
• Solving environmental problems can move us
towards health, longevity, peace and prosperity
– Environmental science can help us find balanced
solutions to environmental problems