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Developing a Pedagogy of Technology in Physical Education


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Keynote presented at afPE London - February 14th 2014

Published in: Education

Developing a Pedagogy of Technology in Physical Education

  1. 1. Living Beyond the material world: Isn’t it time to develop a pedagogy of technology for physical education?
  2. 2. Dr Ashley Casey
  3. 3. “ the possibilities are endless; what is needed is imagination “” Fernández-Balboa, 2003
  4. 4. In considering the journey toward technological integration in Physical Education are we missing a vital step ?
  5. 5. Are we assuming that change is a A B
  6. 6. Are we assuming that change is a journey from A to B? A B
  7. 7. Are we forgetting that change is a often a journey from A to B? A B
  8. 8. Are we trying to start A B
  9. 9. straight at A B
  10. 10. and forgetting where we are now? A B
  11. 11. A B at the imagining?
  12. 12. “ If I don’t practice for a day, I know it. If I don’t practice for two days, the critics know it. And if I don’t practice for three days, the public knows it. “” Louis Armstrong
  13. 13. “ I'm not out there sweating for three hours every day just to find out what it feels like to sweat. “” Michael Jordan
  14. 14. “ The fight is won or lost far away from witnesses - behind the lines, in the gym, and out there on the road, long before I dance under those lights. “” Mohammad Ali
  15. 15. Basketball
  16. 16. “ 10,000 hours. That is the difference between success and non-success, genius and mediocrity ” Gladwell 2008
  17. 17. So why when we get one of these ...
  18. 18. Do we expect to take it straight into our classrooms?
  19. 19. How many hours have we practice with it?
  20. 20. Are we putting the horse before the cart?
  21. 21. Are we putting the horse before the cart? Are we doing things in the wrong order?
  22. 22. Shouldn’t we decide what to do here?
  23. 23. before buying this...?
  24. 24. or at least bringing it in here?
  25. 25. In other words...
  26. 26. ...are we putting the technology before the pedagogy?
  27. 27. Pedagogy 1 Text
  28. 28. Pedagogy 1 Text 2 Technology
  29. 29. Pedagogy Pedagogy of technology 1 3 Text 2 Technology
  30. 30. Pedagogy Pedagogy of technology 1 3 Text 2 4 Technology “Material World”
  31. 31. Pedagogy 1 Text
  32. 32. What is pedagogy?
  33. 33. What is pedagogy? hard “g”
  34. 34. What is pedagogy? soft “g”
  35. 35. “ pedagogy is under-defined, often referring to no more than a teaching style, a matter of personality and temperament, the mechanics of securing classroom control to encourage learning, “” Lusted, 1986
  36. 36. “ Yet pedagogy means different things in different langauages “” Tinning 2011
  37. 37. “ the roots of the term come from the ancient greek work Pedagogue “” Tinning 2011
  38. 38. “ a man having the oversight of a child or a youth, an attendant who led the boy from home to school, a man whose occupation is the instruction of children and youths “” Oxford English Dictionary, 1989
  39. 39. Yet the Greeks don’t use the term in this way
  40. 40. In the Czech Republic pedagogy is a negative term connected with the communist notion of the ideal state.
  41. 41. “ In Sweden it is a discipline that extends to the consideration of the development of health and bodily fitness, social and moral welfare, ethics and aesthetics... “” Tinning 2011
  42. 42. With these mixed meanings it is important to understand how I am interpreting the term pedagogy.
  43. 43. It appears that the word only really entered the mainstream vocabulary of education in the last decade
  44. 44. “ pedagogy [was originally] equated with teaching and instruction and didactics “” Tinning, 2011
  45. 45. “ [more recently] another term often used in conjunction with pedagogy is curriculum “” Tinning, 2011
  46. 46. These ideas move beyond ““” Pedagogy as the science of teaching Tinning 2011
  47. 47. Drawing on the European word ‘didactique’ “ The irreducible three way relationship linking teacher, students and a piece of knowledge to be taught and learned “” Amade-Escot 2006
  48. 48. “ The notion of pedagogy that we are working with here can be defined by its three key elements of learning, teaching and curriculum “” Kirk, Macdonald and O’Sullivan 2006
  49. 49. Teaching
  50. 50. Curriculum
  51. 51. Learning
  52. 52. Pedagogy
  53. 53. It becomes the place where teaching, learning and curriculum meet.
  54. 54. “ Pedagogy is the most profound relationship that an adult can have with a child “” Van Manen 1980
  55. 55. It is where we decide what we want to achieve here
  56. 56. By thinking about what ‘she’ needs
  57. 57. within a wider curriculum context
  58. 58. before we buy this
  59. 59. or at least use it here
  60. 60. Pedagogy 1 Text 2 Technology
  61. 61. “ Technology in education is commonly defined as a technical device or tool used to enhance instruction. “” Okojle, Ollnzock and Okejle-Boulder, 2006
  62. 62. Technology
  63. 63. Hardware Technology
  64. 64. Hardware Software Technology
  65. 65. Hardware Software Technology Fixed
  66. 66. Hardware Software Technology Fixed Portable
  67. 67. Hardware Software Technology Social Media Fixed Portable
  68. 68. Hardware Internet Software Technology Social Media Fixed Portable
  69. 69. ??? ??? ??? Technology ??? ??? ???
  70. 70. “ It is difficult to imagine schools without technology “” Baert, 2012
  71. 71. “ We are currently preparing students for jobs that don’t yet exist, using technologies that haven’t yet been invented in order to solve problems that we haven’t identified as problems yet “” Richard Riley
  72. 72. yet
  73. 73. “ the fact that the massive investment in technology has had such limited impact on enhancing student learning is worrying “” Tearle and Golder, 2008
  74. 74. But who ‘lives’ in our schools ?
  75. 75. Digital Natives Palfrey and Gasser 2008
  76. 76. “ Born digital...they all have access to networked digital technologies. And they all have the skills to use those technologies. “” Palfrey and Gasser 2008
  77. 77. Digital Settlers Palfrey and Gasser 2008
  78. 78. “ although not native to the digital environment...often quite sophisticated in their use of these technologies but they also rely on traditional analog interactions “” Palfrey and Gasser 2008
  79. 79. Digital Immigrants Palfrey and Gasser 2008
  80. 80. “ learnt how to email and use social networks late in life “” Palfrey and Gasser 2008
  81. 81. These are the people contesting the technological environment
  82. 82. yet
  83. 83. “ Fullan (2013) argues that the digital lives of children are haphazard and occur either outside of the classroom (in the free spaces around school) or more significantly beyond the school gates but not in lessons. “” Casey, 2014
  84. 84. But why?
  85. 85. “ With the integration of technology into the daily lives of students, there is a concern of how well teachers are prepared to teach with technology “” Hasselbring et al, 2000
  86. 86. for many of the adults in schools and universities
  87. 87. “ technology is still an imposed and novel ‘outsider’ in the pedagogy of schools “” Watson, 2001
  88. 88. “ While technologies have been found useful within education, studies indicate that teachers do not feel prepared to use technology in their instruction “” McGovern, 2003
  89. 89. It seems essential that
  90. 90. “ [teachers] grasp this technological reality and use it both in and beyond the classroom. “” McNeill andFry, 2012
  91. 91. What is said about Technology in PE?
  92. 92. “ Although discipline-specific technology has been developed, generally, technology inclusion has not become commonplace in physical education “” Gibbone, Rukavina and Silverman, 2010
  93. 93. “ in the UK, the Government’s inspectorate, the Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED), recently concluded that few schools routinely use Information Communication Technology (ICT) in PE “” OfSTED, 2012
  94. 94. “ Furthermore, they suggested that of those schools who do use ICT less than 1 in 10 use it purposefully to engender student interest or to support learning. “” OfSTED, 2012
  95. 95. “ ... best ICT practice in physical education [was found to be] the use of interactive whiteboards, still images, digital cameras and video analysis. “” OfSTED, 2012
  96. 96. “ The majority of tools currently used are those related to traditional computer technologies “” Baert, 2012
  97. 97. “ the commonest use of ICT was to monitor, assess, record and report on pupils. “” Casey and Jones, 2011
  98. 98. “ OfSTED reported that less than 10% of the lessons observed used ICT to stimulate learning and engagement, and that few schools routinely used ICT in physical education. “” OfSTED, 2009
  99. 99. “ the most widely used piece of ICT equipment was a compact disc player “” Thomas and Stratton, 2006
  100. 100. “ computer technologies, pedometers and heart rate monitors were tools most often integrated “” Baert, 2012
  101. 101. “ The disparity between innovation and the current use of technology in physical education is stark. “” Casey and Jones, 2011
  102. 102. “ technology [is] in danger of becoming a box ticking exercise in which teachers argue that they “do that” rather than it being an aid to learning. “” Hastie, Casey and Tarter, 2010
  103. 103. “ it is deeply worrying that the massive investment in technology has had such limited impact on enhancing student learning “” Tearle and Golder, 2008
  104. 104. Pedagogy Pedagogy of technology 1 3 Text 2 Technology
  105. 105. “ The speed at which such tools are introduced into society makes one wonder about how technology is integrated within education in a way that it preserves the quality of effective instruction “” Baert, 2012
  106. 106. “ Successive Governments have recognised the importance of ITC in schools [yet] these technologies are only entering schools very slowly. “” Akkoyunlu, 2002
  107. 107. This is despite the fact that
  108. 108. “ ICT is often perceived as a catalyst for change, change in teaching style, change in learning approaches, and change in access to information. “” Watson, 2001
  109. 109. Yet
  110. 110. “ Using technology to enhance the educational process involves more than just learning how to use specific pieces of hardware and software. It requires an understanding of pedagogical principles that are specific to the use of technology in an instructional settings “” Diaz and Bontembal, 2000
  111. 111. “ in order to use educational technologies effectively, teachers should be trained in the use of technologies and their integration into the teaching/learning process. “” Akkoyunlu, 2002
  112. 112. “ lack of training, personal comfort levels, availability of equipment and time “” Martin, 2003
  113. 113. “ educators either teach themselves how to use technology or learn it from others “” Baert, 2012
  114. 114. The key is not to isolate technology from the pedagogical processes that it is intended to support
  115. 115. “ Technology integration is complex and is made up of processes of interconnected activities. “” Okojle et al, 2006
  116. 116. “ educational technology might include media, models, projected and non-projected visual, as well as audio, video and digital media. “” Lever-Duffy, McDonald and Mizell, 2005
  117. 117. “ teachers should connect instructional technology with the learning objectives, methods of instruction, learning style and pace of learning, assessment and evaluation strategies, including follow-up procedures. “” Okojle et al, 2006
  118. 118. “ [teachers] did not resist technology per se but agreed that they could not fully integrate it into their own practices because of the organisational, administrative, pedagogical, or personal constraints “” Leh, 2005
  119. 119. “ Infusing technology into a curriculum is less likely to make an impact on students’ learning if technology is not considered as a component of instruction. “” Okojle et al, 2006
  120. 120. “ The teacher should be able to assess the appropriateness of any technology used for teaching and learning in relation to specific instruction. “” Okojle et al, 2006
  121. 121. “ When you go to the hardware store to buy a drill, you don’t actually want a drill, you want a hole, they don’t sell holes at the hardware store, but they do sell drills, which are the technology used to make holes… “” Fletcher, 2006
  122. 122. “ …We must not lose sight that technology for the most part is a tool and it should be used in applications which address educational concerns. “” Fletcher, 2006
  123. 123. “ Technology in education is not a mere object to be introduced into teaching and learning activities at will without considering basic principles of learning and sound teaching methodology. “” Okojle, Ollnzock and Okejle-Boulder, 2006
  124. 124. What pedagogical principles guide the use of technology for teaching and learning within the curriculum?
  125. 125. Pedagogy
  126. 126. we know how to teach people to film each other...
  127. 127. ...but have we worked out how to teach them about what to film, what to look for, how to give feedback that helps them and the person/people they filmed to learn and develop?
  128. 128. In his work…
  129. 129. Bozkurt suggested that there were four fundamental dimensions of technological integration
  130. 130. Technical Knowledge
  131. 131. Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities
  132. 132. Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities Knowing the Limitations
  133. 133. Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities Knowing the Pedagogy of Limitations Technology
  134. 134. Technical Knowledge
  135. 135. “ Teachers need to understand the technical details of the technology and know how to use it effectively. “” Bozkurt, 2011
  136. 136. “ In addition, teachers need to know how to solve lower level technical problems that can occur in relation to that technology. “” Bozkurt, 2011
  137. 137. “ A teacher also needs to have a basic understanding of the language and terms (even in a foreign language) used in the application. “” Bozkurt, 2011
  138. 138. Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities
  139. 139. “ One of the basic reasons for using technology is to eliminate the hard-to-overcome procedures with the help of technological facilities. “” Bozkurt, 2011
  140. 140. In the past feedback was instantaneous. The teacher watched the performance and gave verbal or even written feedback
  141. 141. The only record of this was the student’s memory
  142. 142. Yet with apps like “Coaches Eye” or “Ubersense” this feedback is both instantaneous and ‘saveable’ so students can revisit it as many times as they want
  143. 143. Technical Awareness of Knowledge Knowing the Limitations
  144. 144. “ It is as important to be aware of the limitations of technology as is knowing the opportunities it presents “” Bozkurt, 2011
  145. 145. Using video analysis technology is limited by the number of computers or tablets you have. Any ratio less than one per student means that either someone is doing nothing or they are doing something else.
  146. 146. That is not to suggest that you shouldn’t use video analysis...
  147. 147. just that you do need to know how to compensate for these limitation
  148. 148. Technical Awareness of Knowledge Knowing the Pedagogy of Limitations Technology
  149. 149. “ This is necessary for the appropriate use of technology for particular student groups. “” Bozkurt, 2011
  150. 150. Like pedagogy itself it is not a ‘one size fits all’
  151. 151. “ For example, a teacher can assess his or her students’ performance using electronic portfolios “” Bozkurt, 2011
  152. 152. “ However, to achieve this, the teacher needs to know how to use the technology to support rather than replace the teaching. “” Bozkurt, 2011
  153. 153. “ In addition, the teacher should be able to determine which technology is appropriate to use by considering the level of the student group he or she is teaching “” Bozkurt, 2011
  154. 154. Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities Knowing the Pedagogy of Limitations Technology
  155. 155. If we return to our hardware example...
  156. 156. Where we wanted a hole but had to buy a drill...
  157. 157. The teacher should find out what they want to achieve...
  158. 158. and then find the appropriate technology
  159. 159. we put the pedagogy before the technology
  160. 160. Rather than buying a Birmingham Screwdriver
  161. 161. Rather than buying a Birmingham Screwdriver Industrial slang for a hammer. A multipurpose tool for fixing problems
  162. 162. Rather than buying a Birmingham Screwdriver “whack it with that Birmingham driver and see it it works”
  163. 163. Pedagogy Pedagogy of technology 1 3 Text 2 4 Technology “Material World”
  164. 164. “ [we need to consider that] at even broader societal levels, technological literacy has become a somewhat unquestioned component of long-term personal and professional success “” Cleary, Pierce,and Trauth, 2006
  165. 165. “ 2014, it is estimated that 90% of all people in the United States will be online with dramatically faster, high-speed networks “” Greenhow, Robelia, and Hughes, 2009
  166. 166. “ Ninety percent of school-age youth use the Internet, with adolescents ages 12 to 17 representing the largest and fastest-growing group of users “” Greenhow,et al, 2009
  167. 167. “ Recent national surveys (in the USA) report that the majority of teenagers go online daily or several times a day, mostly from home “” Greenhow,et al, 2009
  168. 168. However, let’s look at this from a different perspective
  169. 169. 2014, it is estimated that 10% of all people in the United States will not be online
  170. 170. 2014, it is estimated that 10% of all people in the United States will not be online If the USA has a population of 316 million that means that 31.6 Million are not online
  171. 171. Ten percent of school-age youth can’t use the Internet
  172. 172. A minority of teenagers rarely go online and never from home
  173. 173. The digital divide
  174. 174. “ We must look at the stark reality that there is a continuing achievement gap between the rich and the poor, and between whites and minority students, ... and it will only get bigger if we do not close the digital divide as well. “” Richard Riley
  175. 175. “ inequalities across schools can involve differences in physical access to ICTs, such as computers and the internet. “” Wood and Howley, 2012
  176. 176. “ ...and teachers simply having the confidence that activities designed around the World Wide Web would not be foiled by an unreliable internet connection. “” Wood and Howley, 2012
  177. 177. This is another debate but...
  178. 178. When considering ICT use in Physical education it is vital that we not only consider the dimensions of technological integration
  179. 179. Technical Awareness of Knowledge Opportunities Knowing the Pedagogy of Limitations Technology
  180. 180. i.e. we identify the hole here
  181. 181. and then use the correct tools
  182. 182. we also need to consider
  183. 183. we also need to consider How all children access this technology
  184. 184. thanks for listening
  185. 185. I can be found on twitter @DrAshCasey
  186. 186. I write a weekly blog at
  187. 187. I publish a weekly podcast at
  188. 188. Where I talk about physical education research
  189. 189. Image References Slide 1 - apple wireless keyboard and magic mouse by duckycards on iStock Slide 12 -[Portrait of Louis Armstrong, Carnegie Hall, New York, N.Y., ca. Apr. 1947] (LOC) on Flickr Slide 13 - Michael Jordan from Nike Slide 14 - zoom_Greenlight_MuhammadAli_1 Slide 15 - trumpet by rachelb56 on flickr Slide 16 - basketball by Curtis M. Kularski on flickr Slide 17 - boxing glove by kaybee07 on flickr Slide 18 - time by songallery on Flickr Slide 19 - iStockphoto editorial Slide 20 - iStockphoto Slide 59 - Happy Birthday by Maria Pavlova on iStockphoto.jpg Slide 60 - Flickr Slide 94 - old fashioned basketball court by ryanmcginnisphoto on flickr.jpg Slide 186 - Little boy & family with digital tablet from iStock