GWP Consulting Partners Meeting  Stockholm, Sweden 3-4 Setember 2010 Addressing the Challenges and Opportunities of Securi...
Contents <ul><li>Brief overview of the experience on Food and Energy in the Mekong River  Basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Role an...
<ul><li>Brief Overview of the Experience on Food and Energy in the Mekong River  Basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Mekong River Bas...
<ul><li>Shape of the Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Catchement  Area:  795.000 Km2 </li></ul><ul><li>Annual water volume:   474 B...
<ul><li>Food production </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand and Vietnam two first rice exporters in the World (10 million and 5 mil...
<ul><li>Hydropower potential: </li></ul><ul><li>Whole basin  53.900 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Of which </li></ul><ul><li>- Chin...
<ul><li>On Mainstream </li></ul><ul><li>3 dams built and operated in China. 5-12 in plan for developing… </li></ul><ul><li...
Hydropower Potential in Mekong Region Source: Indicative Basin Plan (Mekong Secretariat, 1970) Note: Technically feasible ...
2. Role and added value of GWP in MRB <ul><li>MRC adopted GWP’s IWRM as basic for its WRM in the basin and  IWRM as an mos...
<ul><li>With this approach (IWRM), the MRC believes a well-balanced, equitable and sustainable development process can be ...
<ul><li>The involvement of GWP SEA in the activities relating to  water resources management in Mekong basin is increasing...
<ul><li>GWP SEA’s strategy fosters IWRM approach by influencing regional organizations, central, provincial/state and all ...
<ul><li>All countries in Mekong region have recognized and IWRM and applied the approach of IWRM of GWP in their water res...
3. Potential Economic Argument to Enhance  Investment in Water to address Food and Energy in Mekong River Basin   <ul><li>...
 
<ul><li>Energy demands and forecasted growth rate of energy sector are expected to be high  </li></ul><ul><li>China: Full ...
<ul><li>Thailand: Invest to hydropower plants in Lao PDR and import energy and water from Lao for energy demand increasing...
<ul><li>Opportunity for investment in hydropower in Mekong basin are attractive to investors </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges ...
4. Lessons Learned   <ul><li>Most challenges of  Mekong river basin is that the development of  large infrastructures on m...
<ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Rice and fish are most important stable food for all people in the Mekong basin and in Meko...
<ul><li>Hydropower ensuring electricity source is considered as cleaner than thermo-electricity due to its low greenhouse ...
<ul><li>In practices and assessment studies: </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower dams on mainstream have significant impacts to r...
<ul><li>Trade off solution? </li></ul><ul><li>In practice not satisfactory or not harmonized as single powerful sector dom...
<ul><li>Mekong has long history in cooperation- more than 50 years from 1957 up to date. This is also long story of negoti...
<ul><li>food security of Mekong River Basin (MRB) is visibly posed to big challenges (upstream development, climate change...
5.  Recommendations <ul><li>GWP should look at the  Mekong river basin and its MRC cooperation for sustainable development...
<ul><li>GWP though its regional body-GWP SEA should set a long term cooperation with MRC and improve involvement of GWP SE...
<ul><li>The CWPs in Mekong basin should link their activities in countries with some related MRC programmes and projects a...
 
 
Future of Food and Energy security in Mekong Rive basin ?
We all think and take actions together! .
<ul><li>Thank you very much for your attention </li></ul>
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Mekong Experience in Food and Energy-Addressing the Challenges and Opportunities of Securing Food and Energy in the Mekong River Basin presented by Dao Trong Tu, Ph. D GWP-SEA at GWP Consulting Partners Meeting 2010

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Addressing the Challenges and Opportunities of Securing Food and Energy in the Mekong River Basin presented by Dao Trong Tu, Ph. D GWP-SEA at GWP Consulting Partners Meeting 2010

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  • Sustainable hydropower projects need to be technically and financially viable over the planned lifetime of the investment, and contribute to sustainable development („development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs“). If you alter significantly the ecosystem processes a river then you are going to lose a very important part of your biodiversity and also your fish biomass (fisheries) (and other economic sectors dependant directly or less directly). Risks should not be underestimated (risk to economic investments, including investments made by ODA over the past decades) Benefits should not be overestimated
  • Mekong Experience in Food and Energy-Addressing the Challenges and Opportunities of Securing Food and Energy in the Mekong River Basin presented by Dao Trong Tu, Ph. D GWP-SEA at GWP Consulting Partners Meeting 2010

    1. 1. GWP Consulting Partners Meeting Stockholm, Sweden 3-4 Setember 2010 Addressing the Challenges and Opportunities of Securing Food and Energy in the Mekong River Basin By: Dao Trong Tu, Ph. D GWP-SEA
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Brief overview of the experience on Food and Energy in the Mekong River Basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Role and added values of GWP </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Economic Argument to Enhance Investment in Water to address Food and Energy in Mekong River Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons learned </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Brief Overview of the Experience on Food and Energy in the Mekong River Basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Mekong River Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Countries: China (Yunnan province), Myanmar, Lao PDR, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Basin area: 795,000 km2 (21 th rank in the World) </li></ul><ul><li>River length: 4880 km (12 th) </li></ul><ul><li>Annual water volume: 475 km 2 (8 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 73 million (projected 120 million by 2025) </li></ul><ul><li>MRC: Lao PDR, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam (75% of Basin area and 84% basin population and All depending on basin resources for livelihoods). </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Shape of the Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Catchement Area: 795.000 Km2 </li></ul><ul><li>Annual water volume: 474 Billion M 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Annual flow: 16,000 m3/s </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution: </li></ul><ul><li> Land (%) Flow (%) </li></ul><ul><li>China: 21 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Myanmar 3 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lao PDR 25 35 </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand 2 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia 20 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam 8 11 </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Food production </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand and Vietnam two first rice exporters in the World (10 million and 5 million respectively in 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>River Mekong fisher production: 2.6 million tones (of 10 million tones worldwide) worth of US$ 2 billion and fish related activities of US$ 5-6 Billion a year. </li></ul><ul><li>Mekong provide food for 60 million people in the basin and 300 million out of the basin </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Hydropower potential: </li></ul><ul><li>Whole basin 53.900 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Of which </li></ul><ul><li>- China (Yunnan): 23.000 MW </li></ul><ul><li>( 4/15 constructed: 8,850 MW) </li></ul><ul><li>- LMB: 30.900 MW </li></ul><ul><li>- Mainstream: 13.000 MW </li></ul><ul><li>- Tributaries: 17.900 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Lao PDR: 13.000 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia: 2.200 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand: 700 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam: 2.000 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Planed: 11 cascades on LMB mainstream </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>On Mainstream </li></ul><ul><li>3 dams built and operated in China. 5-12 in plan for developing… </li></ul><ul><li>8 -9 being studied and developed in Lao PDR and Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>2 being considered and studied in Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>On Tributaries </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of dams built in 6 Riparians mainly for dropower and irrigation </li></ul>Dam Development on Mekong
    8. 8. Hydropower Potential in Mekong Region Source: Indicative Basin Plan (Mekong Secretariat, 1970) Note: Technically feasible hydro potential = Theoretical hydro potential x 30% Theoretical hydro potential (GWH/year) Technically feasible hydro potential (GWH/year) Propor-tion Potential hydroelectric power Potential installed capacity Potential hydroelectric power Potential installed capacity (MW) Upper 665,000 76,000 199,500 22,800 57% Lower 505,000 58,000 151,500 17,400 43% Cambodia 31,739 3,628 9,522 1,088 3% Lao PDR 366,295 41,857 109,889 12,557 31% Thailand 25,634 2,930 7,690 879 2% Vietnam 80,950 9,256 24,285 2,777 7% Total 1,170,000 134,000 351,000 40,200 100%
    9. 9. 2. Role and added value of GWP in MRB <ul><li>MRC adopted GWP’s IWRM as basic for its WRM in the basin and IWRM as an most appropriate tool in establishment of its Strategic Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted definition of IWRM of the Global Water Partnership (GWP) as an most meaningful and efficient approach to allows for a holistic view of the needs and interests of the countries sharing the river system </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>With this approach (IWRM), the MRC believes a well-balanced, equitable and sustainable development process can be facilitated — for the mutual benefit of all Mekong riparian countries”. (Olivier Cogels – MRC CEO in 2000-2003). </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>The involvement of GWP SEA in the activities relating to water resources management in Mekong basin is increasing whether through regional cooperation mechanisms such as MRC, GMS, ASIAN or GWP Country Water Partnerships </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>GWP SEA’s strategy fosters IWRM approach by influencing regional organizations, central, provincial/state and all water resources stakeholders including academic and professional institutions, NGOs and the media. This influence is exercised by facilitating neutral platforms for regional and country dialogues on topics such as applying IWRM at the river basin level, policy and institutional reform, and financing. </li></ul><ul><li>GWP SEA also building a better IWRM database and monitoring system for sharing knowledge and information on water resources management through local websites </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>All countries in Mekong region have recognized and IWRM and applied the approach of IWRM of GWP in their water resources management by introduced IWRM in their national legislation systems (Vietnam, Lao PDR, Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar and China). </li></ul><ul><li>5 GWP SEA’s CWPs in Mekong basin, Lao PDR, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam are actively involved and take certain role in promulgation and adaptation of GWP’s IWRM in water sectors of their countries. </li></ul>
    14. 14. 3. Potential Economic Argument to Enhance Investment in Water to address Food and Energy in Mekong River Basin <ul><li>Pressure on natural resources of the basin will ever increase. </li></ul><ul><li>In the trend of rapid economic development and growing population of the riparian countries, taking into account also the potential impacts of climate change, the Mekong countries now are facing with new challenges and opportunities on development and management of one of mighty and secrete rivers in the world to achieve their goals in social economic development and livelihood of the people. </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>Energy demands and forecasted growth rate of energy sector are expected to be high </li></ul><ul><li>China: Full development of Mekong water resources for hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Lao PDR can have a good revenue from exporting electricity surplus to neighboring countries by building large hydropower on mainstream of Mekong (9-10 cascades planned to be built in 15-20 years time) </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>Thailand: Invest to hydropower plants in Lao PDR and import energy and water from Lao for energy demand increasing and for rice production. </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia: plan to build 2 large hydropower plants on mainstreams meanwhile to maintain huge fishery resources of Great lake. </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam: fully exploited hydropower potential in its Mekong tributaries, investing to some large hydropower plants in Lao PDR and Cambodia for supplementing Vietnam’s energy demand but have to protect Mekong delta for food security and livelihood of 17 million people in this area. </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Opportunity for investment in hydropower in Mekong basin are attractive to investors </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges of food security and livelihood of Mekong’s people are increasing </li></ul>
    18. 19. 4. Lessons Learned <ul><li>Most challenges of Mekong river basin is that the development of large infrastructures on mainstream of Lower Mekong river basin (also in upstream in China) will be taken place in very near future. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower dams expecting to bring some countries an expected huge benefits from energy export activity, some other for supplementary sources for their increased energy demands. However that are treating the basin to implement its function of securing food security for the region and somehow for other regions globally. </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Rice and fish are most important stable food for all people in the Mekong basin and in Mekong and many region in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Rice production and fishery resources fully depending on water, nutrients and sediment resources of Mekong </li></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><li>Hydropower ensuring electricity source is considered as cleaner than thermo-electricity due to its low greenhouse gas emission, using renewable “fuel”, large initial investment cost yet operation cost much lower than electricity plants using fossil fuel </li></ul>
    21. 22. <ul><li>In practices and assessment studies: </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower dams on mainstream have significant impacts to river ecological conditions of Mekong river basins: </li></ul><ul><li>Change flow pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Catching the sediment in reservoirs (resources for feeding deltas and nutrient source for fish) </li></ul><ul><li>Stop fishery mitigation ways of fish </li></ul><ul><li>Big obstacles for inland navigation </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>Trade off solution? </li></ul><ul><li>In practice not satisfactory or not harmonized as single powerful sector dominance </li></ul><ul><li>According to WCD most projects have failed to compensate affected people for their losses and to adequately mitigate environmental impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Local people have rarely had a meaningful say in whether or how a dam is implemented, or received their fair share of project benefits </li></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>Mekong has long history in cooperation- more than 50 years from 1957 up to date. This is also long story of negotiation for minimizing the conflicts in Mekong water uses. Up to now, it is difficult to say this model as a successful case. </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>food security of Mekong River Basin (MRB) is visibly posed to big challenges (upstream development, climate change etc.) MRB needs both food security and alternatives to mitigate negative impacts on environment, ecology and livelihood of local people in and outside Mekong River basin, avoiding impacts on national, regional and even international food security. That is why all nations should recognize Mekong cooperation in a view of common benefits. </li></ul>
    25. 26. 5. Recommendations <ul><li>GWP should look at the Mekong river basin and its MRC cooperation for sustainable development of Mekong rive basin as a good “case study” for adaptation of IWRM in a big and important international river basin. </li></ul><ul><li>The promotion of cooperation between GWP and MRC through MRCS by co-implementing some activities such as studies, partnership meeting to address opportunities and challenges on water management, food & energy. </li></ul><ul><li>The trade-off issues in water resources development between hydropower and food security and other uses should be studied and addressed by GWP and their results will be notified to Mekong countries. </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><li>GWP though its regional body-GWP SEA should set a long term cooperation with MRC and improve involvement of GWP SEA in supporting MRC in implementation of IWRM. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be considered to create some initiative between GWP-SEA and MRC (including its two dialogue partnership – Yunnan China and Myanmar) and that will help to promote the interaction between two organizations in related activities of WRM in the region </li></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>The CWPs in Mekong basin should link their activities in countries with some related MRC programmes and projects at national level (National Mekong Committees) through some co-activities of exchange knowledge of WRM and IWRM, and exchange visits (co-financing for these activities). </li></ul>
    28. 31. Future of Food and Energy security in Mekong Rive basin ?
    29. 32. We all think and take actions together! .
    30. 33. <ul><li>Thank you very much for your attention </li></ul>

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