Organizational Development: Finding Focus


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"Organizational Development: Finding Focus" was presented at the 2012 residency of the International University for Graduate Studies:
Lean Six Sigma strategies are outlined for implementing process improvements.

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Organizational Development: Finding Focus

  1. 1. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Finding International University Focus: for Graduate Studies Health July 2012 Care Case Study Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改 善© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP,
  2. 2. QUESTIONS: TAKE 5 MINUTES  What’s your job? (or if you’re a student, what are you studying for. If you’re unemployed, what would you like your job to be? These questions apply to self -employed too. If you’re retired, forget about it and go to the beach.)  What does your role add to the mission?  What percentage of your time would you estimate is spent actually working toward your mission, what percentage is spent doing “bureaucratic” work, filling out forms, meetings, writing documentation, pushing paper, and other stuf f that really does not add direct value to the mission?  Do you see things that could be improved, wasted time and energy, that could be made more ef ficient and ef fective?  Shout out some answers.© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  3. 3. ,,© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  4. 4. DEVELOPING A PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  What is it?  Innovation  Improve existing processes, eliminate wasted effort, improve quality  Develop new products, services or procedures that really work  Operations  Assumes innovation is more than inspiration, it has basic operating principles too  Tools  A set of methods to improve focus, processes and outcomes© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  5. 5. WE NEED THE RIGHT TOOLS . . .© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  6. 6. . . . AND LEARN HOW TO USE THEM© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  7. 7. . . . OR WE WIND UP LIKE THIS. . .© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  8. 8. . . .OR WORSE, LIKE THIS . . . Our Project© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  9. 9. EVEN THEN, WHEN WE START LEARNING We wind up like this . . .© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  10. 10. . . . INSTEAD OF THIS© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  11. 11. TO GET THERE, WE NEED A PLAN© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  12. 12. TO GET THERE, WE NEED COMMITMENT It’s good to believe in ourselves, but One man bands don’t get very far We have to learn team skills We have to think and work as teams We have to trust and rely on each other© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  13. 13. TO GET THERE, WE NEED TEAMWORK And . . .© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  14. 14. TO GET THERE, WE NEED FACILITATORS© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  15. 15. TO GET THERE, WE NEED PRACTICE And practice and experience And more practice and experience© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  16. 16. POP QUIZ Question: What’s the major waste in this image? Answer: Transportation Solution: Rethink the technology© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  17. 17. LEAN PROCESS IMPROVEMENT: ELIMINATE WASTE & IMPROVE EFFICIENCY Lean Focus Review/Approve Reduce Non-Value Re-work Transport Transport Wait Transport Wait Work Check Added Time Work Work Begin Process Result: LARGE time savings Start Improved outcomes Finish WORK TIME = Value = Non-Value-Added Added Time Time (WASTE) Concept: Value-Added Time is only a small percentage of Total Work. Focus on the large amounts of often unseen waste.© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  18. 18. ORGANIZATIONAL MY THS & REALITIES Myth: Management’s job to make sure everyone is doing what they’re supposed to do. If they are not, they need to be disciplined and made to conform. Myth: If someone is not working out, something is wrong with them. They need either to shape up or leave.© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  19. 19. ORGANIZATIONAL MY THS & REALITIES Reality: The best way to facilitate development is to help staff members become informed, educated and empowered to improve their own work setting and their own performance. Reality: Most opportunities for improving performance lie with  The manager’s theories of change  The system of work (procedures and processes)© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  20. 20. THREE COMPONENTS OF PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT Focus: Theory of Constraints Bottlenecks and roadblocks eliminated Speed/Efficiency: Lean No waste in processes or steps Quality/Effectiveness: Six Sigma No outputs/results errors or variation from standards or requirements Goal: Do more with less wasted time (Lean) Do it better (Six Sigma) Of what we’re here to do (Theory of Constraints) Method: Empower people to make the change© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  21. 21. WHAT IS LEAN SIX SIGMA ABOUT?  Innovation  Improve existing processes  New products, services or procedures that really work  Operations not People  Innovation has basic operating principles  Assumes that employee and program performance is largely a function of the conditions in which work is performed  Empowerment: Change agents are the people involved in the process itself.© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  22. 22. SETTING PRIORITIES  What problems does the agency face?  Who has the problems?  What do the problems seem to be? What are resources are available to address the problems?  When do the problems occur? All the time? Under certain circumstances? At certain points in a flow?  Where does the problem occur? Which locations, why some more than others?  Why does the problem occur? (The “5 Whys” was W. Edwards Demings advice to those seeking to understand the root cause of a problem.)  How does the problem occur? What actually happens? Map out the events or processes . Where is the leverage to solve these problems? Pick your points of focus carefully.© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  23. 23. RESULTS Improved ROI Greater public accountability Reduced duplication and repetition of efforts Increased understanding of accomplishments and priorities Increased cooperation and teamwork Increased quality, not just quantity Improved problem-solving practices© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  24. 24. WANTS, NEEDS, DESIRES = VALUE STREAMS Customer Value Stream (“Voice of the Customer”) Business Value Stream (Voice of the Business”) Stakeholder Value Stream (and others) The Customer’s Value Comes First!© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  25. 25. CUSTOMER – “BUSINESS” CONFLICTS High proportion of mental health client charts have as the closing note “client is resitant to treatment.” Mother brings child to clinic for childhood IZs. Teen girl comes to clinic for birth control. Discuss: Do you have some other examples of systems gone awry?© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  27. 27. MORAL OF THE STORY Help customer voice what they really want: Refine and expand their vision. Make sure you are really listening, match what you hear to what they say. Retool procedures, eliminate activities that are not needed, and maybe move to new technologies. In short: The first step in a change effort is to do a really great consult and assessment.© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  28. 28. DEFINING FOCUS© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改 善
  29. 29. LEAN 6 Theory of SIGMA: Constraints FOCUS, Focus SPEED, Six Sigma QUALITY QualityPerformance FocusImprovement Comes First LeanSpeed
  30. 30. THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS & LEAN 6 SIGMA Constraints:  Lean  Six Sigma Macro, Meso, Micro  All effort is  No defects, variation, “do- “Value-Added” overs”  Focus the analysis  “War on Waste”  Operational vision,  Address factors that limit moving forward or common focus achieving goals  Methods and tools  A Six Sigma process  Feedback driven with its own subroutine  Optimize performance© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  31. 31. THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS: Micro DEFINING Meso VALUE “Nearly 100% of innovation is Macro inspired not by “market analysis” but by people who are supremely [ticked] off at the way things are.” Tom Peters 改 善© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP,
  32. 32. CONSTRAINTS: MICRO, MESO, MACRO  Identify* Scope Match: Develop a charter (plan) that matches the problem and its boundaries and hits the leverage points.  Exploit: Look for new opportunities, weaknesses  Subordinate: transform weaknesses into strengths, look for “Rule Creep” as well as “Practice Creep”  Elevate: Focus on leverage and strengths  Repeat (as needed, new constraints may pop up)  Constraints are not just eliminated, but as often, controlled and manipulated*Eliyahu M. Goldratt© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  33. 33. ELEVATE OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS TO DEFINE CUSTOMER VALUE Get to the root: Who is the customer(s)? What do they want? Getting this right may be the biggest constraint. If you don’t get this right, all the rest of what you do transforms into waste. Distinguish:  C lient/Customers  U sers  B ystanders (might be impacted and have concerns)  S takeholders 改善© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP,
  34. 34. THE “YOU’LL SHOOT YOUR EYE OUT” CONSTRAINT© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  35. 35. VISION CONSTRAINT: FOXHOLE EFFECTS  Customer Foxholes: What the customer didn’t discuss or didn’t have the insight to see themselves.  Our Foxholes (perception limits, biases, assumptions) going in. Identify them, think about them, work on them. We may also delimit ourselves in what we think we can do or deliver.  Negative Synergy: What the customer says, what we hear, what we think we can do, can put the process into a self-limiting trap.© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  37. 37. People: Skills, Perceptions, Positions, Desires, GoalsProcesses & Practices Four Factor Tools and Model Technologies Policies, Rules, Regulations
  38. 38. TO CREATE CHANGE TEAMS START WITH THE PEOPLE  Do not choose team members because of their positions, rank, seniority,  Choose them for their:  Desires, goals, skills, talent, stick-to-itivness, passion for greatness, teaming, motivation, creativity, critical thinking, experience, follow-through . . . .  In fact, do not mention job titles, official positions, they are irrelevant.  Do the people individually and collectively have the “wanna”to make change?© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  39. 39. "If you wantto build aship, dontdrum up thepeople togather wood,divide thework, andgive orders.Instead,teach them toyearn for thevast andendless sea." Antoine de Saint- Exupéry, “The Little Prince” 改 善
  40. 40. INVISIBLE CULTURE TRUMPS TOOLS Focus, Process, Goals, Results, Needs, Wants, etc. Improvement Tools Operations Consultation Must address Processes Treatment Tools and Culture Products/Services Therapy to avoid unintended consequences & Invisible Culture: less than desirable Hard to Measure & Change long-term success with Blind Spots Process Management History Resistance Mindsets Norms Assumptions Habits Perceptions© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  41. 41. CULTURAL COMPETENCE: PERSONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL Borrowing from human service delivery model Understand the culture of the customer  History of their development  How they do things  Who’s really in charge, degree of horizontal vs vertical organization, etc.  Outside mandates: Laws, rules, customs  Current technology, flexibility in technology© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  42. 42. MANAGING PERSONAL, ROLES, POSITIONS MicroMicro Constraints: Meso Personal Macro Readiness
  43. 43. FIRST STEP: ASSESS PERSONAL READINESS FOR CHANGE Denial vs Minimization Justification Blame vs Stasis vs Responsi- vs vs Affirmation, Ongoing & bility and Recognition Acknowledge- Solidarity & Progressive Reality •Contemplation: ment Critique* Action •Precontem- “Problem exists, •Active Change •Maintenance: •Move to plation: “What I can’t do anything Agent: Recognizes Continues to “Preparation”: problem?” about it” “connection” with improve, begins to Identify issues, “What options, strategies others, engages the collaborate, responsibility?” process, acts on expands s to tactics from the broader areas array of options (Or not . . . )© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  44. 44. MANAGING AGREEMENT AND CONFLICT MicroMeso Constraints: Meso Group Readiness Macro
  45. 45. ASSESSING MESO-CONSTRAINTS© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  46. 46. GROUPTHINK None of Us is as Dumb as all of Us Together© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP,
  47. 47. GROUPTHINK: MANAGE AGREEMENT, NOT JUST CONFLICT  May seem counter-intuitive.  Agreement can be a bigger risk than conflict.  Be careful to listen for what the customer is really saying.  Avoid “Trips to Abilene.”  Always ask, “Have we just engaged in Groupthink?” before settling on agreements.  Do not push for early agreement, do not stifle dissent, manage it. “Tell me more . . .”  Clarify what you are agreeing to and how it fits into your larger mission or goals. Does the agreement have a “niche” in the larger picture? 改善© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP,
  48. 48. HOW DO WE DO THIS?  Establish clear Voice of Customer (stakeholders, bystanders, etc.), Voice of Analysis, Voice of Process. Ask 5 “Whys, Whats, Hows, Wheres, Whens” for each.  Look for mismatches and their root causes.  Find out what the customer really needs. Find out what would “float their boat!”  Listen carefully, look for gaps, problems, issues, inconsistencies, lack of clarity.  Look at what we can currently deliver.  Modify our view of what we do, then do it.  Then work on all three issues at once.© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  49. 49. THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS’ PERFORMANCE GOAL Focus your analyses Address factors that limit moving forward or achieving the goals, question the goals too One step in the Six Sigma process with its own subroutine Example: Critical Path Analysis  Multiple people, multiple tasks that have to converge. Which “path” is the longest? Fix it first.© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  50. 50. MAGIC OR MAYHEM: “BLUE INK” CONSTRAINTS MicroMacro Constraints: Meso Contextual Readiness Macro
  51. 51. MACRO CONSTRAINTS Macro (System) Constraints Rules, regulations, funding, disconnect between mandates and needs, unclear standards or requirements “Rule Creep” “Blue Ink Standards” “Tribal Wisdom”© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  52. 52. MACRO-CONSTRAINTS: READINESS Assessment and Action (Rosenblatt)  Observe: look around, learn, identify environmental constraints  Analyze: break them down, study their structures and processes, be objective  Conclude: Summarize the macro-constraints, describe them, “know them”  Recommend: Actions may often be outside your , may need to work with others  Enact: Sometimes this just means wait, may be up to policy - makers to act, may need work- arounds  (Repeat)© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  53. 53. TRY IT  Brainstorm some examples of each level of constraints: Macro, meso and micro.  Spend 10 minutes using the analytic steps to understand them. Levels of Constraints Template Micro Meso (Group, Macro (Policy, Rules, Stage (Personal) Process) Structures, Systems) Observe Analyze Conclude Recommend Enact© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  54. 54. “You know you’ve achieved LEAN: perfection in design, not when you PROCESS have nothing more to add, but when you have nothing IMPROVEMENT more to take away.” Antoine de Saint-Exupéry French writer/ aviator© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改 善
  55. 55. TEAM COMPOSITION Champion: Has a vision of the need for change, may not be directly involved in the improvement team Team Leads: facilitate the team process, may know little or nothing of the work being done Subject matter experts who know the issues, policies, constraints Process experts (usually the people involved in the work)© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  56. 56. STEPS IN “LEAN”© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  58. 58. How Do SIX SIGMA: We Know Whether OUTCOME What We’re Doing IMPROVEMENT Really Works?© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改 善
  62. 62. SIX SIGMA PERFORMANCE GOALS No defects, variation, “do-overs” Operational vision, common focus Methods and tools Feedback driven Optimized performance:  Tangible results  Done right the first time  Out-of-range variability is nearly eliminated© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  63. 63. SIX SIGMAT YPICAL GOAL REDUCE “T WO-TAIL” VARIANCE Some too fast Standard Some too slow Some too big Some too small From this To this Some too long Some too short Some too hot Some too cold Rejects Rejects© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  64. 64. SIX SIGMA ANOTHER GOAL REDUCE “ONE-TAIL” VARIANCE Some too fast In some cases, we Standard have a single Some too big standard with one “tail” of error to be Some too long reduced. To this “J” or “S” shaped Some too hot results Example: All requests are to be From this processed in one week or less. Rejects© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  65. 65. SIX SIGMA OTHER T YPES OF DISTRIBUTIONS  The Loch Ness Curve Error© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  66. 66. THE RESULT? Theory of Constraints  Focused efforts: Increased throughput, ongoing management of constraints and reduction of bottlenecks Lean  Reduced cycle times and waste Six Sigma  Uniform results, reduced variation, better quality products and/or services© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  67. 67. PROCESS Exercise Applied IMPROVEMENT “DMAIC”© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改 善
  68. 68. DEFINE  Create a process improvement environment: How would you set up a change that focuses on systems?  Do (or read the example) a “Walk - About”  List at least five problems identified during the “walk -about” discussion described in the case study.© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  69. 69. MEASURE  A number of problems were already identified in th Walk - About.  List the ones that seem most relevant.  Add measures you would also want to know about.© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  70. 70. ANALYZE  Get customer and stakeholder input and involve them in the change  Set an objective performance baseline© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  71. 71. IMPLEMENT Create teamwork and responsibility Simplify© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  72. 72. CONTROL Identify results to track and improvements you want to see happen Reward staff initiatives Get customer feedback  For more information n© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善
  73. 73. 1. DEFINE 4. IMPROVE Create a process Create teamwork andImprovement environment 3. ANALYZE responsibility, simplify Stakeholders set objective Define performance baselines Write a plan Problem(s) Conduct Pilots Goal Identify Root Causes ScopeIBoundaries Summarize & Test & Validate Metrics Get Client, Customer Prioritize Design Controls Staff Input Set Metrics & Targets Roll-Out Action Items Describe Expected Identify Solutions to: (Schedule) Benefits • Reduce Waste Establish Success • Reduce Deploy Improvements Criteria Complexity • Increase Correct 5. CONTROL Outcomes Structure metrics and 2. MEASURE Improvements, reward initiatives Stakeholder involvement . setobjective performance baseline Implement Controls Record Results & Benefits Describe Current State Publicize & Recognize Collect/Gather Data Knowledge Sharing Observe and Identify • Solicit Feedback Determine Capacity • Capture Lessons© Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, Learned
  74. 74. CONTACT FOR MORE INFORMATION About this presentation: Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP at About the International University for Graduate Studies graduate programs: © Daniel Jordan, PhD, ABPP, 改善