Who wants to be a teacher?

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A conference presentation exploring the reasons why physical education teachers start the journey to being teachers. Where have they come from and who has influenced them.

A conference presentation exploring the reasons why physical education teachers start the journey to being teachers. Where have they come from and who has influenced them.

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  • 1. The potential impact of school-led Teacher Training on physical educationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 2. Dr Ashley Casey & PESP GroupTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 3. In his 2011 letter to theTeacher Development Agencythe Secretary of State forEducation stated hisexpectation that there wouldbe a greater emphasis onschool-led teacher training(DfE, 2011).Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 4. This policy statement hassignificant ramifications forthe development andenhancement of schoolphysical education praxis andpedagogy.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 5. This presentation argues thatthis policy shift has takenlittle or no account of pre-service teachers (PSTs)existing beliefs about whatteaching ‘is’ and ‘does’ nor oftheir motivations (what Lortie(1975) called their“subjective warrant”) are forbecoming teachers.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 6. Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 7. occupational socialisationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 8. occupational socialisation Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 9. occupational Students experienced socialisation Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 10. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 11. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Near Equality of status Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 12. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Near Equality of status Teacher conclusions EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 13. occupational socialisationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 14. Many occupations are licensed by governments after candidates pass certain exams and demonstrate certain competences.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 15. however...Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 16. This is the end point of a long process in which an individual will qualify or disqualify themselves from potential careers. Lortie 1975Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 17. for example, children might check out their dexterity to see if they have surgeon’s hands, or argue with their peers to see if they would become good lawyers. Mauss 1973Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 18. Therefore, those whose goal it is to become a teacher will have constantly tested and retested themselves against what they believe they need to be to be a teacher, and have identified that they match those criteriaTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 19. consequently...Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 20. what people THINK they need to become a teacher becomes theirTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 21. Subjective WarrantTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 22. The subjective warrant “ consists of each person’s perceptions of the requirements for teacher education and for actual teaching in schools ” Lawson (1983a, p6)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 23. The subjective warrant is key in teacher education as it serves as a filter for teacher learning and is therefore a major determinant of future practice. Borko and Putnam (1996)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 24. Lawson (1983) identified two key areas of research The relationship between subjective warrant, recruitment and teacher education.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 25. Relationship between teacher education, school entry, socialization in schools, and longevity in schoolsTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 26. while our wider programme of research seeks to explore the Relationship between teacher education, school entry, socialization in schools, and longevity in schoolsTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 27. The purpose of this presentation is to start to explore The relationship between subjective warrant, recruitment and teacher education.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 28. The purpose of this presentation is to start to explore The relationship between subjective warrant, recruitment and teacher education. with particular emphasis on the perceived risks of making teacher education the responsibility of schoolsTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 29. occupational socialisation Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 30. The factors influencing an individual’s subjective warrant for physical education Personal Factors Situational Factors Societal Factors Dewar and Lawson, 1984,p23Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 31. Personal Factors Significant others, gender, race, ethnicity, self concept and aspirations Dewar and Lawson, 1984,p23Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 32. Situational Factors Socio economic status, academic achievement, primary involvements, and achievements in physical education and interscholastic and agency sponsored sport. Dewar and Lawson, 1984,p23Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 33. Situational Factors Secondary involvements and achievements in physical education and interscholastic and agency sponsored sport. Other related work experience. Dewar and Lawson, 1984,p23Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 34. Societal Factors Cultural stereotypes for physical education and sport impact on the professional recruitment processes through perceptions of: 1) Status and economic rewards of the physical education profession 2) Working conditions (job security, hours of working, vacations) of the profession. 3) Requirements for entering the profession. Dewar and Lawson, 1984,p23Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 35. This study used Occupational Socialisation as its theoretical framework to examine the subject warrant of ‘apprentice’ teachers of Physical EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 36. Lawson (1983) identified three phases of occupational socialisation.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 37. the anticipatory/ acculturation phase is the period from birth to entry into teacher education in which the subjective warrant is formed.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 38. The acculturation/ anticipatory phase has a powerful impact on recruits moving into the field well before beginning their PETE programme. Hutchinson (1993)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 39. It is responsible for the development of the pre- service teachers beliefs about teaching physical education Dewar and Lawson (1984), Doolittle, Dodds and Placek (1993)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 40. professional socialisation “ is the process whereby the recruit comes to learn about and internalise the culture of the profession he or she has elected to enter. ” Western and Anderson, (1968, p96)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 41. The organisational phase is significantly influenced by wash out Zeichner and Tabachnick (1981)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 42. In other words The influence of the organisation can be reality shock for the newly qualified teacher which can, in turn, lead to the adoption of a pedagogy of necessity Tinning (1988)Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 43. which often replicate the practices of their teachers and their teachers-teachers and so on...Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 44. While Lawson (1983) identified three phases of occupational socialisation we are predominantly interested in the first stage of anticipation/acculturationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 45. To this end we opted to interview our 1st year students on their very first afternoon in the university in an effort to ascertain their existing knowledge and beliefs about physical education before they were influenced by us.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 46. After ethical approval had been obtained from the university, and after students had agreed and accented to be involved in the study, they were interviewed one-to- one by a researcher from the departmentTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 47. These were semi- structured interviews which lasted between 15 to 25 minutes. In total 102 students across two cohorts were interviewed,which constituted of 100% of our studentsTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 48. A thematic analysis was undertaken using NVivo9 and this paper is the first articulation of the findings.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 49. occupational Students experienced socialisation Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 50. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 51. Comparable to Curtner- Smith (2001) most students were supported in their early physical development by their parents either as ‘active’ role models and/or as ‘taxi’ drivers.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 52. “ my mum’s a PE teacher...and I proper look up to my mum.”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 53. “ my parents have always said that they’d think I’ do something in P.E., so they’ve always pushed me in the direction what I wanted to be in...”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 54. “ It was more my dad that really pushed me into as many sports as I could try out for, as many sports as he could teach me himself ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 55. “ my mum’s my biggest influence from home I think and obviously because she’s got school experience, she’s taught for many years, she can impart her knowledge on me so she will ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 56. In many ways the influence of parents was important in terms of those early experiences but it didn’t appear to be a defining influence as a number of students didn’t mention their parents in their interview.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 57. For most students who had supportive and facilitatory parents, this early engagement in physical activity was enhanced through their school experiences.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 58. For others, school physical education was where they first identified the supportive environment they needed to develop and shine.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 59. “ The main influence on me has been my physical education teachers at secondary school that took me through year 10 and then my A’Levels. They have been my main influences. They’ve helped me throughout the way they told me I can do it, I can get it right. ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 60. “ [names three teachers]...them three were like really big idols to look up to and just like inspired sort of thing and just like I wanted to be like them...”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 61. “ Definitely my PE teachers at school. I’ve always looked to them, like role models. Always thought that it looked really exciting, like I want to do it too... ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 62. “ and I just look up to them because they just inspire me, like the things they do for the school, the things they do for PE, the passion they’ve got for the sport. It’s just like I want to be like that.”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 63. Without these reported enhancements and the ‘extra mile’ that these teachers were prepared travel then these students may not have moved beyond the specialisms of their parents or primary schools.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 64. One is left to wonder what might happen when this, predominantly secondary school experience, becomes the only enhancement they get. With the promise of solely one year PETE programmes do we need to reconceptualise our other undergraduate provision?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 65. It is also worth considering the impact that any practitioner can have on a fledgling teacher.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 66. such powerful role models do not necessarily equate to good quality learning for these apprentice teachers and could just as easily lead to the reinforcement of poor and/or ineffective practices (Pedder et al, 2010).Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 67. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Near Equality of status Teacher EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 68. Many students reported that they got on well with their PE teachers.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 69. Leading us to query if they had been implicitly recruited into “the inner sanctum of the physically able” in the school (Brown 1997).Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 70. Indeed, so close was the reported friendship between with some students and their teachers, that it appears that as aspiring PE teachers they began to occupy a position of near equality with their own teachers. Brown and Evans (2004).Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 71. When asked about major influences one student replied“ definitely my A’level teachers. I used to work down the department as a sports technician, so I used to see them quite often and just happy, bubbly, exciting, you could always approach them for anything”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 72. He went on to suggested that“ I’ve always just wanted to be just like them. So like from from year 7 I went to after school basketball club and I was the only one to turn up and ever since then I’ve just lived down there [the PE department] basically”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 73. A young woman suggest that the support of her teacher extended beyond her time at the school“ ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 74. Another young woman ed that the support of her teacher would extended beyond her time at the school“ ...and she’s even said now [on the first day of PETE], like if I need any of her help then I can still email her and she’ll still help me or I could just go into school and see her... ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 75. another student indicated that“ I live in quite a strong sporting environment anyway, like at home and at school so I think just influences from that and being part of, an important part of the PE department at school as well.. ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 76. she went on to explore her place within the department“ [I] took quite a lead role when I got to my older years so I think that’s imparted on me wanting to pursue that kind of career. ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 77. In turn this privileged position within the department seemed to reinforce some traditional expectations around what it meant to be a physical education teacher (Curtner- Smith, 2001) and also what PE should do and be.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 78. “ I feel I’d be a teacher where students can come and talk to you and can on like that friendly basis, if that makes sense. And a passionate teacher, if you’re not a passionate teacher then your students aren’t going to be passionate either - and a role model to the students as a teacher. ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 79. “ I think PE helps to link it all together and also it expels all your energy so kids go outside, let it all out and come back in and they can move on to their next lesson, nice and fresh again ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 80. when asked what sort of PE teacher she wanted to be one student suggested she would be all about“ ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 81. when asked what sort of PE teacher she wanted to be one student suggested she would be all about“ getting kids interested in sport, making them active so they’re not just all sitting around playing computer games all the time, so they’re actually out, it builds friendships and stuff, makes you have friends and develops your communication skills so people friendly I guess. ”Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 82. Listening to these students it is easy to see physical education replicating itself from generation to generation. With little or no need to evolve.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 83. And how the urban myths and fairytales of sport and physical education perpetuate themselves from generation to generationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 84. Given these strong student biographies of PE what are our chances as a PETE faculty of positively influencing the subjective warrants of our students and influencing their expectation about PE?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 85. Of more importance however, how are these traditionally views of physical education going to evolve if teacher education is reduced to a year and situated predominantly in schools?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 86. occupational Students experienced socialisation Positive Role Models Near Equality of status Teacher conclusions EducationTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 87. Given these findings and given what research states about the difficulties that four-year university-based programmes have in influencing PST anticipatory beliefs (Lawson 1983) its seems quite likely that work- place training is only going to reinforce current pedagogical practices and support inter- generational reproduction (Brown & Evans) in PE.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 88. If that is the case then what impact might this policy have on the future of physical education in the UK? A question made more poignant given the call for radical reform (Locke, 1992) and warnings of possible extinction (Kirk, 2010).Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 89. So what choices do we have?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 90. More of the same Kirk 2010Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 91. More of the same Extinction Kirk 2010Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 92. More of the sameTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 93. ExtinctionTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 94. Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 95. so we’re left with one doorTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 96. Radical ReformTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 97. Where does radical reform take us?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 98. How do we change the near universal subjective warrant?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 99. Recruit differentlyTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 100. Change our focus from secondary to primaryTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 101. Look to our undergraduate programmes as platforms for change?Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 102. We need to decide soon...Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 103. Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 104. References Borko, H., & Putnam, R. (1996). Learning to teach. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (673–708). New York: Macmillan. Brown, D. (1999) Complicity and reproduction in teaching physical education, Sport Education and Society, 4, 143– 159. Brown, D. & Evans (2004). Reproducing Gender? Intergenerational Links and the Male PE Teacher as a Cultural Conduit in Teaching Physical Education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 23, 48-70. Curtner-Smith, M.D. (2001). The Occupational Socialization of a First-Year Physical Education Teacher with a Teaching Orientation. Sport Education and Society. 6 (1): 81-105 Dewar A. & Lawson, H.A. (1984) The subjective warrant and recruitment into physical education, Quest, 36: 15–25. Doolittle, S.A., Dodds, P. & Placek, J.H. (1993) Persistence of beliefs about teaching during formal training of preservice teachers, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 12: 355–365. Hutchinson, G.E. (1993) Prospective teachers’ perspectives on teaching physical education: an interview study on the recruitment phase of teacher socialization. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 12: 344–354.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 105. References Kirk, D. (2010). Physical Education Futures. Routledge: London. Lawson, H.A. (1983) Toward a model of teacher socialization in physical education: the subjective warrant, recruitment, and teacher education (part 1), Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 2, pp. 3–16. Locke, L.F. (1992) Changing secondary school physical education, Quest, 44, pp. 361–372. LOCKE, L.F. (1992) Changing secondary school physical education, Quest, 44, pp. 361–372. Lortie, D.C. (1975) Schoolteacher: a sociological study. Chicago: The Chicago University Press. Mauss, M. (1973). Techniques of the body. Economy and Society, 2(1): 70-88. Pedder, D., Opfer, V. D., Mccormick, R. & Storey, A. (2010) Schools and Continuing Professional Development in England - State of the Nation research study: policy context, aims and design, Curriculum Journal, 21, 365-394. Tinning, R.I. (1988). Student Teaching and the Pedagogy of Necessity. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 7 (2): 82 Western, J.S. & Anderson, D.S. (1968). Education and Professional Socialization. Journal of Sociology, 4: 91-106 Zeichner, K.M. & Tabachnik, B.R. (1981) Are the effects of university teacher education ‘washed out’ by school experience? Journal of Teacher Education, 32, pp. 7–11.Tuesday, 11 September 12
  • 106. Image Credits Slide Image 1 & 85 School by Jibby! on Flickr 2 Personal photograph 14 ABRSM by Arngaladh on Flickr Discussing where the treasure might be located by Jonne 17 Naarala on Flickr 18 [TEST] Canon SX40 HS by Maurizio Natali on Flickr 23 Close-up Filter by JD Hancock on Flickr 35 Apprentices ... Jan 1978 (a guess) by srv007 on Flickr 37 icicle by dgreichert on Flickr 46 journalist by ivancicas on stockchngTuesday, 11 September 12
  • 107. Image Credits Slide Image 52 Personal Image 63 mojave desert highway by rappensuncle on iStockPhoto 65 Jays on nest from iStockPhoto 66 Woman Superhero from iStockPhoto 82 Crocodile from Flickr 83 magic wand by digital zoetrope on flickr 89-93 Elevator from iStockPhoto 94 & 103 Fossil on iStockPhoto 95 to the unknown by R-J-Seymour on iStockPhotoTuesday, 11 September 12