Looking beyond grain for overall benefit  from wheat in mixed crop livestock               systems      Michael Blϋmmel1, ...
Topics Wheat straw as commodity, contribution to overall  income from wheat production Wheat straw trading as feed back ...
Wheat straw-grain price  ratios in South AsiaStraw price/grain price in %, as collected during             village survey ...
Peri-urban wheat straw  trader, New Delhi                         4
Wheat straw collected from  fodder traders and farmersCategory       Variety        Price [Rs/kg straw]          n        ...
Price: quality relations in wheat straw     traded monthly in New Delhi          from 2008 to 2009                        ...
Wheat straw collected monthlyfrom fodder traders in Delhi and     Patna in 2008 - 2009Category   ADF [%dm (SE)]    Price [...
Price-quality relations in wheat straw  traded monthly in New Delhi and      Patna from 2008 to 2009                      ...
Summary wheat straw trading Wheat straw can contribute significantly to overall  benefits from wheat cropping Difference...
Wheat straw trials investigated for   straw traits: opportunities from       selection and breedingHTM =      Heat Trial E...
Relations between straw yield and                            grain yield in a range of                                  wh...
Relations between acid detergent fiber     content of straw and grain yield in      a range of wheat cultivars            ...
Relations between acid detergent                       fiber and straw yield in a range of                                ...
Relations between nitrogen contentof straw and grain yield in a range of           wheat cultivars                        ...
Straw in vitro organic matter digestibilityand grain yield in 437 cultivars from IRRI                                     ...
Summary from variety          testing workIncluding straw traits in cultivar choice increases      probability of having ...
Thanks for your        attentionsAcknowledgment: Most of the work was funded by theby the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundatio...
Conclusions              18
Variations in Grain Yields content            in wheat trialsTrials     Location                 Grain Yields (kg/ha)     ...
Variations in Straw Yields in wheat                  trialsTrials     Location                 Straw Yields (kg/ha)       ...
Variations in nitrogen content in            wheat straw trialsTrials     Location                 Nitrogen content (%)   ...
Variations in Acid Detergent Fiber       content in wheat straw trialsTrials     Location                 Acid detergent f...
Wheat straw and sorghums stoverbased feed blocks fed to sheep                          Wheat                      Sorghum ...
24
Comparisons of high and low qualitysorghum stover based feed blocks    in commercial dairy buffalo                 Block H...
Variations in in vitro digestibility in          wheat straw trialsTrials     Location                 In vitro digestibil...
Key findings from crop        residue fodder trading High monetary value of crop residues, ratio grain:  crop residue mon...
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Looking beyond grain for overall benefit from wheat

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Presentation by Dr. Michael Blummel (ILRI) at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 9, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Looking beyond grain for overall benefit from wheat

  1. 1. Looking beyond grain for overall benefit from wheat in mixed crop livestock systems Michael Blϋmmel1, Arun K Joshi2, Nils Teufel1 and Iain A. Wright1 1International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), India and Ethiopia 2Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT), Nepal Wheat for Food Security, Addis Ababa, 2012, October 8 to 12th 1
  2. 2. Topics Wheat straw as commodity, contribution to overall income from wheat production Wheat straw trading as feed back mechanism and entry point for wheat straw value chain improvement Opportunities and limitations of improving wheat straw through multidimensional wheat improvement 2
  3. 3. Wheat straw-grain price ratios in South AsiaStraw price/grain price in %, as collected during village survey 2009/10 % (n) Normal Peak Punjab 35 (18) 48 (18) Haryana 19 (18) 30 (18) N Teufel et al. (2011) In Ethiopia in 2006 and 2007 Gebremedhin estimated wheat straw - grain price ratios of 10 and 27% 3
  4. 4. Peri-urban wheat straw trader, New Delhi 4
  5. 5. Wheat straw collected from fodder traders and farmersCategory Variety Price [Rs/kg straw] n New Delhi wheat straw markets best Not known 4.25 2 best WH-283 4.00 1 medium Not known 3.85 2 medium 1553 4.00 1 Village Kapriwas, dist. Rewari, Haryana best C-306 3.50 1 best WH-283 3.40 1 good DBW-17 3.00 1 good PBW-502 3.00 1 good PBW-550 3.25 1 medium PBW-343 3.00 1Note: All samples collected for feeding trials in 04/2009 to validate laboratory straw quality traits. Acid Detergent Fiber– a cellulose estimate- was the single important trait
  6. 6. Price: quality relations in wheat straw traded monthly in New Delhi from 2008 to 2009 6
  7. 7. Wheat straw collected monthlyfrom fodder traders in Delhi and Patna in 2008 - 2009Category ADF [%dm (SE)] Price [Rs/kg straw (SE)] n New Delhi wheat straw markets best 48.8 (0.21) 4.43 (0.11) 36 good 49.3 (0.21) 4.21 (0.07) 72medium 49.1 (0.24) 4.00 (0.09) 42 Patna straw markets best 50.7 (0.16) 3.26 (0.08) 48 good 50.9 (0.14) 3.07 (0.06) 72medium 51.6 (0.21) 2.85 (0.08) 35 7
  8. 8. Price-quality relations in wheat straw traded monthly in New Delhi and Patna from 2008 to 2009 8
  9. 9. Summary wheat straw trading Wheat straw can contribute significantly to overall benefits from wheat cropping Differences in straw quality still associated with varieties on village level trading but less in urban markets Intuitively small differences in laboratory quality traits associated with price premiums of about 10% on average More work/clarity needed in understanding price: quality relations 9
  10. 10. Wheat straw trials investigated for straw traits: opportunities from selection and breedingHTM = Heat Trial Early maturity: India (Indore, Ugar, Ludhiana, Karnal and Varansi) Bangladesh and PakistanHTNM = Heat Trial Normal Maturity: India (Ugar, Ludhiana, Karnal) Bangladesh and Pakistan (Islamabad, Bahawalpur and Faisalabad)SAWYT = Semi Arid Wheat Trial: India (Indore, Ugar, Dharward and Varanasi) Bangladesh, Nepal and PakistanESWYT = Elite Spring Wheat Trial: Bangladesh and Pakistan1st DRYT = 1st Drought Yield Trial: India (Indore, Ugar and Dharward) and Pakistan2nd DRYT =2st Drought Yield Trial: India (Ludhiana, Karnal and Varanasi), Nepal and Pakistan 10
  11. 11. Relations between straw yield and grain yield in a range of wheat cultivars 6000 HTEM HTNM SAWYT 5000 ESWYT 1st DRYT 2nd DRYTGrain yield (kg/ha) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 Straw yield (kg/ha) 11
  12. 12. Relations between acid detergent fiber content of straw and grain yield in a range of wheat cultivars 6000 HTEM HTNM SAWYT 5000 ESWYT 1st DRYT Grain yield (kg/ha) 2st DRYT 4000 3000 2000 1000 Wheat straw trading 0 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Acid detergent fiber content (%) 12
  13. 13. Relations between acid detergent fiber and straw yield in a range of wheat cultivars 9000 HTEM HTNM 8000 SAWYT ESWYT 1st DRYT 7000 2nd DRYTStraw yield (kg/ha) 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Acid detergent fiber content (%) 13
  14. 14. Relations between nitrogen contentof straw and grain yield in a range of wheat cultivars 14
  15. 15. Straw in vitro organic matter digestibilityand grain yield in 437 cultivars from IRRI AROMATICS 9000 HYBRIDS INDICA 8000 NPT Released varieties 7000 Grain yield (kg/ha) 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 y = 10 650 - 103.7x; r= - 0.19 P=<0.0001 0 32.5 35.0 37.5 40.0 42.5 45.0 47.5 50.0 52.5 Straw in vitro organic matter digestibility (%) 15 Source: Blümmel et al. 2007
  16. 16. Summary from variety testing workIncluding straw traits in cultivar choice increases probability of having premium straw qualityOf the variations in straw in quality available in the cultivar types only a small segment appears currently used in straw tradingVery strong clustering of cultivar types for grain and straw yield and for straw quality 16
  17. 17. Thanks for your attentionsAcknowledgment: Most of the work was funded by theby the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation under CSISA 17
  18. 18. Conclusions 18
  19. 19. Variations in Grain Yields content in wheat trialsTrials Location Grain Yields (kg/ha) Mean Range h2 PHTEM I (U, K), B 3 312 2 704 – 3 813 0.60 < 0.0001HTNM I,B 3 442 2 881 – 4 009 - 0.02SAWYT I (I, U, D), B 2 635 2 166 – 3 154 0.24 < 0.0001ESWYT B 4 177 3 278 – 5 011 - 0.0071 DRYT I (U, D) 1 516 1 032 – 1 880 0.55 < 0.00012 DRYT I 1 932 1 087 – 2 632 - 0.35 I = India, P = Pakistan, B = Bangladesh, N = Nepal Number in brackets = research station in a country 19
  20. 20. Variations in Straw Yields in wheat trialsTrials Location Straw Yields (kg/ha) Mean Range h2 PHTEM I (U, K), B 7 029 6 108 – 7721 0.37 < 0.0001HTNM I,B 6 286 5 140 – 7495 0.38 0.03SAWYT I (I, U, D), B 4 620 3 726 – 5 894 0.11 0.02ESWYT B 5 658 4 546 – 6 873 - 0.061 DRYT I (U, D) 5 190 3 790 – 6 849 0.2 < 0.00012 DRYT I 3 531 2 443 – 4 613 - 0.1 I = India, P = Pakistan, B = Bangladesh, N = Nepal Number in brackets = research station in a country 20
  21. 21. Variations in nitrogen content in wheat straw trialsTrials Location Nitrogen content (%) Mean Range h2 P<HTEM I (5), B, N 0.72 0.62 – 0.85 0.67 <0.0001HTNM I (3), B, P (3) 0.75 0.69 – 0.82 0.21 0.04SAWYT I (4), B, N, P 0.82 0.71 – 0.92 0.33 0.001ESWYT B, P 0.58 0.48 – 0.76 0 0.201 DRYT I (3), P 0.76 0.69 – 0.83 0.58 0.0022 DRYT I (3), N, P 0.63 0.55 – 0.75 0.35 0.02 I = India, P = Pakistan, B = Bangladesh, N = Nepal Number in brackets = sites in a country 21
  22. 22. Variations in Acid Detergent Fiber content in wheat straw trialsTrials Location Acid detergent fiber (%) Mean Range h2 PHTEM I (5), B, N 49.6 48.8 – 51.4 0.91 <0.0001HTNM I (3), B, P (3) 49.5 48.4 – 50.7 0.53 0.0006SAWYT I (4), B, N, P 47.6 46.3 – 49.2 0.45 0.0005ESWYT B, P 50.8 47.3 – 52.2 0 0.111 DRYT I (3), P 46.7 45.6 – 47.7 0.5 <0.00012 DRYT I (3), N, P 50.1 48.8 – 51.3 0.19 0.024 I = India, P = Pakistan, B = Bangladesh, N = Nepal Number in brackets = sites in a country 22
  23. 23. Wheat straw and sorghums stoverbased feed blocks fed to sheep Wheat Sorghum Pellets Block DMI (g/kg LW) 30.0a 42.1 b ADG (g / d) 71.1a 89.5 b Wheat straw composition: N = 0.49%, ADF = 50.9%, IVOMD = 46.0%23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. Comparisons of high and low qualitysorghum stover based feed blocks in commercial dairy buffalo Block High Block LowCP 17.2 % 17.1%ME (MJ/kg) 8.46 MJ/kg 7.37 MJ/kgDMI 19.7 kg/d 18.0 kg/dDMI per kg LW 3.6 % 3.3 %Milk Potential 16.6 kg/d 11.8 kg/d 25 Anandan et al. (2009a)
  26. 26. Variations in in vitro digestibility in wheat straw trialsTrials Location In vitro digestibility (%) Mean Range h2 PHTEM I (5), B, N 48.5 47.9 – 49.6 0.66 <0.0001HTNM I (3), B, P (3) 48.4 48.0 – 48.8 0 0.49SAWYT I (4), B, N, P 48.5 47.7 – 49.4 0.01 0.14ESWYT B, P 48.3 47.2 – 49.1 0 0.961 DRYT I (3), P 47.7 46.7 – 48.5 0.66 <0.00012 DRYT I (3), N, P 47.3 46.8 – 48.1 0.09 0.53I = India, P = Pakistan, B = Bangladesh, N = NepalNumber in brackets = sites in a country 26
  27. 27. Key findings from crop residue fodder trading High monetary value of crop residues, ratio grain: crop residue monetary value getting narrower Quality difference between residues from different crops and from residues within different cultivars reflected in costs Apparently “small” differences in fodder quality can command surprisingly high price premiums 27

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