Blood 2010


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Blood 2010

  1. 1. Blood
  2. 2. Homeostasis <ul><li>Dependent on continual transport to and from the cells. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Composition <ul><li>Plasma: 55% of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Blood cells ( formed elements): 45% of blood </li></ul>
  4. 6. Formed Elements <ul><li>Measurement of cells: </li></ul><ul><li>Hematocrit (packed cell volume). </li></ul><ul><li>Normal in males: 45% </li></ul><ul><li>Normal for females: 42%. </li></ul><ul><li>Polycythemia: </li></ul>
  5. 7. Blood Volume <ul><li>4-5 liters in females </li></ul><ul><li>5-6 liters in males </li></ul><ul><li>1 unit = 0.5 l </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of blood is dependent upon the body weight/ composition. Inversely related to the amount of fat per kilogram. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Determination of Blood Volume <ul><li>Direct method: removal of all blood in experimental conditions with animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect method: Injection of a known amount of RBC tagged with radioisotopes. </li></ul>
  7. 10. Red Blood Cells or Erythrocytes(RBC) <ul><li>Shaped as biconcave disks. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus is absent. </li></ul><ul><li>7.5 micrometer in diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with hemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>Thin plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>5,500,000/mm3 in males </li></ul><ul><li>4,800,000mm3 in females </li></ul>
  8. 11. Nucleated red cell
  9. 12. Function of RBC <ul><li>Transport oxygen O2 and carbon dioxide CO2. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Hemoglobin (HB) <ul><li>About 200 to 300 million molecules of HB in every red cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Each molecule of HB carries 4 oxygen O2 molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal values: </li></ul><ul><li>Females: 12 to 14 g/100ml blood </li></ul><ul><li>Males: 14 to 16 g/100 ml blood </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia: less than 10 g/100 ml of blood </li></ul>
  11. 14. Erythropoiesis <ul><li>Hematopoietic adult stem cells called hemocytoblasts go through stages of maturation to form erythrocytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus for RBC formation is erythropoietin, produced continually by the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus for increased RBC formation is low oxygen levels in the kidney. </li></ul><ul><li>Erythropoietin stimulates the hemocytoblasts to produce more RBC. </li></ul>
  12. 17. Erythrolysis: Destruction of RBC <ul><li>1- RBC last about 120 days </li></ul><ul><li>2- Old cells are phagocyte by the spleen and the liver through macrophages. </li></ul><ul><li>Most components are recycled. </li></ul>
  13. 18. White Blood Cells: Leukocytes (WBC) <ul><li>Granulocytes: Granules in cytoplasm and lobed nuclei. </li></ul><ul><li>1- Neutrophils </li></ul><ul><li>2- Eosinophils </li></ul><ul><li>3- Basophils </li></ul><ul><li>Agranulocytes : no granules in cytoplasm and unlobed nuclei. </li></ul><ul><li>1- Lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>2- Monocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Number of WBC: 5,000 to 9,000/ mm3 </li></ul>
  14. 19. Formation of White Blood Cells <ul><li>Hemopoietic adult stem cells (hemocytoblasts) go through differentiation and then various stages to form each type of WBC. </li></ul><ul><li>Red marrow tissue development for neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils and some lymphocytes and monocytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphoid tissue development for most lymphocytes and monocytes. </li></ul>
  15. 20. WBC Granulocytes <ul><li>1- Neutrophils: 65%-75% of total WBC. They increase in number during acute infections. </li></ul>
  16. 23. Infections
  17. 24. WBC Granulocytes <ul><li>2- Eosinophils: 2%-5% of total WBC. Increase in number during allergic reactions and parasitic worm infections. </li></ul>
  18. 27. Dermatitis (allergy by contact)
  19. 28. WBC Granulocytes <ul><li>3- Basophils: 0.5% to 1% of total WBC. They increase in numbers during allergic reactions and inflammatory process. </li></ul>
  20. 31. Feline Allergy
  21. 32. WBC Agranulocytes <ul><li>Lymphocytes: 20%-25% of total WBC. </li></ul><ul><li>T Lymphocytes or T Cells are Thymus tagged lymphocytes. </li></ul><ul><li>B Lymphocytes or B Cells are bursal lymphocytes. </li></ul>
  22. 35. WBC Agranulocytes <ul><li>Monocytes: 3%-8% of total WBC. Become macrophages in tissues. </li></ul>
  23. 36. Monocytes in Tissues: Macrophages
  24. 38. Platelets: Thrombocytes <ul><li>150,000 to 350,000/mm3 </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 micrometers in diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>They are plasma membrane bound particles of cytoplasm containing clotting factors. </li></ul>
  25. 40. Functions of Platelets <ul><li>1- Hemostasis: stoppage of blood flow. Platelets form a plug by sticking together. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Coagulation: forming of a fibrin clot </li></ul>
  26. 41. Resting and Activated Platelets
  27. 42. Activated Platelets
  28. 44. Formation of Platelets <ul><li>Platelets form from hemopoietic adult stem cells called hemocytoblasts, they become megakaryoblasts, which in turn form membrane bound cytoplasmic fragments.(platelets) </li></ul><ul><li>Average life span of platelets: 7 days </li></ul>
  29. 46. Blood Types (or Groups) <ul><li>Blood type depends on the type of agglutinogens present in the RBCs. </li></ul><ul><li>Agglutination means to stick together </li></ul><ul><li>Agglutinogens are self-antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Agglutinins (antibodies): Plasma antibodies can cause agglutination of RBCs with specific agglutinogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfusion reactions: agglutination or sticking together of agglutinogens and agglutinins of incompatible blood. </li></ul>
  30. 47. ABO System <ul><li>Type A: </li></ul><ul><li>RBCs have agglutinogens A; plasma has agglutinins anti-B </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Landsteiner 1930 Nobel Prize </li></ul>
  31. 49. The Rh System <ul><li>Type Rh Positive: </li></ul><ul><li>RBCs have a protein called Rh on its plasma membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma has no anti-Rh agglutinin </li></ul>
  32. 50. Rh System <ul><li>Rh Negative </li></ul><ul><li>RBCs have no Rh protein on its plasma membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma has no anti Rh agglutinin </li></ul>
  33. 51. Erythroblastosis Fetalis <ul><li>If the mother is Rh negative and has been exposed to Rh positive blood, her blood will have the anti Rh agglutinin in the plasma. </li></ul><ul><li>If the fetus is Rh positive, the mother’s anti Rh agglutinin will pass through the placenta and cause agglutination of RBCs, condition called erythroblastosis fetalis. </li></ul>
  34. 52. Plasma <ul><li>91% Water </li></ul><ul><li>9% Solutes. They are: </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolytes (Na, Cl, K) </li></ul><ul><li>Nonelectrolytes (proteins, nutrients, wastes, gases, hormones, enzymes) </li></ul><ul><li>Important: Serum is the part of plasma that is liquid and all clotting factors were removed. </li></ul>
  35. 53. Coagulation (blood clotting) <ul><li>Blood clots in three stages: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Extrinsic Pathway Stage 1 </li></ul><ul><li>As a reaction to bleeding due to tissue damage the enzyme prothrombinase or prothrombin activator is released. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Intrinsic Pathway Stage 1 </li></ul><ul><li>As a reaction to damaged endothelial cells contacting platelets, the enzyme prothombinase or prothrombin activator is released. </li></ul><ul><li>3- Intrinsic Pathway Stages 2 and 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin. </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombin is an enzyme that converts fibrinogen into fibrin </li></ul>
  36. 54. Clotting Factors (table 17-3)
  37. 58. Coagulation <ul><li>Conditions that oppose clotting in intact vessels: </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth endothelium. </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of antithrombins (heparin) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions that hasten clotting: </li></ul><ul><li>Rough places on endothelium. </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormally slow blood flow. </li></ul>
  38. 60. Fibrinolysis <ul><li>Naturally occurring plasminogen can be activated to form plasmin, which dissolves clots. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria produce clot-dissolving chemicals to enhance their invasion, such as streptokinase and t-Pa, both of which have medical applications. </li></ul>
  39. 61. Blood and the Whole Body <ul><li>Plasma links tissues of the body by transporting material throughout the body to maintain homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>RBCs transport O2 and CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>WBC are important in the body’s defense mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of the blood depend on respiratory, endocrine and urinary system. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood must flow continuously to maintain stability. </li></ul>
  40. 62. Blood Disorders <ul><li>RBCs disorders: </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia: loss of total oxygen carrying capacity by the RBCs due to either a decrease of hemoglobin or a decrease in RBCs. Anemias can be aplastic, pernicious, folate deficiency, acute, chronic, </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Hemoglobin: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperchromic </li></ul><ul><li>Iron deficiency anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hemolytic: sickle cell anemia, thalassemia. </li></ul>
  41. 64. Sickle Cell Anemia
  42. 66. Blood Disorders <ul><li>WBCs disorders: </li></ul><ul><li>Leukopenia: under 5,000 wbc/mm3. AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Leukocytosis: abnormally high WBC count, over 10,000 WBC/mm3. Leukemia CLL, ALL, CML,ACL. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Myeloma </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious Mononucleosis </li></ul>
  43. 67. Blood Disorders <ul><li>Clotting Disorders: </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive clotting : Thrombus and Thrombosis, Embolus and Embolism </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to clot: Hemophilia Thrombocytopenia </li></ul>
  44. 68. Thrombosis
  45. 69. Embolism
  46. 70. Hemophilia
  47. 71. Coronary Thrombosis
  48. 73. Leukemia