Chapter 12 Homeostasis

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  • Figure 12.3 page 242
  • Figure 12.3 page 242
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  • Figure 12.7 (modified) page 246, Figure 12.8 (modified) page 246 and Figure 12.9 page 248
  • Figure 12.7 (modified) page 246
  • Figure 12.9 page 248
  • Figure 12.8 (modified) page 246
  • Figure 12.7 (modified) page 246
  • Figure 12.7 page 246, Figure 12.8 page 246 and Figure 12.10 page 249
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  • Figure 12.8 page 246
  • Figure 12.7 page 246
  • Concept Map page 251
  • Concept Map page 251
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  • Concept Map page 251
  • Chapter 12 Homeostasis

    1. 1. Chapter 12 Homeostasis
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Define homeostasis as the maintenance of a constant internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the basic principles of homeostasis in terms of stimulus resulting from a change in the internal environment, a corrective mechanism and a negative feedback </li></ul>
    3. 3. Objectives continue… <ul><li>Identify on a diagram of the skin: hairs, sweat glands, temperature receptors, blood vessels and fatty tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the maintenance of a constant body temperature in humans in terms of insulation and the role of: temperature receptors in the skin, sweating, shivering, blood vessels near the skin surface and the co-ordinating role of the brain </li></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Textbook Pg 239 </li></ul><ul><li>How does animals such as penguins keep their body temperature at 38 ° C when their surrounding temperature could be as low as -20 ° C? </li></ul>
    5. 5. The need of Homeostasis <ul><li>Conditions outside our body are changing all the time. </li></ul><ul><li>But conditions within our body must be kept constant e.g pH and body temperature. Why? </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Why does body temperature have to be kept constant? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that enzymes do not get inactivated or denatured since enzymes only work within a a certain temperature range </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why must tissue fluid be kept at a constant pH and water potential? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in pH affects enzyme reactions in the cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in water potential affects the cells (cells can be crenated or burst) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. What is homeostasis? <ul><li>Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment [body fluids (tissue fluid & blood)] </li></ul><ul><li>Once the internal environment is stable, it allows an organism to be independent from changes in the external environment </li></ul>
    8. 8. Homeostasis involves Negative Feedback <ul><li>Homeostatic control involves a principle called negative feedback </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. water potential of blood increases above normal (norm), it is detected by a receptor (detector). Your body respond by returning the water potential back to the normal condition. If water potential goes too low, the body responds and the water potential rises to normal again </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>That is, the body always reacts to bring about an opposite effect to changes </li></ul><ul><li>If the system is disturbed, the disturbance sets in motion a sequence of events that tends to restore the system to its original state  Negative feedback process </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of other examples where the body uses the principle of negative feedback to regulate changes? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Occurrence of homeostatic control <ul><li>There must be : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A stimulus which is a change in the internal environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A receptor which can detect the stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An automatic or self-regulatory corrective mechanism, which brings about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A negative feedback to the stimulus </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Fig. 12.2
    12. 12. Examples of Homeostasis in Man <ul><li>Regulation of blood glucose concentration (will be covered again) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of blood water potential (covered in Excretion) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature Regulation (will study in details) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Chapter 12 Homeostasis What Happens When Glucose Concentration Rises? January 11, 2010
    14. 14. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Rises? Stimulus Blood glucose concentration rises above normal levels January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    15. 15. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Rises? Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated pancreas Stimulus Blood glucose concentration rises above normal levels January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    16. 16. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Rises? Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more insulin, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles pancreas liver Stimulus Blood glucose concentration rises above normal levels January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    17. 17. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Rises? Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Permeability of cell surface membrane to glucose increases Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more insulin, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles pancreas liver Stimulus Blood glucose concentration rises above normal levels January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    18. 18. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Rises? Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Permeability of cell surface membrane to glucose increases Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more insulin, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Liver and muscles convert excess glucose to glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscles pancreas excess glucose  glycogen liver Stimulus Blood glucose concentration rises above normal levels January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    19. 19. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Rises? Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Permeability of cell surface membrane to glucose increases Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more insulin, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Liver and muscles convert excess glucose to glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscles Blood glucose concentration decreases and insulin production falls pancreas excess glucose  glycogen liver Stimulus Blood glucose concentration rises above normal levels January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    20. 20. <ul><li>Blood glucose concentration returns to normal </li></ul>What Happens When Glucose Concentration Rises? Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Permeability of cell surface membrane to glucose increases Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more insulin, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Liver and muscles convert excess glucose to glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscles Blood glucose concentration decreases and insulin production falls pancreas excess glucose  glycogen liver Stimulus Blood glucose concentration rises above normal levels January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    21. 21. <ul><li>Blood glucose concentration returns to normal </li></ul>What Happens When Glucose Concentration Rises? Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Stimulus Blood glucose concentration rises above normal levels Permeability of cell surface membrane to glucose increases Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more insulin, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Liver and muscles convert excess glucose to glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscles Blood glucose concentration decreases and insulin production falls Negative feedback excess glucose  glycogen pancreas liver January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    22. 22. Chapter 12 Homeostasis What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? January 11, 2010
    23. 23. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels
    24. 24. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels pancreas
    25. 25. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels pancreas liver Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more glucagon, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated
    26. 26. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Glucagon converts stored glycogen back to glucose. From liver, glucose enters bloodstream Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels pancreas liver glycogen  glucose Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more glucagon, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated
    27. 27. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Glucagon converts stored glycogen back to glucose. From liver, glucose enters bloodstream Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels pancreas liver glycogen  glucose Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more glucagon, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Blood glucose concentration rises and glucagon production decreases
    28. 28. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Glucagon converts stored glycogen back to glucose. From liver, glucose enters bloodstream Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels pancreas liver glycogen  glucose Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more glucagon, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Blood glucose concentration rises and glucagon production decreases Blood glucose concentration returns to normal
    29. 29. What Happens When Glucose Concentration Falls? liver Receptor Islets of Langerhans in pancreas stimulated Glucagon converts stored glycogen back to glucose. From liver, glucose enters bloodstream Corrective Mechanism Islets of Langerhans secretes more glucagon, which is transported by blood to liver and muscles Negative feedback Stimulus Blood glucose concentration falls below normal levels Blood glucose concentration returns to normal January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Blood glucose concentration rises and glucagon production decreases glycogen  glucose pancreas
    30. 30. The Mammalian Skin <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective covering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excretory organ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulator of body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Any change in the temperature of the surroundings can be detected by the skin </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Figure 12.4 A section of the human skin </li></ul>
    32. 32. Functions of the different parts of skin <ul><li>Blood vessels – to bring oxygen to the cells in the skin. The arterioles can dilate or constrict to regulate the amount of blood flowing through the skin. This helps to regulate body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>sweat gland – produces sweat which can help to cool down the body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Hair - can help to trap air to insulate the body </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Nerve endings (temperature receptors) – detect changes in temperature of the external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty/adipose tissue – stores fat and serves as an insulating layer, preventing heat loss </li></ul>
    34. 34. Heat Production and Heat Loss <ul><li>Heat is produced in the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to metabolic activities (e.g. tissue respiration). Esp in liver and muscles whereby lots of heat are produced in these organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra heat in Man is gained by eating hot food, from the sun, warm air, by exercising </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>Heat is lost: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through the skin by convection, radiation and conduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By evaporation of sweat from skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the faeces and urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the exhaled air coming from lungs </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Regulating Body Temperature <ul><li>Hypothalamus in the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monitors and regulates the body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receives information about the heat changes in the external environment from the temperature receptors in the skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors the temperature of blood that passes through it </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Chapter 12 Homeostasis Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day January 11, 2010
    38. 38. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day
    39. 39. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day
    40. 40. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day blood capillaries hair follicle hair arteriole erector muscle
    41. 41. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Arterioles in skin dilate 1 More blood flows to capillaries in skin 2 3 Greater heat loss 4 Shunt vessels constrict Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day arteriole capillaries skin surface
    42. 42. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Sweat glands more active Sweat production increases More latent heat lost as sweat evaporates 6 7 5 Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain sweat duct sweat pore sweat gland
    43. 43. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Hair erector muscles in skin relax 8 Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day erector muscle blood capillaries hair follicle hair arteriole
    44. 44. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Corrective Mechanism Increase in heat loss and decrease in heat production Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day
    45. 45. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Corrective Mechanism Increase in heat loss and decrease in heat production Decreased metabolic rate reduces heat production Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day
    46. 46. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Corrective Mechanism Increase in heat loss and decrease in heat production Blood temperature returns to normal levels Decreased metabolic rate reduces heat production Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day
    47. 47. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures rise Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Corrective Mechanism Increase in heat loss and decrease in heat production Blood temperature returns to normal levels Negative feedback Decreased metabolic rate reduces heat production Regulating Body Temperature - on a Hot Day
    48. 48. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Cold Day Chapter 12 Homeostasis January 11, 2010
    49. 49. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Cold Day January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures fall
    50. 50. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Cold Day January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures fall Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain
    51. 51. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Cold Day January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures fall Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts blood capillaries arteriole hair hair follicle erector muscles
    52. 52. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Cold Day January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures fall Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Less blood flows to capillaries in skin Arterioles in skin constrict Shunt vessels dilate 1 2 3 Less heat loss 4 Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts skin surface capillaries arteriole
    53. 53. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Cold Day January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Sweat glands less active Sweat production decreases Less latent heat lost Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures fall Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts 5 6 7 sweat pore sweat duct sweat gland
    54. 54. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Cold Day Hair erector muscles in skin contract January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures fall Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts 8 erector muscles blood capillaries arteriole hair hair follicle
    55. 55. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Cold Day January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Shivering occurs when insufficient heat is produced Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures fall Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts Corrective Mechanism Decrease in heat loss and increase in heat production
    56. 56. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Cold Day January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures fall Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Corrective Mechanism Decrease in heat loss and increase in heat production Increased metabolic rate increases heat production Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts
    57. 57. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Cold Day January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Blood temperature returns to normal levels Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures fall Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Corrective Mechanism Decrease in heat loss and increase in heat production Increased metabolic rate increases heat production Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts
    58. 58. Regulating Body Temperature - on a Cold Day Corrective Mechanism Decrease in heat loss and increase in heat production Increased metabolic rate increases heat production Blood temperature returns to normal levels Negative feedback January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Stimulus Blood and skin temperatures fall Receptor Temperature receptors detect changes and send nerve impulses to the brain Hypothalamus of brain is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to relevant body parts
    59. 59. <ul><li>What happens when body temperature drops? </li></ul><ul><li>Heat lost by body  activates the temperature receptors in the skin  nerve impulses sent to heat gain centre of the hypothalamus. Following mechanisms take place: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasoconstriction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat glands become less active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic rate increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraction of hair erector muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shivering (if the above reactions are not sufficient) </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. <ul><li>When body temperature begins to rise …. </li></ul><ul><li>Vigorous muscular activities  heat produced  rise in blood temperature  heat loss centre in hypothalamus activated  nerve impulses sent to different body parts  following mechanisms take place : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasodilation  sweat glands increases activity  rapid breathing  metabolic rate slows down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hence body temperature remains constant as extra heat is removed </li></ul>
    61. 62. Chapter 12 Homeostasis Homeostasis (Concept Map) January 11, 2010
    62. 63. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment
    63. 64. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Principles of Homeostasis HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment
    64. 65. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    65. 66. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Receptors Detect the change
    66. 67. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Receptors Detect the change Self-corrective Mechanism To rectify the change
    67. 68. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Receptors Detect the change Self-corrective Mechanism To rectify the change Examples Regulation of blood glucose concentration
    68. 69. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Receptors Detect the change Self-corrective Mechanism To rectify the change Examples Regulation of blood glucose concentration Regulation of blood water potential
    69. 70. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Change in internal environment HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Receptors Detect the change Self-corrective Mechanism To rectify the change Examples Regulation of blood glucose concentration Regulation of blood water potential Regulation of body temperature
    70. 71. January 11, 2010 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Principles of Homeostasis Stimulus Receptors Self-corrective Mechanism Negative Feedback Change in internal environment Detect the change Regulation of blood glucose concentration Examples To rectify the change Regulation of blood water potential Regulation of body temperature The reverse effect of the change HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment
    71. 72. Workbook <ul><li>MCQ </li></ul><ul><li>Q1 – 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Structured Questions </li></ul><ul><li>1, 2, 3 </li></ul>

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