evolutionary theory:the view from altenberg by Massimo Pigliucci
Evolutionary Theory 1.0: Darwinism Common descent Natural selection Missing a theory of heredity(after having ﬂirted with Lamarckism and blending inheritance)
Evolutionary Theory 1.1: neo-Darwinism Rejection of Lamarckism Separation of soma and germWallace Weissman Still missing a theory of heredity...
Evolutionary Theory 2.0:the beginning of the Modern SynthesisFisher Haldane Wright Compatibility between Mendelism and statistical genetics Theories of selection and random drift: birth of population genetics
Evolutionary Theory 2.1: the mature Modern Synthesis Variation in natural populations Species concepts, speciation processes Compatibility of gradualism with paleontology Applicability of Darwinism to variety of mating and genetic systems in plantsDobzhansky Huxley Mayr Simpson Stebbins
“The major tenets of the evolutionary synthesis were that populations contain genetic variation that arises by random mutation and recombination; that populations evolve by changes in gene frequency brought about by random genetic drift, gene ﬂow, and especially natural selection; that most adaptive genetic variants have individually slight phenotypic effects so that phenotypic changes are gradual; that diversiﬁcation comes about by speciation, which normally entails the gradual evolution of reproductive isolation among populations; and thatthese processes, continued for sufﬁciently long, give rise to changes of suchgreat magnitude as to warrant the designation of higher taxonomic levels.” Doug Futuyma
Do we need Evolutionary Theory 3.0? Toward an Extended Synthesis“[the Modern Synthesis] is strictly a theory of genes, yet the phenomenon that has to be explained in evolution is that of the transmutation of form.” (Karl Popper)
How do we factor in development? Is evolution always gradual? Is selection the only organizing principle? What are the targets of selection? Is there a discontinuity between micro- andmacro-evolution? Is the question of inheritance settled? Where do evolutionary novelties come from? Oh, and what about ecology?
The view from Altenberg:taking evo-bio seriously as a historical science, the role of contingency John Beatty
The view from Altenberg:multi-level selection theory is here to stay!z = cov (W, Z) + E cov (w, z) (Price 1972) David S. Wilsoncollective particle level level
The view from Altenberg: epigenetic and other inheritancesEva Jablonka Genetic Epigenetic (methylation, iRNA, histone conformation) Behavioral (mimicking) Cultural (traditions, “memes”) Eors Szathmary
The view from Altenberg: innovation, facilitated variation and the role of physico-chemistry Gerd Muller Marc Kirschner Stuart Newman
Agency: Where natural selection acts (so-called“units of selection problem”). Efﬁcacy: The relative power of natural selection incomparison to other evolutionary mechanisms. Scope: The degree to which natural selection canbe extrapolated to macroevolutionary processes.
paleonto An (extended) synthesis of what? evo-devo genomics, natural networks theory history complexity epigenetic theory Mendelism common inheritance descentpopulation- plasticity & natural accommodation statistical selection genetics multilevel contingency paleontology selection theory niche construction evolvability & ecology modularity