0
The potential impact of               school-led            Teacher Training            on physical educationTuesday, 11 S...
Dr Ashley Casey                           & PESP GroupTuesday, 11 September 12
In his 2011 letter to theTeacher Development Agencythe Secretary of State forEducation stated hisexpectation that there wo...
This policy statement hassignificant ramifications forthe development andenhancement of schoolphysical education praxis an...
This presentation argues thatthis policy shift has takenlittle or no account of pre-service teachers (PSTs)existing belief...
Tuesday, 11 September 12
occupational         socialisationTuesday, 11 September 12
occupational         socialisation                           Teacher                           EducationTuesday, 11 Septem...
occupational                  Students experienced         socialisation                           Teacher                ...
occupational                  Students experienced         socialisation                 Positive Role Models             ...
occupational                  Students experienced         socialisation                 Positive Role Models Near Equalit...
occupational                  Students experienced         socialisation                 Positive Role Models Near Equalit...
occupational         socialisationTuesday, 11 September 12
Many occupations are    licensed by governments    after candidates pass certain    exams and demonstrate    certain compe...
however...Tuesday, 11 September 12
This is the end point   of a long process in   which an individual   will qualify or   disqualify themselves   from potent...
for example,        children might        check out their        dexterity to see        if they have        surgeon’s    ...
Therefore, those whose goal it is to become a teacher will have constantly tested and retested themselves against what the...
consequently...Tuesday, 11 September 12
what people        THINK they        need to become        a teacher        becomes theirTuesday, 11 September 12
Subjective        WarrantTuesday, 11 September 12
The subjective warrant    “                  consists of each                       person’s perceptions                  ...
The subjective warrant is key in teacher education as it serves as a filter for teacher learning and is therefore a major ...
Lawson (1983) identified two key areas of research        The relationship        between        subjective warrant,       ...
Relationship        between teacher        education, school        entry, socialization        in schools, and        lon...
while our wider programme of research seeks to explore the        Relationship        between teacher        education, sc...
The purpose of this presentation is to start to explore        The relationship        between        subjective warrant, ...
The purpose of this presentation is to start to explore        The relationship        between        subjective warrant, ...
occupational         socialisation                           Teacher                           EducationTuesday, 11 Septem...
The factors influencing an individual’s subjective warrant  for physical education           Personal Factors           Sit...
Personal Factors        Significant others, gender,        race, ethnicity, self concept        and aspirations           ...
Situational Factors        Socio economic status,        academic achievement,        primary involvements, and        ach...
Situational Factors        Secondary involvements and        achievements in physical        education and interscholastic...
Societal Factors        Cultural stereotypes for physical        education and sport impact on the        professional rec...
This study used Occupational Socialisation as its theoretical framework to examine the subject warrant of ‘apprentice’ tea...
Lawson (1983) identified  three phases of occupational  socialisation.Tuesday, 11 September 12
the anticipatory/                           acculturation                           phase is the                          ...
The acculturation/ anticipatory phase has a powerful impact on recruits moving into the field well before beginning their ...
It is responsible for the development of the pre- service teachers beliefs about teaching physical education              ...
professional socialisation  “                    is the process whereby                       the recruit comes to        ...
The organisational                     phase is significantly                     influenced by wash out                  ...
In other words                     The influence of the                     organisation can be                     realit...
which often replicate                     the practices of their                     teachers and their                   ...
While Lawson (1983)  identified three phases of  occupational socialisation  we are predominantly  interested in the first...
To this end we opted to  interview our 1st year  students on their very first  afternoon in the university in  an effort t...
After ethical                           approval had been                           obtained from the                     ...
These were semi-  structured interviews which  lasted between 15 to 25  minutes. In total 102  students across two  cohort...
A thematic analysis was  undertaken using NVivo9  and this paper is the first  articulation of the findings.Tuesday, 11 Se...
occupational                  Students experienced         socialisation                           Teacher                ...
occupational                  Students experienced         socialisation                 Positive Role Models             ...
Comparable to Curtner- Smith (2001) most students were supported in their early physical development by their parents eith...
“                    my mum’s a PE                      teacher...and I proper                      look up to my mum.”Tue...
“                      my parents have always                       said that they’d think I’                       do som...
“                      It was more my dad that                       really pushed me into as                       many s...
“                      my mum’s my biggest                       influence from home I                       think and obv...
In many ways the                       influence of parents was                       important in terms of               ...
For most students who had supportive and facilitatory parents, this early engagement in physical activity was enhanced thr...
For others, school physical education was where they first identified the supportive environment they needed to develop an...
“                    The main influence on me                     has been my physical                     education teach...
“                      [names three                       teachers]...them three                       were like really bi...
“                    Definitely my PE teachers                     at school. I’ve always                     looked to th...
“                      and I just look up to them                       because they just inspire                       me...
Without these reported enhancements and the ‘extra mile’ that these teachers were prepared travel then these students may ...
One is left to wonder what might happen when this, predominantly secondary school experience, becomes the only enhancement...
It is also worth considering the impact that any practitioner can have on a fledgling teacher.Tuesday, 11 September 12
such powerful role models do not necessarily equate to good quality learning for these apprentice teachers and could just ...
occupational                  Students experienced         socialisation                 Positive Role Models Near Equalit...
Many students reported          that they got on well with          their PE teachers.Tuesday, 11 September 12
Leading us to query if they          had been implicitly          recruited into “the inner          sanctum of the physic...
Indeed, so close was the reported friendship between with some students and their teachers, that it appears that as aspiri...
When asked about major influences one student replied“                     definitely my A’level                      teach...
He went on to suggested that“                     I’ve always just wanted to                      be just like them. So li...
A young woman suggest that the support of her teacher    extended beyond her time at the school“                          ...
Another young woman ed that the support of her teacher would    extended beyond her time at the school“                   ...
another student indicated that“                    I live in quite a strong                     sporting environment      ...
she went on to explore her place within the department“                    [I] took quite a lead role                     ...
In turn this privileged position within the department seemed to reinforce some traditional expectations around what it me...
“                    I feel I’d be a teacher where                     students can come and talk to                     y...
“                    I think PE helps to link it                     all together and also it                     expels a...
when asked what sort of PE teacher she wanted to be    one student suggested she would be all about“                      ...
when asked what sort of PE teacher she wanted to be    one student suggested she would be all about“                    ge...
Listening to these students it is easy to see physical education replicating itself from generation to generation. With li...
And how the urban myths  and fairytales of sport and  physical education  perpetuate themselves from  generation to genera...
Given these strong student biographies of PE what are our chances as a PETE faculty of positively influencing the subjecti...
Of more importance however, how are these traditionally views of physical education going to evolve if teacher education i...
occupational                  Students experienced         socialisation                 Positive Role Models Near Equalit...
Given these findings and given what research states about the difficulties that four-year university-based programmes have...
If that is the case then what impact might this policy have on the future of physical education in the UK? A question made...
So what choices do we have?Tuesday, 11 September 12
More of the same                           Kirk 2010Tuesday, 11 September 12
More of the same   Extinction                                Kirk 2010Tuesday, 11 September 12
More of the sameTuesday, 11 September 12
ExtinctionTuesday, 11 September 12
Tuesday, 11 September 12
so we’re left with one doorTuesday, 11 September 12
Radical ReformTuesday, 11 September 12
Where does radical                            reform take us?Tuesday, 11 September 12
How do we change the near             universal subjective warrant?Tuesday, 11 September 12
Recruit differentlyTuesday, 11 September 12
Change our focus from                 secondary to primaryTuesday, 11 September 12
Look to our undergraduate               programmes as platforms for                         change?Tuesday, 11 September 12
We need to decide                                soon...Tuesday, 11 September 12
Tuesday, 11 September 12
References       Borko, H., & Putnam, R. (1996). Learning to teach. In D.       Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of e...
References       Kirk, D. (2010). Physical Education Futures. Routledge: London.       Lawson, H.A. (1983) Toward a model ...
Image Credits                  Slide                                     Image                1 & 85     School by Jibby! ...
Image Credits                  Slide                                 Image                    52     Personal Image       ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Who wants to be a teacher?

1,018

Published on

A conference presentation exploring the reasons why physical education teachers start the journey to being teachers. Where have they come from and who has influenced them.

Published in: Education, Career
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,018
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Who wants to be a teacher? "

  1. 1. The potential impact of school-led Teacher Training on physical educationTuesday, 11 September 12
  2. 2. Dr Ashley Casey & PESP GroupTuesday, 11 September 12
  3. 3. In his 2011 letter to theTeacher Development Agencythe Secretary of State forEducation stated hisexpectation that there wouldbe a greater emphasis onschool-led teacher training(DfE, 2011).Tuesday, 11 September 12
  4. 4. This policy statement hassignificant ramifications forthe development andenhancement of schoolphysical education praxis andpedagogy.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  5. 5. This presentation argues thatthis policy shift has takenlittle or no account of pre-service teachers (PSTs)existing beliefs about whatteaching ‘is’ and ‘does’ nor oftheir motivations (what Lortie(1975) called their“subjective warrant”) are forbecoming teachers.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  6. 6. Tuesday, 11 September 12
  7. 7. occupational socialisationTuesday, 11 September 12
  8. 8. occupational socialisation Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  9. 9. occupational Students experienced socialisation Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  10. 10. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  11. 11. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Near Equality of status Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  12. 12. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Near Equality of status Teacher conclusions EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  13. 13. occupational socialisationTuesday, 11 September 12
  14. 14. Many occupations are licensed by governments after candidates pass certain exams and demonstrate certain competences.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  15. 15. however...Tuesday, 11 September 12
  16. 16. This is the end point of a long process in which an individual will qualify or disqualify themselves from potential careers. Lortie 1975Tuesday, 11 September 12
  17. 17. for example, children might check out their dexterity to see if they have surgeon’s hands, or argue with their peers to see if they would become good lawyers. Mauss 1973Tuesday, 11 September 12
  18. 18. Therefore, those whose goal it is to become a teacher will have constantly tested and retested themselves against what they believe they need to be to be a teacher, and have identified that they match those criteriaTuesday, 11 September 12
  19. 19. consequently...Tuesday, 11 September 12
  20. 20. what people THINK they need to become a teacher becomes theirTuesday, 11 September 12
  21. 21. Subjective WarrantTuesday, 11 September 12
  22. 22. The subjective warrant “ consists of each person’s perceptions of the requirements for teacher education and for actual teaching in schools ” Lawson (1983a, p6)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  23. 23. The subjective warrant is key in teacher education as it serves as a filter for teacher learning and is therefore a major determinant of future practice. Borko and Putnam (1996)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  24. 24. Lawson (1983) identified two key areas of research The relationship between subjective warrant, recruitment and teacher education.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  25. 25. Relationship between teacher education, school entry, socialization in schools, and longevity in schoolsTuesday, 11 September 12
  26. 26. while our wider programme of research seeks to explore the Relationship between teacher education, school entry, socialization in schools, and longevity in schoolsTuesday, 11 September 12
  27. 27. The purpose of this presentation is to start to explore The relationship between subjective warrant, recruitment and teacher education.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  28. 28. The purpose of this presentation is to start to explore The relationship between subjective warrant, recruitment and teacher education. with particular emphasis on the perceived risks of making teacher education the responsibility of schoolsTuesday, 11 September 12
  29. 29. occupational socialisation Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  30. 30. The factors influencing an individual’s subjective warrant for physical education Personal Factors Situational Factors Societal Factors Dewar and Lawson, 1984,p23Tuesday, 11 September 12
  31. 31. Personal Factors Significant others, gender, race, ethnicity, self concept and aspirations Dewar and Lawson, 1984,p23Tuesday, 11 September 12
  32. 32. Situational Factors Socio economic status, academic achievement, primary involvements, and achievements in physical education and interscholastic and agency sponsored sport. Dewar and Lawson, 1984,p23Tuesday, 11 September 12
  33. 33. Situational Factors Secondary involvements and achievements in physical education and interscholastic and agency sponsored sport. Other related work experience. Dewar and Lawson, 1984,p23Tuesday, 11 September 12
  34. 34. Societal Factors Cultural stereotypes for physical education and sport impact on the professional recruitment processes through perceptions of: 1) Status and economic rewards of the physical education profession 2) Working conditions (job security, hours of working, vacations) of the profession. 3) Requirements for entering the profession. Dewar and Lawson, 1984,p23Tuesday, 11 September 12
  35. 35. This study used Occupational Socialisation as its theoretical framework to examine the subject warrant of ‘apprentice’ teachers of Physical EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  36. 36. Lawson (1983) identified three phases of occupational socialisation.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  37. 37. the anticipatory/ acculturation phase is the period from birth to entry into teacher education in which the subjective warrant is formed.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  38. 38. The acculturation/ anticipatory phase has a powerful impact on recruits moving into the field well before beginning their PETE programme. Hutchinson (1993)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  39. 39. It is responsible for the development of the pre- service teachers beliefs about teaching physical education Dewar and Lawson (1984), Doolittle, Dodds and Placek (1993)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  40. 40. professional socialisation “ is the process whereby the recruit comes to learn about and internalise the culture of the profession he or she has elected to enter. ” Western and Anderson, (1968, p96)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  41. 41. The organisational phase is significantly influenced by wash out Zeichner and Tabachnick (1981)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  42. 42. In other words The influence of the organisation can be reality shock for the newly qualified teacher which can, in turn, lead to the adoption of a pedagogy of necessity Tinning (1988)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  43. 43. which often replicate the practices of their teachers and their teachers-teachers and so on...Tuesday, 11 September 12
  44. 44. While Lawson (1983) identified three phases of occupational socialisation we are predominantly interested in the first stage of anticipation/acculturationTuesday, 11 September 12
  45. 45. To this end we opted to interview our 1st year students on their very first afternoon in the university in an effort to ascertain their existing knowledge and beliefs about physical education before they were influenced by us.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  46. 46. After ethical approval had been obtained from the university, and after students had agreed and accented to be involved in the study, they were interviewed one-to- one by a researcher from the departmentTuesday, 11 September 12
  47. 47. These were semi- structured interviews which lasted between 15 to 25 minutes. In total 102 students across two cohorts were interviewed,which constituted of 100% of our studentsTuesday, 11 September 12
  48. 48. A thematic analysis was undertaken using NVivo9 and this paper is the first articulation of the findings.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  49. 49. occupational Students experienced socialisation Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  50. 50. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  51. 51. Comparable to Curtner- Smith (2001) most students were supported in their early physical development by their parents either as ‘active’ role models and/or as ‘taxi’ drivers.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  52. 52. “ my mum’s a PE teacher...and I proper look up to my mum.”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  53. 53. “ my parents have always said that they’d think I’ do something in P.E., so they’ve always pushed me in the direction what I wanted to be in...”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  54. 54. “ It was more my dad that really pushed me into as many sports as I could try out for, as many sports as he could teach me himself ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  55. 55. “ my mum’s my biggest influence from home I think and obviously because she’s got school experience, she’s taught for many years, she can impart her knowledge on me so she will ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  56. 56. In many ways the influence of parents was important in terms of those early experiences but it didn’t appear to be a defining influence as a number of students didn’t mention their parents in their interview.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  57. 57. For most students who had supportive and facilitatory parents, this early engagement in physical activity was enhanced through their school experiences.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  58. 58. For others, school physical education was where they first identified the supportive environment they needed to develop and shine.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  59. 59. “ The main influence on me has been my physical education teachers at secondary school that took me through year 10 and then my A’Levels. They have been my main influences. They’ve helped me throughout the way they told me I can do it, I can get it right. ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  60. 60. “ [names three teachers]...them three were like really big idols to look up to and just like inspired sort of thing and just like I wanted to be like them...”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  61. 61. “ Definitely my PE teachers at school. I’ve always looked to them, like role models. Always thought that it looked really exciting, like I want to do it too... ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  62. 62. “ and I just look up to them because they just inspire me, like the things they do for the school, the things they do for PE, the passion they’ve got for the sport. It’s just like I want to be like that.”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  63. 63. Without these reported enhancements and the ‘extra mile’ that these teachers were prepared travel then these students may not have moved beyond the specialisms of their parents or primary schools.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  64. 64. One is left to wonder what might happen when this, predominantly secondary school experience, becomes the only enhancement they get. With the promise of solely one year PETE programmes do we need to reconceptualise our other undergraduate provision?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  65. 65. It is also worth considering the impact that any practitioner can have on a fledgling teacher.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  66. 66. such powerful role models do not necessarily equate to good quality learning for these apprentice teachers and could just as easily lead to the reinforcement of poor and/or ineffective practices (Pedder et al, 2010).Tuesday, 11 September 12
  67. 67. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Near Equality of status Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  68. 68. Many students reported that they got on well with their PE teachers.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  69. 69. Leading us to query if they had been implicitly recruited into “the inner sanctum of the physically able” in the school (Brown 1997).Tuesday, 11 September 12
  70. 70. Indeed, so close was the reported friendship between with some students and their teachers, that it appears that as aspiring PE teachers they began to occupy a position of near equality with their own teachers. Brown and Evans (2004).Tuesday, 11 September 12
  71. 71. When asked about major influences one student replied“ definitely my A’level teachers. I used to work down the department as a sports technician, so I used to see them quite often and just happy, bubbly, exciting, you could always approach them for anything”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  72. 72. He went on to suggested that“ I’ve always just wanted to be just like them. So like from from year 7 I went to after school basketball club and I was the only one to turn up and ever since then I’ve just lived down there [the PE department] basically”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  73. 73. A young woman suggest that the support of her teacher extended beyond her time at the school“ ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  74. 74. Another young woman ed that the support of her teacher would extended beyond her time at the school“ ...and she’s even said now [on the first day of PETE], like if I need any of her help then I can still email her and she’ll still help me or I could just go into school and see her... ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  75. 75. another student indicated that“ I live in quite a strong sporting environment anyway, like at home and at school so I think just influences from that and being part of, an important part of the PE department at school as well.. ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  76. 76. she went on to explore her place within the department“ [I] took quite a lead role when I got to my older years so I think that’s imparted on me wanting to pursue that kind of career. ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  77. 77. In turn this privileged position within the department seemed to reinforce some traditional expectations around what it meant to be a physical education teacher (Curtner- Smith, 2001) and also what PE should do and be.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  78. 78. “ I feel I’d be a teacher where students can come and talk to you and can on like that friendly basis, if that makes sense. And a passionate teacher, if you’re not a passionate teacher then your students aren’t going to be passionate either - and a role model to the students as a teacher. ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  79. 79. “ I think PE helps to link it all together and also it expels all your energy so kids go outside, let it all out and come back in and they can move on to their next lesson, nice and fresh again ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  80. 80. when asked what sort of PE teacher she wanted to be one student suggested she would be all about“ ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  81. 81. when asked what sort of PE teacher she wanted to be one student suggested she would be all about“ getting kids interested in sport, making them active so they’re not just all sitting around playing computer games all the time, so they’re actually out, it builds friendships and stuff, makes you have friends and develops your communication skills so people friendly I guess. ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  82. 82. Listening to these students it is easy to see physical education replicating itself from generation to generation. With little or no need to evolve.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  83. 83. And how the urban myths and fairytales of sport and physical education perpetuate themselves from generation to generationTuesday, 11 September 12
  84. 84. Given these strong student biographies of PE what are our chances as a PETE faculty of positively influencing the subjective warrants of our students and influencing their expectation about PE?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  85. 85. Of more importance however, how are these traditionally views of physical education going to evolve if teacher education is reduced to a year and situated predominantly in schools?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  86. 86. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Near Equality of status Teacher conclusions EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  87. 87. Given these findings and given what research states about the difficulties that four-year university-based programmes have in influencing PST anticipatory beliefs (Lawson 1983) its seems quite likely that work- place training is only going to reinforce current pedagogical practices and support inter- generational reproduction (Brown & Evans) in PE.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  88. 88. If that is the case then what impact might this policy have on the future of physical education in the UK? A question made more poignant given the call for radical reform (Locke, 1992) and warnings of possible extinction (Kirk, 2010).Tuesday, 11 September 12
  89. 89. So what choices do we have?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  90. 90. More of the same Kirk 2010Tuesday, 11 September 12
  91. 91. More of the same Extinction Kirk 2010Tuesday, 11 September 12
  92. 92. More of the sameTuesday, 11 September 12
  93. 93. ExtinctionTuesday, 11 September 12
  94. 94. Tuesday, 11 September 12
  95. 95. so we’re left with one doorTuesday, 11 September 12
  96. 96. Radical ReformTuesday, 11 September 12
  97. 97. Where does radical reform take us?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  98. 98. How do we change the near universal subjective warrant?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  99. 99. Recruit differentlyTuesday, 11 September 12
  100. 100. Change our focus from secondary to primaryTuesday, 11 September 12
  101. 101. Look to our undergraduate programmes as platforms for change?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  102. 102. We need to decide soon...Tuesday, 11 September 12
  103. 103. Tuesday, 11 September 12
  104. 104. References Borko, H., & Putnam, R. (1996). Learning to teach. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (673–708). New York: Macmillan. Brown, D. (1999) Complicity and reproduction in teaching physical education, Sport Education and Society, 4, 143– 159. Brown, D. & Evans (2004). Reproducing Gender? Intergenerational Links and the Male PE Teacher as a Cultural Conduit in Teaching Physical Education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 23, 48-70. Curtner-Smith, M.D. (2001). The Occupational Socialization of a First-Year Physical Education Teacher with a Teaching Orientation. Sport Education and Society. 6 (1): 81-105 Dewar A. & Lawson, H.A. (1984) The subjective warrant and recruitment into physical education, Quest, 36: 15–25. Doolittle, S.A., Dodds, P. & Placek, J.H. (1993) Persistence of beliefs about teaching during formal training of preservice teachers, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 12: 355–365. Hutchinson, G.E. (1993) Prospective teachers’ perspectives on teaching physical education: an interview study on the recruitment phase of teacher socialization. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 12: 344–354.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  105. 105. References Kirk, D. (2010). Physical Education Futures. Routledge: London. Lawson, H.A. (1983) Toward a model of teacher socialization in physical education: the subjective warrant, recruitment, and teacher education (part 1), Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 2, pp. 3–16. Locke, L.F. (1992) Changing secondary school physical education, Quest, 44, pp. 361–372. LOCKE, L.F. (1992) Changing secondary school physical education, Quest, 44, pp. 361–372. Lortie, D.C. (1975) Schoolteacher: a sociological study. Chicago: The Chicago University Press. Mauss, M. (1973). Techniques of the body. Economy and Society, 2(1): 70-88. Pedder, D., Opfer, V. D., Mccormick, R. & Storey, A. (2010) Schools and Continuing Professional Development in England - State of the Nation research study: policy context, aims and design, Curriculum Journal, 21, 365-394. Tinning, R.I. (1988). Student Teaching and the Pedagogy of Necessity. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 7 (2): 82 Western, J.S. & Anderson, D.S. (1968). Education and Professional Socialization. Journal of Sociology, 4: 91-106 Zeichner, K.M. & Tabachnik, B.R. (1981) Are the effects of university teacher education ‘washed out’ by school experience? Journal of Teacher Education, 32, pp. 7–11.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  106. 106. Image Credits Slide Image 1 & 85 School by Jibby! on Flickr 2 Personal photograph 14 ABRSM by Arngaladh on Flickr Discussing where the treasure might be located by Jonne 17 Naarala on Flickr 18 [TEST] Canon SX40 HS by Maurizio Natali on Flickr 23 Close-up Filter by JD Hancock on Flickr 35 Apprentices ... Jan 1978 (a guess) by srv007 on Flickr 37 icicle by dgreichert on Flickr 46 journalist by ivancicas on stockchngTuesday, 11 September 12
  107. 107. Image Credits Slide Image 52 Personal Image 63 mojave desert highway by rappensuncle on iStockPhoto 65 Jays on nest from iStockPhoto 66 Woman Superhero from iStockPhoto 82 Crocodile from Flickr 83 magic wand by digital zoetrope on flickr 89-93 Elevator from iStockPhoto 94 & 103 Fossil on iStockPhoto 95 to the unknown by R-J-Seymour on iStockPhotoTuesday, 11 September 12
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×