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MARPOL Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships

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MARPOL Annex VI: Air Pollution, GHG Emissions and Energy Efficiency Regulations for International Shipping

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MARPOL Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships

  1. 1. 12/22/2015 1 Mohd Hanif Dewan, IEng IMarEng MIMarEST MRINA, Maritime Lecturer & Consultant MARPOL Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships Image Credit & Source: www.imo.org
  2. 2. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships  MARPOL Annex VI:  1997 Protocol adopted 26 Sept. 1997  Entered into force 19 May 2005  Revisions to Annex VI  Adopted October 2008 and  Entered into force 1 July 2010  Chapter 4 on Energy Efficiency  Adopted in 11 July 2011  Entered into force 1 January 2013 Some changes to text or guidelines took place in almost all MEPC meetings.12/22/2015 2
  3. 3.  Carbon Monoxide (CO)  Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  Sulphur Oxides (SOx)  Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)  Unburned Hydrocarbons (HxCx).  Particulate Matters (PM) 12/22/2015 3 Source: MAN B&W Emission Gases from Engine Exhaust
  4. 4. • Sulphur Oxides or SOx: come from burning the sulphur present in fuel oils. Corrosive and harmful to life. • Particulate matter (PM) or soot: consists of unburned fuel or incombustible elements in the fuel. Highly carcinogenic. The very small or ultrafine particles are the most harmful ones. 12/22/2015 4 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx): are produced when engines heat up the Nitrogen and Oxygen in air. Highly toxic and dangerous form of pollution. Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ): is an inevitable product when we get energy from burning the carbon in fuel. Responsible for global warming and climate change. Directly proportional to the amount of energy released. Marine Exhaust Gas Pollution
  5. 5. 4 Reg.12 Regs 16 Reg. 15 Reg. 17 Reception Facilities Reg. 18 Fuel Oil Quality and Availability Regs. 19-23 Energy Efficiency MARPOL Annex VI on Air Emissions Reg. 14Reg.12 12/22/2015 5
  6. 6. 12/22/2015 6 Chapter 1 – General  Reg. 1: Applications  Reg. 2: Definitions  Reg. 3: Exceptions and exemptions  Reg. 4: Equivalents MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations
  7. 7. 12/22/2015 7 Chapter 2-Survey, Certification and Means of Control  Reg. 5: Survey and inspectionsReg.5  Reg. 6: Issue of endorsement of certificate  Reg. 7: Issue of a certificate by another party  Reg. 8: Form of certificate  Reg. 9: Duration and validity of certificate  Reg. 10: Port state control and operational requirements  Reg. 11: Detection of violation and enforcement MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations
  8. 8. • Chapter 3 - Requirements for Control of Emissions 12/22/2015 8 Reg. 12: Ozone displacing substances (ODS) Reg. 13: Nitrogen oxides (NOx) Reg. 14: Sulphur oxides (SOx)and Particulate Matter (PM) Reg. 15: Volatile organic compounds (VOC) Reg. 16: Shipboard incineration Reg. 17: Reception Facilities Reg. 18: Fuel oil quality and availability MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations
  9. 9. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 12 Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) 12/22/2015 9 Emissions from ODS from refrigerating plants and fire fighting equipment.
  10. 10. R11 ODP = 1.0 GWP = 4000 R12 ODP = 0.9 GWP = 8500 R115 (R502) ODP = 0.283 GWP = 5591 CFC Chlorofluorocarbon Production Ban 1996 Article 5 countries 2010 R22 ODP = 0.055 GWP = 1700 R141b (Foam blow) ODP = 0.11 GWP = 630 HCFC Hydrochlorofluorocarbon Transitional Substance Banned in new plant R410A ODP = 0 GWP = 1890 (High Pressure) R404A ODP = 0 GWP = 3748 (High GWP) R507 ODP = 0 GWP = 3800 (High GWP) R407C ODP = 0 GWP = 1610 (Flammability?) HFC Hydrofluorocarbon Ozone Friendly Under question Ammonia ODP = 0 GWP = <1 Carbon Dioxide ODP = 0 GWP = 1.0 Propane/ Isobutane ODP = 0 GWP = 3.0 Environmentally Inert Natural Substances 12/22/2015 10 ODP – Ozone Depleting Potential GWP – Global Warming Potential 19 May 2005 01 Jan 2020 Refrigerants - Family Tree, ODP, GWP
  11. 11. 12/22/2015 11  Does not apply to permanently sealed units (Reg.12.1) with no charging connection …  Deliberate emissions prohibited (Reg.12.2)  Other than Hydrochloroflurocarbon (HCFC) & Hydroflurocarbon (HFC), all other ODS (Like CFC) banned in new ships from 19 May 2005 (Reg.12.3.1)  HCFC banned in new ships from 1 Jan 2020 (Reg.12.3.2)  Delivery to reception facilities following removal (Reg.12.4)  Supplement to IAPP - Maintain a list of equipment containing ODS (Reg.12.5)  Required to complete an ODS Record Book approved by Administration (Reg. 12.6) for ships with re-chargeable systems. Regulation 12 - ODS
  12. 12. 12/22/2015 12  Regulation 12.7: Entries in the ODS Record Book shall be recorded in terms of mass (kg) of substance and shall be completed without delay on each occasion:  .1 recharge, full or partial, of equipment containing ODS;  .2 repair or maintenance of equipment containing ODS;  .3 discharge of ODS to the atmosphere including deliberate; and non-deliberate;  .4 discharge of ODS to land-based reception facilities; and  .5 supply of ODS to the ship. Regulation 12 – Entries in ODS Record Book
  13. 13. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 13 Prevention of Nitrogen Oxides (Nox) emissions 12/22/2015 13
  14. 14. Regulation 13 NOx - Application Applies to installed on a ship constructed on or after 1st January 2000 Marine diesel engines with a power output more than 130 kW Applies to which undergo a major conversion on or after 1st January 2000 Marine diesel engines with a power output more than 130 kW Not applicable to • Emergency marine diesel engines • Marine diesel engines installed on lifeboats • Any device or equipment intended to be used solely in case of emergency • Engines on ships only engaged in domestic voyages can be made subject to alternative NOx control measure or exempted if pre-19 May 2005 12/22/2015 14
  15. 15. • NOx emission limits Tier I * - Ships constructed 1 Jan 2000 to 31 Dec 2010 Tier II - Ships constructed 1 Jan 2011 to 31 Dec 2015 Tier III ** - Ships constructed 1 Jan 2016 onwards *NOx limit in original Annex VI ** Within ECA 12/22/2015 15 Tier n < 130 rpm 130 ≤ n < 2000 rpm n ≥ 2000 rpm I 17.0 g/kWh 45.0*n(-0.2) g/kWh 9.8 g/kWh II 14.4 g/kWh 44.0*n(-0.2) g/kWh 7.7 g/kWh III 3.4. g/kWh 9.0*n(-0.2) g/kWh 2.0 g/kWh n = rated engine speed – crankshaft rpm Regulation 13 -NOx emission limits
  16. 16. 12/22/2015 16 Regulation 13 -NOx emission limits  Tier III – For ships built after January 1, 2016 when operating in North America ECA.
  17. 17. 12/22/2015 17  There are a number of NOx reduction methods for engines. LNG NOx Reduction Options Others EGR SCR  Water in fuel emulsions.  Humid Air Manifold or water injection.  Miller cycle: Valve timing.  Low NOx combustion.  Lean burn, low temperature combustion.  Low combustion temperature due to gas recirculation (mainly CO2)  Use of a reduction agents  Uses a catalyst Converts NOx back to N2 Methods of engine's NOx reduction
  18. 18. Regulation 13 (NOX) – Engine certification  Test bed exhaust emission measurement by Engine Maker.  NOx Technical File • Information on components, settings, operating values & adjustments to maintain NOx emissions within allowable limits.  Issue of Engine International Air Pollution Prevention (EIAPP) certificate or statement of compliance • Issued for applicable engines • Valid for the engines life time (unless major conversion) 12/22/2015 18
  19. 19. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 14 Sulphur Oxides (SOx) & Particulate Matter (PM) 12/22/2015 19
  20. 20. 12/22/2015 20  SOx causes: Acid rain, Sea and soil acidification and Human health issue  PM (Particulate Mater) is produced due to non- complete combustion of fuel. Regulation 14 Fuel sulphur limits 23/12/2015
  21. 21. ECA – Emissions Control Area Source: Lloyd’s Register12/22/2015 21
  22. 22. Emission Control Areas (ECA): 12/22/2015 22 Adoption, entry into force & date of taking effect of Special Areas Special Areas Adopted # Date of Entry into Force In Effect From Annex VI: Prevention of air pollution by ships (Emission Control Areas) Baltic Sea (SOx) 26 Sept 1997 19 May 2005 19 May 2006 North Sea (SOx) 22 Jul 2005 22 Nov 2006 22 Nov 2007 North American ECA (SOx and PM) 26 Mar 2010 1 Aug 2011 1 Aug 2012 (NOx) 26 Mar 2010 1 Aug 2011 *** United States Caribbean Sea ECA (SOx and PM) 26 Jul 2011 1 Jan 2013 1 Jan 2014 (NOx) 26 Jul 2011 1 Jan 2013 *** (01 Jan 2016) (01 Jan 2016)
  23. 23. ECA Operation: Compliance and fuel change over procedures  Dominant option: Use of 2 separate fuels on-board, i.e. LS and HS fuel oils.  For this compliance option (Reg. 14.6):  Ships entering or leaving an ECA shall carry a written procedure (e.g. fuel change-over plan).  The plan should show how the fuel oil change-over is to be done ensuring not any HS fuel is left in the system upon entry into ECA.  The volume of LS fuel oils in each tank as well as the date, time, and position of the ship when entering or leaving shall be recorded in such log-book as prescribed by the Administration.  Other options: LNG as fuel, Sox scrubbers, other alternative fuels 12/22/2015 23
  24. 24. 12/22/2015 24 HSFO to LSFO Fuel Change-over Arrangement
  25. 25. 12/22/2015 25 HSFO to LSFO Fuel Change-over Calculator
  26. 26. 12/22/2015 26  SOx is removed via using wash water.  System includes:  Water supply  Water treatment  Exhaust gas and water monitoring  Supply to ship of treatment agent.  Types  Fresh water  Sea water  Hybrid Source: Force Technology, 2012 See: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8_D7ASh0_g Scrubber technology: How does it work?
  27. 27. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 15 Volatile Organic Compounds 12/22/2015 27
  28. 28. Regulation 15 - VOC  Regulation enables oil tanker, ports and terminals to implement VOC controls during loading/ unloading of oil cargoes  Tankers need to install a VECS approved by Administration (Reg.15.5) which to be compliant with MSC/Circ. 585 guidelines  Ports/terminals with approved VECS can accept tankers without VECS for up to 3 years after effective date (Reg.15.5)  Tankers need to develop and implement a VOC Management Plan approved by the Administration (Reg.15.6) : • Procedures for minimizing VOC emissions during loading, sea passage & discharge, responsible person identified, language, additional VOC during washing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are the lighter parts of crude oil or their products that vapourise during the ship loading process which is dangerous for human health and environment. 12/22/2015 28
  29. 29. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 16 Shipboard Incineration 12/22/2015 29
  30. 30. Requirements: - For Annex-VI compliance, the combustion chamber temperature should reach 600ºC within 5 minutes of start-up - All Incinerators should have a combustion flue gas outlet temperature monitoring system Regulation 16 - ship incinerators  All Incinerators installed after 01 Jan 2000 shall be Type Approved, as per IMO Specification for shipboard incinerators.  Incinerators installed before 24 May 2005 on domestic shipping can be excluded by the Administration (Reg. 16.6.2)  Operating manual, training, and temperature control (Reg. 16.7 – 16.9) 12/22/2015 30
  31. 31. Shipboard incineration - Regulation 16  Prohibits incineration of (Reg.16.2):  MARPOL Annex I, II & III cargoes,  Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB),  garbage containing heavy metals,  refined petroleum products containing halogens,  exhaust gas cleaning system residues  Permits incineration of:  PVC –(where type approved to do so) (Reg.16.3)  Sewage sludge and sludge oil permitted in boilers but not when in ports, harbours and estuaries (Reg.16.)  Incineration outside (in drums, etc) prohibited 12/22/2015 31
  32. 32. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 16 Reception Facilities 12/22/2015 32
  33. 33. 12/22/2015 33  Parties obliged to provide facilities without causing delay for:  Reception of ODS in ship repair yards or ports (Reg.17.1.1)  Reception of Exhaust Gas Cleaning System residues in ports (Reg.17.1.2)  Reception of ODS in ship breaking facilities (Reg.17.1.3)  If unable to provide reception facilities then Party shall inform IMO (Reg.17.2 & 17.3) Regulation 17 – Reception Facilities
  34. 34. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 16 Fuel oil availability 12/22/2015 34
  35. 35. 12/22/2015 35  Ship required to notify Administration and port of destination when unable to purchase compliant fuel (Reg.18.2.4) and ship should not deviate or delay unduly the voyage in order to achieve compliance (Reg.18.2.2)  When bunkering fuel oil …. It is required to receive a Bunker Delivery Note (BDN) containing information in Appendix V (Reg. 18.5):  Name and IMO number of receiving ship  Port and Date of commencement of delivery  Name, address and telephone number of fuel supplier  Product name and Quantity  Density  Sulphur content (actual)  Declaration signed by supplier that the fuel oil conforms with Annex VI Regulations  Require local suppliers of fuel oil to provide a certified BDN and sample (Reg.18.9.2), and retain a copy of the BDN for 3 years (Reg.18.9.3) and bunker sample for 12 months(Reg.18.8.1).  Inspection and verification by PSC (Reg.18.7.1 & Reg.18.7.2). Bunker Delivery Note - Regulation 18
  36. 36. “Ship Energy Efficiency Regulations & Measures” (MARPOL Annex VI – Chapter 4) 12/22/2015 36
  37. 37. 350 300 250 200 150 Years Before Present Source: IPCC FAR 2007 0100,000200,000300,000400,000 The world’s challenge: Increasing CO2concentrations in the atmosphere 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 400 ppm exceeded for the first time in April 2015 12/22/2015 37
  38. 38. Global Warming Average surface temperatures could rise between 2°C and 6°C by the end of the 21st century. 12/22/2015 38
  39. 39. Millions are suffering from ever more intensive weather events in Asia and the Americas……… Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures12/22/2015 39
  40. 40. 7 Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 12/22/2015 40 Because of so much CO2 Emissions everyday………..
  41. 41. 12/22/2015 41 Third IMO GHG Study 2014 Future CO2 emissions: - Significant increase predicted: 50-250% by 2050 in the absence of regulations - Technical and operational efficiency measures can provide significant improvements but will not be able to provide total net reductions if demand continues…………………
  42. 42. Background of Energy Efficiency Regulations  United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change (UNFCCC) entered into force in 1994.  Kyoto Protocol (1997), sets binding targets for countries: “to reducing their overall GHG emissions by at least 5% below existing 1990 levels, in the commitment period 2008 to 2012."  IMO Policies and Practices for Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships, adopted by Assembly 23 December 2003 12/22/2015 42
  43. 43. IMO energy efficiency regulatory activities MEPC66 MEPC67 MEPC68 IMO Energy EfficiencyRegulatory Developments Resolution MEPC.212(63)EEDI Calculation Resolution MEPC.214(63)EEDI Verification Resolution MEPC.213(63)SEEMP Resolution A.963 (23) “IMO policies and practices related to reduction of GHG emissions from ships” Dec 2003 June 2005 Mar 2008 June 2008 GHG Working Group 2 Feb 2009 MEPC Circ. 681 EEDI Calculation MEPC Circ. 682 EEDI Verification MEPC Circ. 683 SEEMP MEPC Circ. 684 EEOI Jul 2009 Energy Efficiency WG Jun 2010 Sep 1997 Feb 2012 July 2011 EEDI & SEEMP Regs.Adopted GHG Working Group 1 MEPC40 MEPC53 MEPC57 MEPC58 MEPC59 MEPC60 MEPC61 MEPC62 MECP63 MEPC64 MEPC65 Resolution 8 “CO2 emissions From ships” MARPOL VI Amendments Resolution MEPC 203(62) May 2013 MarchOct May 2014 2014 Oct 2012 MEPCCirc.471, EEOI 2015 3rd GHG Study 2014 MARPOL VI Amendments Resolution MEPC.251(66) Resolution MEPC.245(66): EEDI CalculationGuidelines Resolution MEPC.231(65) Reference Lines ResolutionMEPC.232(65) Minimum power ResolutionMEPC.233(65),Reference lines for cruiseships MEPC.1/Circ.815Innovative EE Technologies MEPC.1/Circ.816 Consolidatedon EEDI verification MRV debate Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures12/22/2015 43
  44. 44. EEDI, EEOI and SEEMP links Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 12/22/2015 44
  45. 45. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations  Reg. 19: Application  Reg. 20: Attained EEDI  Reg. 21: Required EEDI  Reg. 22: SEEMP  Reg. 23: Technical cooperation and technology transfer 12/22/2015 45 MARPOL Annex VI Chapter 4 - Energy Efficiency Regulations
  46. 46. Regulation 19 - Applications 12/22/2015 46  Apply to  all new ships ≥ 400 GT  Building contract placed on/after January 2013;  In the absence of contract, keel laid after 1 July 2013; or  The delivery of which is on / after 1 July 2015; or  In cases of a major conversion of a new or existing ship, on / after 1 January 2013  Not apply to  ships sailing entirely within flag state waters  ships which have: - diesel-electric propulsion, - turbine propulsion or - hybrid propulsion systems. Except cruise passenger ships and LNG carriers having conventional or non- conventional propulsion, delivered on or after 1 September 2019.
  47. 47. Regulation 20 – Attained EEDI 12/22/2015 47  The attained EEDI shall be:  Calculated for each new ship or each new ship which has undergone a major conversion; and  The above are applicable to ships defined in Regulations 2.25 to 2.35, 2.38 and 2.39 (for Ships types).  specific to each ship ……… and be accompanied by the EEDI Technical File…….  calculated taking into account guidelines developed by the Organization (Resolution MEPC.245(66)- EEDI Formula)
  48. 48. EEDI Technical File Part A  General information of a ship  Principal particulars  Main engine(s) particulars  Auxiliary engine(s) particulars  Particulars of shaft generator  Particulars of shaft motors (PTI)  Particulars innovative electrical auxiliary systems  Particulars of innovative technologies reducing main engine power for propulsion  Model test information  Reference speed12/22/2015 48 The EEDI Technical File is the basic document for the EEDI certification and includes all EEDI relevant data and information and EEDI calculation. Part B  EEDI Calculation &  Correction factors details
  49. 49. Main Engine(s) Aux Engine(s) Innovative Energy Eff. Power Gen. Technologies Innovative Energy Eff. Propulsion Technologies Boilers are excluded from EEDI EEDI = [gCO2/(tonne.nm)] fc. Attained EEDI: Calculation formula 12/22/2015 49
  50. 50. Scope of Attained EEDI (dashed red line) 12/22/2015 50
  51. 51. 12/22/2015 51 Technologies for EEDI reduction No. EEDI reduction measure Remark 1 Optimised hull dimensions and form Ship design for efficiency via choice of main dimensions (port and canal restrictions) and hull forms. 2 Light weight construction New lightweight ship construction material. 3 Hull coating Use of advanced hull coatings/paints. 4 Hull air lubrication system Air cavity via injection of air under/around the hull to reduce wet surface and thereby ship resistance. 5 Optimisation of propeller-hull interface and flow devices Propeller-hull-rudder design optimisation plus relevant changes to ship’s aft body. 6 Contra-rotating propeller Two propellers in series; rotating at different direction. 7 Engine efficiency improvement De-rating, long-stroke, electronic injection, variable geometry turbo charging, etc. 8 Waste heat recovery Main and auxiliary engines’ exhaust gas waste heat recovery and conversion to electric power. 9 Gas fuelled (LNG) Natural gas fuel and dual fuel engines. 10 Hybrid electric power and propulsion concepts For some ships, the use of electric or hybrid would be more efficient. 11 Reducing on-board power demand(auxiliary system andhotelloads). Maximum heat recovery and minimizing required electrical loads flexible power solutions and power management. 12 Variable speed drive for pumps, fans etc. Use of variable speed electric motors for control of rotating flow machinery leads to significant reduction in their energy use. 13 Wind power (sail, wind engine, etc.) Sails, fletnner rotor, kites, etc. These are considered as emerging technologies. 14 Solar power Solar photovoltaic cells. 15 Design speed reduction (newbuilds) Reducing design speed via choice of lower power or de-rated engines.
  52. 52. Large Ship Design <30% 12/22/2015 52 Source: Mearsk Line Source: Wartsila Examples of EEDI Reduction Innovation Technologies…………
  53. 53. Lightweight Structures Optimum Block Coefficient 12/22/2015 53 Source: Wartsila Source: Wartsila
  54. 54. Hull Air Lubrication: <20% 12/22/2015 54 Hull Coating: 5% Source: Mitsubishi
  55. 55. • Counter Rotating Propellers (CRP): 10% 12/22/2015 55 Source: Wartsila
  56. 56. 12/22/2015 56 Wind Power: Sails or Kites <20% Beluga SkySail will use wind to sail Source: www.theage.com.au , Source: Wartsila
  57. 57. 12/22/2015 57 Source: Wartsila
  58. 58. Regulation 21 –Required EEDI 12/22/2015 58
  59. 59. Regulation 21.1 – Required EEDI 12/22/2015 59  Some specific ship types will be required to meet the attained EEDI which is equal to or less than the required EEDI values. These have been determined using reference lines. The method of calculation of the required EEDI is as follow: Attained EEDI ≤ Required EEDI = (1-X/100) * Reference line value Where, X is the reduction factor  Reference line value is estimated from EEDI Reference line.  The reference lines have been developed for different ship types as shown on table below. These are calculated based on the below formula: Reference line = a*b-c
  60. 60. Reg. 21 - Implementation phases and reduction factor • EEDI implementation phases are: • Phase 0 2013 – 2014 • Phase 1 2015 – 2019 • Phase 2 2020 – 2024 • Phase 3 2025 – …… • Reduction factor for the above phases are as in diagram. 12/22/2015 60
  61. 61. Review of phases and reduction factors, Reg. 21.6 12/22/2015 61
  62. 62. Regulation 22- SEEMP 12/22/2015 62
  63. 63. Regulation 22 - SEEMP 12/22/2015 63  A SEEMP provides: - A possible approach for improving ship and fleet energy efficiency over time; and - Some options to be considered for optimizing the performance of the ship.
  64. 64. SEEMP Applicability: (according to Resolution MEPC.203(62)) • All vessels of ≥ 400 GT • Each vessel to be provided with a ship-specific SEEMP not later than the first intermediate or renewal survey (whichever is first) on or after 1 January 2013. • The administration or RO will check that the SEEMP is onboard and subsequently issue the International Energy Efficiency Certificate (IEEC). • PSC inspection is limited to verifying if there is a valid IEEC on board. Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan 12/22/2015 64
  65. 65. Ship Energy Management (operation) ISO 50001 IMO SEEMP Best Practice Continuous improvement is key for energy efficient shipping 12/22/2015 65
  66. 66.  For existing ships, a Record of Construction needs to be filled and an IEE Certificate issued when the existence of SEEMP on-board is verified. SEEMP and IEE Certificate 12/22/2015 66
  67. 67. SEEMP Related Measures No. Energy Efficiency Measure Remark 1 Engine tuning and monitoring Engine operational performance and condition optimisation. 2 Hull condition Hull operational fouling and damage avoidance. 3 Propeller condition Propeller operational fouling and damage avoidance. 4 Reduced auxiliary power Reducing the electrical load via machinery operation and power management. 5 Speed reduction (operation) Operational slow steaming. 6 Trim/draft Trim and draft monitoring and optimisation. 7 Voyage execution Reducing port times, waiting times, etc. and increasing the passage time, just in time arrival. 8 Weather routing Use of weather routing services to avoid rough seas and head currents, to optimize voyage efficiency. 9 Advanced hull coating Re-paint using advanced paints. 10 Propeller upgrade and aft body flow devices Propeller and after-body retrofit for optimisation. Also, addition of flow improving devices (e.g.duct and fins). 12/22/2015 67 Measures for Improving Energy Efficiency – Examples
  68. 68. Guidelines for Ship’s Energy Efficiency Management  Fuel efficient Ships’ operations Improved voyage planning Weather routing Just in time Planning and Virtual Arrival Speed optimization Optimized shaft power 12/22/2015 68
  69. 69. 12/22/2015 69 Masters should optimize route planning to avoid high storm or wave frequency and maximize calm sea state taking into consideration: - The effects of ocean current and tides - The effects of weather systems - The crew safety and comfort, based on trade and route, Voyage routes can be charted with the use of Rhumb Lines and / or the Great Circle methodology Optimized Voyage Planning and Weather Routing
  70. 70. Just in Time/ Virtual Arrival (JIT) 12/22/2015 70 – A known delay at the discharge port; – Whenever an opportunity exists, the operator requests permission from Charterers to reduce speed; – A mutual agreement between the stakeholders. Other parties may be involved in the decision making process, such as terminals, cargo receivers and commercial interests. As a whole, JIT can save upto 40% in fuel use as well as CO2 emission on a simple voyage……..
  71. 71. Slow Steaming  Reducing the ship speed an effective way to cut energy consumption.  Propulsion power vs. ship speed is a third power curve (according to the theory) so significant reductions can be achieved.  For lower speeds the amount of transported cargo / time period is also lower.  The energy saving calculated here is for an equal distance travelled. Reduction in ship speed vs. saving in total energy consumption:  0.5 kn –> – 7% energy  1.0 kn –> – 11% energy  2.0 kn –> – 17% energy  3.0 kn –> – 23% energy 12/22/2015 71  If the ship speed reduce from 20 to 19knots, fuel consumption will be reduced by 10% per ton-knot.
  72. 72. Guidelines for Ship’s Energy Efficiency Management  Hull and propulsion system – Hull maintenance – Propeller surface finish/ polishing – Main Propulsion system performance monitoring – Propulsion system maintenance – Condition based maintenance – Waste heat recovery system 12/22/2015 72
  73. 73. 12/22/2015 73 Hull & Propeller Maintenance
  74. 74. Main Engine Performance Monitoring Installation of De-rated Main Engines Fuel Injection Slide Valves 12/22/2015 74
  75. 75. Guidelines for Ship’s Energy Efficiency Management  Optimized ship handling – Optimum trim – Optimum ballast – Optimum propeller and propeller inflow considerations – Optimum use of rudder and heading control system (autopilots) 12/22/2015 75
  76. 76. Source: Lloyd’s Register Trim and Ballast optimisation 12/22/2015 76
  77. 77. 12/22/2015 77 Source: Wärtsilä  Finding the correct parameters or preventing unnecessary use of the rudder gives an anticipated benefit of 1-5%. Mewis Duct propeller <5%  Improved propulsion  Proven fuel savings up to 8% and Reduced greenhouse gases (GHG)
  78. 78. Guidelines for Ship’s Energy Efficiency Management  Improved Management – Improved fleet management – Improved cargo handling – Improved Fuel Management 12/22/2015 78
  79. 79. Guidelines for Ship’s Energy Efficiency Management  Energy Saving Operation Awareness – Power use optimization (Just in time practice) – Steam use optimization – Service air use optimization – Water use optimization 12/22/2015 79
  80. 80. Source: Wartsila Source: Wartsila  Onboard management of the power load can result in significant fuel oil savings. Following are few best practices that should be complied with to improve energy efficiency:  Maximize D/G load and run minimum number of D/G with safe load.  All non-essential machineries and equipment must be stopped in port & at sea to reduce the load on generators.  Rectify air leakage and minimize compressed air uses.  Rectify steam leakage and minimize steam uses and avoid running the boiler continuously.  Try to start & use the machineries JUST IN TIME.12/22/2015 80 Load Optimization on Generators
  81. 81. Energy Saving Operation Awareness  Crew Awareness may be increased through the use of appropriate Energy Savings Checklists, developed based on Best Practices identified after numerous Energy Audits  A shipping company, with its human resources department, could create a culture of fuel saving, with an incentive or bonus scheme based on fuel savings. One simple means would be competition between the company’s vessels.  Training and a measuring system are required so that the crew can see the results and make an impact. 12/22/2015 81
  82. 82. Guidelines for Ship’s Energy Efficiency Management  Accommodation Energy Optimization – Air Condition and Refrigeration – Lighting in Accommodation, Deck and Engine Room – Working in Galley – Ships Laundry Equipment 12/22/2015 82
  83. 83. Energy Saving Lighting • Using lighting that is more electricity and heat efficient where possible and optimizing the use of lighting reduces the demand for electricity and air conditioning. This results in a lower hotel load and hence reduced auxiliary power demand. • Results: Fuel consumption saving: Ferry and Passenger vessel 1~2% 12/22/2015 83
  84. 84. Cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures 12/22/2015 84
  85. 85. Summary on SEEMP Guidelines 12/22/2015 85  SEEMP framework is based on Plan-Do-Check-Act continuous improvement cycle.  When developing SEEMP, all the above elements needs to be defined at the planning phase.  At its core, SEEMP has a number of EEMs together with their:  Implementation methods  Monitoring and checking  Self assessment  Roles and responsibility  Processes and procedures.
  86. 86. Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator - EEOI  An efficiency indicator for all ships (new and existing) obtained from fuel consumption, voyage (miles) and cargo data (tonnes)  EEOI is an approach to assess the efficiency of a ship with respect to CO2 emissions.  EEOI = Environmental Cost / Benefit to Society (measured as grams CO2 / tonnes x nautical mile)  In order to establish the EEOI, the following main steps will generally be needed:  define the period for which the EEOI is calculated  define data sources for data collection;  collection of data;  convert data to appropriate format; and  calculate EEOI.12/22/2015 86
  87. 87.  Basic expression of the EEOI  Average EEOI (rolling average)  j = Fuel type  i = Voyage number;  FCij = Mass of consumed fuel j at voyage i  CFj = Fuel mass to CO2 mass conversion factor for fuel j  mcargo = Cargo carried (tonnes) or work done (number of TEU or passengers) or gross tonnes for passenger ships  D = Distance in nautical miles corresponding to the cargo carried or work done. Calculation of the EEOI - Formula 12/22/2015 87  EEOI = (Emitted CO2)/(Transport Work), i.e. the ratio of mass of CO2 (M) emitted per unit of transport work.
  88. 88.  Example (includes a single ballast voyage)  Unit of EEOI: tonnes CO2/(tons x nautical miles) Calculation of the EEOI (example) 12/22/2015 88
  89. 89. For EEOI Calculation 12/22/2015 89 Always remember…………  For calculation of EEOI, you need to have some cargo transport (cargo X distance travelled). So, if no cargo transport, EEOI will become infinity (very large). Therefore, for anchorage or for ballast voyage, EEOI cannot be calculated.  The FPSO and offshore vessels are not moving. If the ship does not move or the ship has no cargo, then EEOI cannot be calculated.
  90. 90.  Significant variations (voyage to voyage)  Reasons for changes include:  Ship size/type  Cargo level (load)  Ship speed  Length of ballast voyages  Idle and waiting times  Weather and current  Measurement errors  In short, every operation aspect of ship has its own impact on EEOI and causes its variability. EEOI TrendforJClass(TEU-based) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Nov-07 Feb-08 Jun-08 Sep-08 Dec-08 Mar-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 May-10 Aug-10 Date E E OI [g /[ T E U. n m ] EEOI(voyage) EEOI(rollingaverage) EEOI Variability 12/22/2015 90
  91. 91. IEE (International Energy Efficiency) Certificate (Reg. 6) IEEC will be issued when……….. 1. For New ship with a Calculated & Varified Attained EEDI, EEDI Technical File and a verified SEEMP onboard 2. For Existing Ship, with a verified SEEMP and “Record of Construction related to Energy Efficiency” file 12/22/2015 91  An IEE Certificate … issued to any ship ≥ 400 GT before that ship may engage in voyages to ports or offshore terminals under the jurisdiction of other Parties.  IEE Certificate shall be valid throughout the life of the ship if no major conversion, no transfer of flag or not withdrawn from service.
  92. 92. Energy Management System and Plan 12/22/2015 92
  93. 93. Ship Energy Management: 3-Step Approach  From low-hanging fruits to major capital investments 12/22/2015 93
  94. 94.  Need to set clear policies and goals for the fuel saving projects.  Need to set a roadmap for 3-5 years.  Need to approach it in a step-by-step way with proper monitoring. Ship Energy Management: A systematic approach 12/22/2015 94
  95. 95. Simple Energy Saving Concept…. 12/22/2015 95 100W Traditional Incandescent bulb 23W Energy Saving LED Bulb
  96. 96. Energy Efficiency, Just a step! 12/22/2015 96 Same Work Done!…….. Less Energy Use!!………….. saving more fuels!!!………… Saving more money!!!!….. Saving GREEN Planet!…… Just in your next steps………. So, are you ready to do it?
  97. 97. Thank you for your attention! For more information please see: www.imo.org 12/22/2015 97

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