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Blood Physiology 1

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Blood Physiology: General Consideration; Plasma; Cellular Elements of the Blood

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Blood Physiology 1

  1. 1. Blood Physiology Rodolfo T. Rafael, M.D.,CFP http://clinical-updates.blogspot.com [email_address] +639212147558
  2. 2. Blood Physiology <ul><li>General Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular Elements of the Blood </li></ul>
  3. 4. General Consideration <ul><li>unicellular organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nutrition and excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>volume of the extracellular environment greatly exceeds that of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>multicellular organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specialized tissue </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Unicellular Organism
  5. 6. Functions of the Blood <ul><li>homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>respiratory function </li></ul><ul><li>nutritive function </li></ul><ul><li>excretory function </li></ul><ul><li>transport internal secretions </li></ul><ul><li>helps maintain acid-base balance </li></ul><ul><li>maintenance of water and electrolyte imbalance and in regulation of colloid and total osmotic pressure </li></ul><ul><li>immunity to disease and protect the body against bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>regulation of the body temperature </li></ul>
  6. 7. Composition of the Blood <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Formed Elements </li></ul>
  7. 8. Plasma <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Blood sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic salts </li></ul><ul><li>Special Plasma Substances </li></ul><ul><li>Gases </li></ul>
  8. 9. Water <ul><li>91-92% </li></ul>
  9. 10. Plasma Proteins <ul><li>liver </li></ul><ul><li>albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, and prothrombin </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maintenance of water balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imparts a viscosity to the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sources of antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain acid-base balance </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Blood Sugar <ul><li>glucose </li></ul><ul><li>source of energy </li></ul>
  11. 12. Lipids <ul><li>neutral fats, cholesterol, and phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>supply energy or stored as fat </li></ul>
  12. 13. Inorganic Salts <ul><li>Calcium ions and the Sodium ions </li></ul><ul><li>Salt ions (chlorides, bicarbonates, phosphates, sulfates) Electrolytes (sodium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium) </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium ions and phosphates </li></ul><ul><li>Iodides and Iron </li></ul>
  13. 14. Special Plasma Substances <ul><li>hormones </li></ul><ul><li>enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>clotting elements </li></ul><ul><li>antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>urea </li></ul><ul><li>uric acid </li></ul><ul><li>creatinine </li></ul>
  14. 15. Gases <ul><li>oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>nitrogen </li></ul>
  15. 16. Formed Elements <ul><li>Red Cell or Erythrocytes </li></ul><ul><li>WBC or Leucocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Platelets or Thombocytes </li></ul>
  16. 17. Red Blood Cell <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Values </li></ul><ul><li>Red Cell Production </li></ul><ul><li>Red Blood Cell Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Osmotic Fragility </li></ul><ul><li>Function of Erythrocytes </li></ul>
  17. 18. Description <ul><li>biconcave discs, 2µm thick 8 μ m in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>deformable (PGE 1 , PGE 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>carry hemoglobin in circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 liter- 3ml of dissolved O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hemoglobin can transport 70 times this amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 ml of O 2 = 100ml of blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>non- nucleated </li></ul>
  18. 22. Normal Values <ul><li>Men 5-6 x 10 12 /L of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Women 4-5 x 10 12 /L of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Infants 6.5 x 10 12 /L of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120- 150g/L (female) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>140-170g/L (male) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Erythrocyte (Hct) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.38- 0.48 (female) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.40- 0.50 (male) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Red Cell Production <ul><li>yolk sac of the embryo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>few weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>liver, spleen, lymph node </li></ul><ul><ul><li>middle trimester </li></ul></ul><ul><li>bone marrow of skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>later part of pregnancy </li></ul></ul>
  20. 24. Erythropoiesis Hemocytoblast basophil erythroblast polychromatophil erythroblast normoblast reticulocyte erythrocytes
  21. 25. FeedBack Control <ul><li>inhibited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supernormal level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>stimulated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hypoxemia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>controlled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>erythropoetin </li></ul></ul>
  22. 26. Hypoxemia kidney liver REF Globulin Erythropoietin Stem cells Erythrocytes
  23. 27. Red Blood Cell Destruction <ul><li>Life span </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Destruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5M/sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% of red cells/day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical and Chemical stresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>friction </li></ul></ul>
  24. 28. Osmotic Fragility <ul><li>hypertonic solution </li></ul><ul><li>hypotonic solution </li></ul><ul><li>isotonic solution </li></ul><ul><li>Fragility Index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.45-0.38% NaCL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.36- 0.30% NaCl </li></ul></ul>
  25. 29. Primary Function of Erythrocytes <ul><li>transport hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carries oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. White Blood Cell <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Classes of Leucocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Values </li></ul><ul><li>Origin </li></ul><ul><li>Life span </li></ul><ul><li>Function of Leucocytes </li></ul>
  27. 31. Description <ul><li>nucleated </li></ul>
  28. 33. Classes of Leucocytes <ul><li>non-granular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lymphocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>granular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>neutrophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eosinophils </li></ul></ul>
  29. 34. Normal Values <ul><li>WBC 5-10 x 10 9 /L of blood </li></ul><ul><li>basophils 0.005 </li></ul><ul><li>eosinophils 0.02-0.04 </li></ul><ul><li>stabs 0.02 – 0.04 </li></ul><ul><li>segmenters 0.45- 0.65 </li></ul><ul><li>lymphocytes 0.20- 0.35 </li></ul><ul><li>monocytes 0.02- 0.06 </li></ul>
  30. 35. Origin <ul><li>granular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>red bone marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>non- granular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lymphatic tissue (lymph nodes, tonsils, payer’s patches, spleen and thymus) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 36. Life span <ul><li>Granulocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>small ones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100-200 days </li></ul></ul>
  32. 37. Function of Leucocytes <ul><li>Neutrophils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phagocytic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non phagocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immune reactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>antibodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tissue transplant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Monocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phagocytic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>combating chronic infection </li></ul></ul>
  33. 38. Monocytes arrive at the site of infection few organelles form these organelles small granules rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes synthesize enzymes used to digest material ingested by monocytes
  34. 39. Eosinophils <ul><ul><li>phagocytic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allergic reaction </li></ul></ul>Antibody react with antigen inactivate it eosinophil gets rid of inactivated complex
  35. 40. Basophils <ul><ul><li>heparin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phagocytes </li></ul></ul>
  36. 41. Blood Platelets <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Values </li></ul><ul><li>Origin </li></ul><ul><li>Life span </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul>
  37. 42. Description <ul><li>small </li></ul><ul><li>colorless bodies </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 microns in diameter </li></ul>
  38. 43. Normal Values <ul><li>200-400 x 10 9 /L </li></ul><ul><li>thrombocytopenia </li></ul>
  39. 44. Origin <ul><li>megakaryocytes </li></ul>
  40. 46. Life Span <ul><li>4-5 days </li></ul>
  41. 47. Function <ul><li>white thrombus or a platelet plug </li></ul><ul><li>thromboplastin  essential for blood coagulation </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in clot retraction </li></ul>
  42. 48. Platelet Aggregation <ul><li>occurs before clotting </li></ul><ul><li>agglutination on platelets depend on several factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rate of flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>size of the blood vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>character of the vessel wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presence of ADP </li></ul></ul>
  43. 49. P A ADP Acts as local hormone Cause rapid platelet aggregation Calcium Platelet Adhere +
  44. 51. Thank You! For Not Listening

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