What You See is What You Get: In-use Measurement of Vehicle Activity, Emissions, and Fuel Use in Istanbul  Alper Unal, Ph....
Outline <ul><li>Motivation for this study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Change, its Impacts and Transportation’s role </li...
The Land and Oceans have warmed http://www.ipcc.ch
Precipitation patterns have changed http://www.ipcc.ch
http://www.ipcc.ch
Air Pollution <ul><li>Current estimates are that a quarter of the world’s population is exposed to unhealthy ambient air p...
Sources of Air Pollution  <ul><li>Gases:  blue </li></ul><ul><li>Particulates:  green  </li></ul><ul><li>HO • , HO2 • :  r...
Mobile Sources <ul><li>Transportation sector (on-road + non-road vehicles) responsible from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO : 82...
Air Quality in Istanbul: 1990s
Evs el Isınmada kullanılan yakıt temiz hale getirildi
Vehicle Emissions in Istanbul 2.6 Million Vehicles in Istanbul in 2006 600 new vehicles enter traffic everyday  (Assuming ...
Reducing Transportation Emissions in Istanbul <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantify the magnitude of on-road ...
Emissions Inventory Campaign: Team <ul><li>EMBARQ </li></ul><ul><li>International Sustainable Systems Research  </li></ul>...
Emissions Inventory Campaign <ul><li>Conducted between October 31 st  and November 16 th  2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Had 3 com...
Measurement Site
Diesel Testing <ul><li>Used Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) to measure second-by-second road gasoline and pa...
Diesel Vehicle Test Route
Diesel Testing
Diesel Testing
Diesel Testing
Gasoline Testing <ul><li>Used Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) to measure second-by-second road gasoline emis...
Gasoline Vehicle Test Route
Gasoline Testing
Gasoline Testing
Gasoline Testing
Example of PM 2.5  - Diesel Vehicles
Vehicle Activity Data Collection <ul><li>Vehicle Activity:  </li></ul><ul><li>Driving Behavior and Traffic Flow in Istanbu...
Driving Behavior and Traffic Flow  Study Areas  A B C D E A – Europe mid-lower income B – Europe mid-higher income C – Eur...
Driving Behavior  – Mid-Lower Income Route
Driving Behavior-Passenger Cars <ul><li>European side:  </li></ul><ul><li>3 vehicles, 8 days:, 80 hours data, 288,000 data...
Vehicle Activity   Vehicle Driving Patterns <ul><li>Data collection: </li></ul><ul><li>14 days on different areas and stre...
typical highway driving pattern
Typical Arterial Driving Pattern
 
Example: GPS data collected from a bus
Dolmuş
Truck
Taxi
Parking lots survey <ul><li>European side: 874 vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Asia side: 744 vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Total:...
Comparison of Registered Park Data
Annual Vehicle Miles** ** Based on car sale ads
Mobile Source Emissions Inventory  Diesel Emissions Measurements IVEM Total Emissions per 1000 km Total Emissions Annual V...
2006  VKT Values Mobile Source Emissions Inventory    Total Kilometers Percent  (%) Passenger Vehicle 56,369,617,511 65.5 ...
2015 Projection   <ul><li>Major projects were considered: </li></ul><ul><li>Ra il Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Marmaray </li...
2015 Proje ction Source:   Prof. Dr Haluk Gercek Year Population Employment Students 2006 11,618,050 4,083,104 2,690,566 2...
2015 Proje ction Source:   Prof. Dr Haluk Gercek
2015 Proje ction Source:   Prof. Dr Haluk Gercek
2015 Proje ction A 25 % improvement   has been observed from field measurements
Emission Estimates for 2006 ve 2015 CO2 Emissions Improvement in technology
Emission Estimates for 2006 ve 2015 Criteria Pollutants CO NOX Total Hydrocarbons
Particulate Matter Sulfur Dioxide Criteria Pollutants Emission Estimates for 2006 ve 2015
WORKSHOP
 
 
WORKSHOP <ul><li>Workshop was successfully conducted on   24-25  October  2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than   50  peopl...
Clean Fuels Clean Vehicles Project
Pilot Project <ul><li>Top Projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve public transport  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eco Driving...
Contributions <ul><li>Sibel Bulay (Director of EMBARQ Istanbul) </li></ul><ul><li>Zeren Erik (Program Associate, EMBARQ Is...
Contributions
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What You See is What You Get: In-use Measurement of Vehicle Activity, Emissions, and Fuel Use in Istanbul - Alper Unal

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What You See is What You Get: In-use Measurement of Vehicle Activity, Emissions, and Fuel Use in Istanbul

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  • Transcript of "What You See is What You Get: In-use Measurement of Vehicle Activity, Emissions, and Fuel Use in Istanbul - Alper Unal"

    1. 1. What You See is What You Get: In-use Measurement of Vehicle Activity, Emissions, and Fuel Use in Istanbul Alper Unal, Ph.D Senior Research Scientist
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Motivation for this study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Change, its Impacts and Transportation’s role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Pollution its Impacts and Transportation’s role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Istanbul Mobile Emissions Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions Inventory Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Land and Oceans have warmed http://www.ipcc.ch
    4. 4. Precipitation patterns have changed http://www.ipcc.ch
    5. 5. http://www.ipcc.ch
    6. 6. Air Pollution <ul><li>Current estimates are that a quarter of the world’s population is exposed to unhealthy ambient air pollutants, with nearly 6.4 million years of healthy life lost owing to long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter alone. (World Health Organ. 2003, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution damages crops, built structures such as buildings and historic monuments, ecosystems, and wildlife. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants currently in the atmosphere are likely causing large scale changes in the Earth’s basic systems such as climate and ocean dynamics. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Sources of Air Pollution <ul><li>Gases: blue </li></ul><ul><li>Particulates: green </li></ul><ul><li>HO • , HO2 • : red </li></ul>
    8. 8. Mobile Sources <ul><li>Transportation sector (on-road + non-road vehicles) responsible from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO : 82 % USA 53 % EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO X : 56 % USA 47 % EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air toxics: 51 % USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VOC: 45 % USA, 25% EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SO 2 : 5 % USA, 15% EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GHG: 30% USA, 21% EU </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Air Quality in Istanbul: 1990s
    10. 10. Evs el Isınmada kullanılan yakıt temiz hale getirildi
    11. 11. Vehicle Emissions in Istanbul 2.6 Million Vehicles in Istanbul in 2006 600 new vehicles enter traffic everyday (Assuming 50 % is taken outside Istanbul, 300 new vehicles/day)
    12. 12. Reducing Transportation Emissions in Istanbul <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantify the magnitude of on-road transportation emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop efficient and economic mitigation strategies and policies to reduce this impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop pilot projects to test proposed strategies and identify the best options for Istanbul </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Emissions Inventory Campaign: Team <ul><li>EMBARQ </li></ul><ul><li>International Sustainable Systems Research </li></ul><ul><li>Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality </li></ul>
    14. 14. Emissions Inventory Campaign <ul><li>Conducted between October 31 st and November 16 th 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Had 3 components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Data Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diesel Vehicle Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline Vehicle Testing </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Measurement Site
    16. 16. Diesel Testing <ul><li>Used Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) to measure second-by-second road gasoline and particulate matter emissions (CO, CO 2 , NO X , SO 2 , HC, PM 2.5 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Completed 42 Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Data from 2 Vehicles lost due to equipment malfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles ranged in size from passenger vehicle to small truck to Articulated Bus. </li></ul><ul><li>Model Year: 1985 – 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Engine Size: 1.5 – 6.5 liter </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles Tested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>29 Trucks and Vans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Buses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Passenger Vehicles (Diesels) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Diesel Vehicle Test Route
    18. 18. Diesel Testing
    19. 19. Diesel Testing
    20. 20. Diesel Testing
    21. 21. Gasoline Testing <ul><li>Used Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) to measure second-by-second road gasoline emissions (CO, CO 2 , NO X , SO 2 , HC) </li></ul><ul><li>Completed 104 Tests on Passenger Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Data from 5 Vehicles lost due to equipment malfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Model Year:1974 - 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Engine Size: 1.2 – 3.8 liter </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Type: LPG, Gasoline </li></ul>
    22. 22. Gasoline Vehicle Test Route
    23. 23. Gasoline Testing
    24. 24. Gasoline Testing
    25. 25. Gasoline Testing
    26. 26. Example of PM 2.5 - Diesel Vehicles
    27. 27. Vehicle Activity Data Collection <ul><li>Vehicle Activity: </li></ul><ul><li>Driving Behavior and Traffic Flow in Istanbul (GPS) </li></ul><ul><li>General vehicle type distribution (Video) </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle technology distribution (Parking Lot Surveys) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Driving Behavior and Traffic Flow Study Areas A B C D E A – Europe mid-lower income B – Europe mid-higher income C – Europe commercial D – Asia mid-higher income E – Asia mid-lower income
    29. 29. Driving Behavior – Mid-Lower Income Route
    30. 30. Driving Behavior-Passenger Cars <ul><li>European side: </li></ul><ul><li>3 vehicles, 8 days:, 80 hours data, 288,000 data points </li></ul><ul><li>Asian side: </li></ul><ul><li>3 vehicles, 3 days: 24 hours data, 86,000 data points </li></ul>
    31. 31. Vehicle Activity Vehicle Driving Patterns <ul><li>Data collection: </li></ul><ul><li>14 days on different areas and streets </li></ul><ul><li>Second by second rate of acceleration/deceleration; steady speed </li></ul><ul><li>Slope of roadways </li></ul><ul><li>Average speed (by road type and overall) </li></ul><ul><li>Percent of time spent in idle mode (by road type and overall) </li></ul>
    32. 32. typical highway driving pattern
    33. 33. Typical Arterial Driving Pattern
    34. 35. Example: GPS data collected from a bus
    35. 36. Dolmuş
    36. 37. Truck
    37. 38. Taxi
    38. 39. Parking lots survey <ul><li>European side: 874 vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Asia side: 744 vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Total: 1618 vehicles </li></ul>
    39. 40. Comparison of Registered Park Data
    40. 41. Annual Vehicle Miles** ** Based on car sale ads
    41. 42. Mobile Source Emissions Inventory Diesel Emissions Measurements IVEM Total Emissions per 1000 km Total Emissions Annual VKT Fleet & Location Files Base Adjustment Factors Gasoline Emissions Measurements Start-up Data (VOCE) Power Distribution (GPS) Fleet Distribution (Parking Lots) Other Data (Temp., Humidity, Fuel Quality)
    42. 43. 2006 VKT Values Mobile Source Emissions Inventory   Total Kilometers Percent (%) Passenger Vehicle 56,369,617,511 65.5 Buses 6,061,408,753 7.0 Light Trucks 15,293,540,880 17.8 Trucks 3,698,546,460 4.3 Taxi 3,646,569,000 4.2 Dolmus 309,869,824 0.4
    43. 44. 2015 Projection <ul><li>Major projects were considered: </li></ul><ul><li>Ra il Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Marmaray </li></ul><ul><li>Kadıköy-Kartal Metro </li></ul><ul><li>Yenikapı-Hacıosman Metro </li></ul><ul><li>Kirazlı-İkitelli-Olimpiyat Köyü Metro </li></ul><ul><li>Highways </li></ul><ul><li>Boğaziçi T unnel </li></ul>
    44. 45. 2015 Proje ction Source: Prof. Dr Haluk Gercek Year Population Employment Students 2006 11,618,050 4,083,104 2,690,566 2010 13,495,516 4,847,464 2,760,517 2015 14,952,755 5,502,941 3,094,496 2023 17,284,338 6,551,705 3,628,863
    45. 46. 2015 Proje ction Source: Prof. Dr Haluk Gercek
    46. 47. 2015 Proje ction Source: Prof. Dr Haluk Gercek
    47. 48. 2015 Proje ction A 25 % improvement has been observed from field measurements
    48. 49. Emission Estimates for 2006 ve 2015 CO2 Emissions Improvement in technology
    49. 50. Emission Estimates for 2006 ve 2015 Criteria Pollutants CO NOX Total Hydrocarbons
    50. 51. Particulate Matter Sulfur Dioxide Criteria Pollutants Emission Estimates for 2006 ve 2015
    51. 52. WORKSHOP
    52. 55. WORKSHOP <ul><li>Workshop was successfully conducted on 24-25 October 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 50 people has attended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey results showed that Workshop was highly successful (especially on Expectation Section) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 250 solutions were proposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential projects were discussed </li></ul></ul>
    53. 56. Clean Fuels Clean Vehicles Project
    54. 57. Pilot Project <ul><li>Top Projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve public transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eco Driving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient use of sea transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrofit/Replace/Retire: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Park and Ride facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of public bus service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestion Pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Hybrid vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
    55. 58. Contributions <ul><li>Sibel Bulay (Director of EMBARQ Istanbul) </li></ul><ul><li>Zeren Erik (Program Associate, EMBARQ Istanbul) </li></ul><ul><li>Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (especially Department of Environmental Protection) </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Lee Schipper (EMBARQ) </li></ul><ul><li>EMBARQ </li></ul>
    56. 59. Contributions

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