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Presentation on issue of irrigation within the context of IWRM: key perspectives to promote an integrated agricultural development

Presentation on issue of irrigation within the context of IWRM: key perspectives to promote an integrated agricultural development



By Mr. Watt Botkosal, Deputy Secretary General Cambodia National Meknog Committee...

By Mr. Watt Botkosal, Deputy Secretary General Cambodia National Meknog Committee

Presented at the Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy
Phnom Penh, 2011
December 7-9, 2011
Session 2b: Hydropower, Irrigation and Multiple Use



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    Presentation on issue of irrigation within the context of IWRM: key perspectives to promote an integrated agricultural development Presentation on issue of irrigation within the context of IWRM: key perspectives to promote an integrated agricultural development Presentation Transcript

    • Presentation on issue of irrigation within the context of IWRM: key perspectives to promote an integrated agricultural development (Case of 4-Ps Basin, Cambodia) Prepared and presented by H.E. Mr. Watt Botkosal Deputy Secretary General Cambodia National Mekong Committee for The Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy, 7-9 December 2011, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
    • Objectives
      • To review the IWRM approach for sustainable irrigation system applicable within Mekong and country context
      • To give an example how IWRM application for Pilot 4-Ps Basin
      • To introduce how IWRM applied for promotion of integrated agriculture development for 4-Ps Basin
    • Mekong River Basin
      • Catchment Area by Country:
      • - China : 165,000 Km 2 (21%)
      • - Myanmar : 24,000 Km 2 (3%)
      • - Lao PDR : 202,000 Km 2 (25%)
      • - Thailand : 184,000 Km 2 (23%)
      • - Cambodia : 155,000 Km 2 (20%)
      • - Vietnam : 65,000 Km 2 (8%)
      • Lower Mekong Basin Catchments Area :
        • 606,000 Km 2 (76%)
      • Flow : 475,000 M.m 3 /year
      • Flow Contribution:
      • - China : 16%
      • - Myanmar : 2%
      • - Lao PDR : 35%
      • - Thailand : 18%
      • - Cambodia : 18%
      • - Vietnam : 11%
    • Issue of irrigation within the context of IWRM
        • Water allocation is important for all water uses
        • Agricultural productivity increased if there is sufficient water?
        • Food security can be achieved in 4-Ps Basin if sacrificing water sustainability and security
        • Need to manage water use efficiently in agricultural
        • Irrigation water pricing contributes to sustainable agriculture
        • What are the social and economical implications of moving away from food security?
        • What are the social and economical implications of adopting more efficient irrigation schemes?
        • Irrigation development can be sustained if it has full public participation and gender consideration
        • What happen if hydropower dams developed on the mainstream of Mekong river?
      • What aspects of local water management practices need to be modified based on IWRM aspects to support sustainable irrigation?
    • Future Development of Irrigated Agriculture
      • The proposed hydropower development on Mekong tributaries and mainstream in LMB will have the potential for very large economic benefits but also very large environmental and social impacts.
      • As the projects are run-of-the-river with limited carry-over storage, incremental flow changes over those caused by on-going developments will be insignificant.
      • The uncertainty of environmental, social and economic impacts of these dams is high due to insufficient monitored data and analysis in a complex system.
      • MRC Development Scenario shown that the dry season flows at Kratie will be on average 28% higher than the baseline 2000, but only a 6% increase from changes caused by the on-going developments.
      • The IWRM-based Basin Development Strategy according to increased water availability recognizes the potential for expansion of irrigated agriculture and other consumptive uses, beyond the on-going development, and the need to protect the present baseline dry season flow to maintain social and environmental objectives.
    • IWRM applied for 4-Ps Basin
      • Determined by the Royal Government of Cambodia to implement the IWRM in Cambodia during 2007-2010 , financial support of GWP and ADB.
      • Located in two provinces (Kratie and Mondulkri) in the Northeastern part of Cambodia.
      • Four tributaries (preks) and their separate watersheds on the left (or eastern) bank of the Mekong.
      • 12,500 km2 with population around 143,000 persons.
    • Basin-Related Irrigation Issues
      • The least developed area and affected by floods and drought,
      • Most people ,subsistence farmers depending principally on natural resources such as agriculture, often conducted on a subsistence basis, timbers and non-timber products and fisheries.
      • Poverty rate is among the highest especially among the ethnic minority groups .
      • Newcomers are unfamiliar with sustainable agricultural practices under local conditions and add to the risk of environmental degradation
      • No comprehensive planning for sustainable development and use of the basin's resources.
      • Recent forest concessions , economic land concessions and mining concessions pose a new threats to sustainable development of the basin especially to ethnic minority groups due to social disadvantage.
      • Limited capacity of human and institutions to challenge effective enforcement of related legal frameworks and sustainable development .
    • Basin-Related Irrigation Issues
      • Major problems
        • Low water management infrastructures development;
        • Water use for agriculture is inefficient and unsustainable in the poor communities.
        • High exposure to risks such as flood and droughts or damage by pests;
        • Low skills in agricultural technology;
        • Limited access to safe agricultural land for crop production - 87% of farmers hold less than 1.0 ha land.
      • Agriculture productivity is extremely low as compared to other regions of the country and neighboring countries.
      • For example, Mondulkiri Province produces on average only about 2,000t rice per annum while the minimum requirement is about 7,000t. Kratie Province produced (in2004) about 24,000t, with 40,000t/year needed for minimum consumption.
    • Key Success of IWRM Implementation
      • 1) Involvement of key institutional stakeholders
      • 2) An active dialogue between stakeholders
      • 3) A holistic (IWRM-based, multi-sector) perspective
      • 4). The concept of river basin management
    • IWRM to promote the Integrated agricultural development in 4-Ps Basin (medium to long term programme)
    • IWRM-based Basin Development Roadmap
      • It was initiated around a proposed IWRM-based development roadmap and recommendations on investment that very much support the socio-economic development, environment protection and poverty reduction in the 4-Ps Basin.
      • A vision for the 4Ps basin and basin development goals supported by 8 medium development programmes. The Vision of the Basin is 'a healthy river basin with integrated sustainable development plans implemented jointly by the people and the government primarily for the benefit of the 4Ps people' .
      • There are three Basin development goals.
        • Goal 1: Improved water security
        • Goal 2: Economic development, livelihoods and social welfare
        • Goal 3: A healthy river basin
    • Development Priorities
      • The following development initiatives are recommended to reach the goals:
      • 1 Water supplies and services
      • 2 Institutional development
      • 3 Integrated agricultural development
      • 4 Integrated energy development and management
      • 5 Tourism development
      • 6 Mining
      • 7 Microcredit and cooperative development
      • 8 Environment protection and management
    • Objectives of the Programme
      • The overall objective: to achieve sustainable development and management of natural resources in the 4-Ps Basin for poverty reduction and livelihood improvement of the people in the Basin.
      • The immediate objectives :
        • To establish and implement medium to long term sustainable integrated agricultural development in the 4-Ps Basin with meaningful and effective participation by stakeholders
        • To develop medium to long term capacity building in development and management of integrated agriculture development.
    • The Programmes Focus Themes
      • Support for better land use with application of modern agricultural inputs
      • For harnessing water for irrigation development programme ( to be provided in IWRM programme)
      • For affordable credit accessible to community
      • Support output price stability
      • Support for fisheries and livestock marketing
      • Support for non food sector
    • Programme’s Components
      • With improved water management facilities and electricity development and institutional strengthening programmes:
      • Component 1 - Land use and cultivation technology
      • Component 2 - Water for irrigation
      • Component 3 - Credit
      • Component 4 - Support to output price stability
      • Component 5 - Support to fisheries and livestock marketing
      • Component 6 - Support to the non-food sector
    • Conclusions: IWRM supports Sustainable Irrigation
      • IWRM- a coordinated and participatory process based on an ongoing learning by doing process.
      • IWRM process created the change concepts, a step by step approach that creates a sense to ownerships, transparency and shared accountability among all stakeholders for developing and improving the existing system for more integration of all sectors and different stakeholders.
      • IWRM implementation through enabling environment as supported by national policies, strategies and legislations, institutions,
      • Most of water use is used for irrigation.
      • The concepts of IWRM offer better management of water including irrigation management and development for example through strong established stakeholders ’ involvement of all water related sector institutions and other water users.
      • Water is important source to secure for food, agricultural productivities.
      • IWRM guided that water for irrigation will not only one purpose but multi-purpose of sustainable development including fisheries, biodiversity, land, water supply in rural areas, and environment itself.
      • The Basin Development Strategy of MRC gives priority to studies and actions that provide guidance and support to SID expansion, sustainable hydropower development in the tributaries, and potential offset arrangements.
      • The main IWRM tools are parallel certainly with the objectives of irrigation development programme:
      • Water use efficiency
      • Water safety plans
      • Water demand management plans
      • National plans of action against pollution
      • Waste water management plans
    • The Irrigation Development Programme
      • Provides strategic directions for sustainable development of water and related resources in the 4-Ps Basin. This would lead to the establishment of effective development and management collaborative framework for achieving the vision of the basin.
      •   Supports the national MDGs, the Rectangular Strategy, the National Strategy for Poverty Reduction and the decentralization and de-concentration policy.
      • Also, the programme will assist the government in effective implementing its water law based on IWRM principles.
    • Thank you very much for your kind attention December 7, 2011 កម្ពុជា ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រអច្ឆរិយ Cambodia the Kingdom of Wonders Thank you for your kind attention!! [email_address] Acknowledgment: to GWP, CamboWP, ADB, CNMC Thanks for invitation Cambodia National Mekong Committee