SRI : Lessons from Chhattisgarh Dinesh MarothiaNational Institute of Ecology (NIE), New DelhiNIE – Centre for Integrated Natural Resources Management, Raipur, CG IWMI-TATA ANNUAL PARTNERS’ MEET IRMA, Nov 28-30,2012
Presentation Line People, Resources and Rice Scenario SRI Performance Farmers’ Feedback Implementing Agencies’ Feedback Steps to Accelerate SRI Drivers of Success/Failure
Agro Climatic Zones JHK Northern Hills Zone M.P.MAHA Chhattisgarh Plains Zone ORISSA Bastar Plateau Zone A.P.
Agro-Climatic ZonesChhattisgarh State falls within the metrological zone VII (Eastern Plateau and Hills zone), which is sub-divided into 3 distinct agro-climatic zones Agro- District Covered Geographical % of Total Net % of NetClimatic Area ( Lakh ha) Geographical Cropped CroppedZones Area Area Area (Lakh ha)Northern Sarguja, Koriya, Jashpur, 29.47 21 8.41 18 Hills Dharamjaigarh (Raigarh)Chhattis- Raipur, Mahasamund, 68.49 50 32.91 69 garh Dhamtari, Durg, Rajnandgaon, Plains Kabirdham, Bilaspur, Korba, Janjgir, Kanker and RaigarhBastar Jagdalpur, Dantewada, 39.91 29 6.37 13Plateau Bijapur, Narayanpur, the remaining part of Kanker Total 137.87 100 47.69 100
People and Resources People and Resources Total state population : 45 % SC & ST. 44 % of people live below poverty line.Land shares: Marginal farmers (54%) share 15% of land; Small farmers(22%) share 20%; Semi-medium farmers (16%) share 26%, Medium farmers(8%) share 27%; and Large farmers (1%) share 12%.Total labor force: Cultivators (45%) and agricultural labors (32)%.Gross cropped area: 46.42 %of TGA.Rainfall: ranges from 1200 mm to 1600 mm across the agro-climatic zone.Soils: largely red and yellow in nature with medium texture.Total irrigation: 13.23 lakh hectares.Total irrigated area: 28 % of total cropped area.Irrigated areas served by: Canals (66%), Tanks (4%), Tubewells (22%),Wells (2%) and Other sources (6%).
Rice Cultivation Scenario in Chhattisgarh Rice constitutes 75 % of total kharif cropped area. Around 76 % rice is sown by broadcast (biasi) method. 70 % area cultivated under rainfed conditions. % area under different situations : Rainfed Upland Rainfed mid land Rainfed low land 45 % 35 % 20 % Prominent rice varieties : Early Medium Late IR-36, IR-64, MTU-1010, Mahamaya, Karma Swarna, BPT-5204, MTU-1001, Purnima Masuri, Bambleshwari, HMT Local Scented Promotion of early and mid-duration varieties of paddy constitutes 60% of total paddy area. Prominent hybrid varieties : 3% area under hybrid. Bayer Pioneer Dhanya Devgan Public sector 6444 PBH-71 DRH-748 RH-257 KRH-2
Change in Area, Production & Productivity (Rice) Unit- lac ha Drought-affected Tehsils Area out of 98 Tehsils 44 42 40 382007-08 2008-09 2009-10 36 33 50 5 34 32 30 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Unit- kg/ha Unit- “000”ton
Achievable Yield Gaps in Rice Demonstrations (NFSM) year 2009 (qtls paddy / ha.)Improved package practices SRI– Rice year 2009 60 59% 44% 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 63% Av. Yield Demo Farmers Practices 60 0 Av. Yield 50 SRI Plot Av. yield farmers practices Av. Yield 40 30 Hybrid– Rice year 2009 20 10 0 Hybrid Rice Av. farmers Practice Yield Av. Yield
Differences of yield, cost and gross margin comparing non-SRI fields with SRI fields in CG Yield (q/ha) Gross margin (Rs/ha) Cost (Rs/q) Difference Difference DifferenceNon-SRI (SRI minus Non-SRI (SRI minus Non-SRI (SRI minus Fields non-SRI) Fields non-SRI) Fields non-SRI) Total % Total % Total % 48.7 11.9 24.5 53,451 1,257 2 581 -167 -29 Note: Based on 102 farmers data with their SRI and non- SRI fields
Farmers’ Feedback Due to erratic rains in rainfed areas, SRI is best option because it needs less water Higher yield with SRI, lower Input cost, incidence of pest is low Due to plant-to-plant distance, every plant gets proper light and air and pest infestation is low Marker and rotary weeder equipments have a major role in SRI Supplement /increase food security by 3-4 months In traditional agriculture, dry spells have adverse effect on the growth of the plant, but in SRI method, plants easily survive up till cracks appear in the soil without any crop growth decline
Farmers’ Feedback (continued)Timely availability of marker & rotary weederinadequate quantity.Continuous training of farmers and extension workersneeded.Regular visits of non-adaptors and extensionnewcomers to SRI fields. Institutionalize SRI in agriculture extension andresearch system.
Implementing Agencies’ Feedback Green manuring practice requires controlled irrigation facility, right from the sowing ofseeds to upturning the crop in to soil Cono weeder use virtually needs ideal soil & moisture conditions – which unfortunatelydont apply locally, the soil being a bit heavy and moisture conditions are erraticAlternate wetting & drying of fields doesn’t work, even with assured irrigation.Unpredicted downpours may spoil equations at any time.Implementation through cluster approach, training & publicity camps well ahead of cropactivities, distribution of leaflets & literature, publicity camps, Kisan Melas & exposurevisits. Educating farmers in green manuring, mechanical weeding and water management.
Implementing Agencies’ Feedback Only profuse-seedling varieties should be selected for SRI like Bamleshwari, Swarna, MTU-1010, Mahamaya (duration 120-135 d). Timely availability of marker & rotary weeder in adequate quantity. Financial incentives on sustainable basis Continuous training of farmers and extension workers. Regular visit of non-adaptors and extension newcomers to SRI fields. A modified version of SRI with innovations , farmers’ feedback,and local adaptation is urgently required to sustain farmers’ interest Institutionalize SRI in agriculture extension and research system.
Implementing Agencies’ FeedbackPresent SRI approach based on condition - 10 acres of irrigated land in acluster - excludes small and marginal farmers.Since farmers have been adopting their package of practices for severalyears, hence sudden intervention of SRI (which is intensive) need at leasttechnical support for 2-3 years Indigenous varieties (which are at the extinction stage ) can bepromoted through SRI to address the problems related with climatechange.Organic farming can be promoted along with SRIMechanized SRI may become regular entrepreneurship covering nurserybed preparation, rice transplanting ,and weed control
Steps to Accelerate SRI Arrange exposure trips to SRI plots of active farmers and SHG members (if SHG is formed in the village) Selection of Community Resource Person (CRPs) and conduct training for them on the SRI. They are generally active farmers who had done SRI on their field and had some experience to share with the farmers One-day orientation program in the village about SRI and sharing of farmer experience that had done SRI Video shows on SRI in paddies, wall posters, and pamphlet distribution On-field demonstrations to the interested farmers on seed treatment, field preparation, and sowing in one farmer’s plot. One-day training on transplanting, weeding, organic inputs preparation Hand-holding support to the farmers by CRPs and early SRI adopters for an entire crop season Analysis of paddy production in a plot before harvesting.
Drivers of Success/Failure Deviation from core recommendations should be accepted Selection of different components of SRI for adoption has significant bearing on yield increase. Adoption of core components varied across agro-climatic regions and implementing agencies Yield levels vary with the extent of farmers’ adoption of components of SRI, so need continuous flow of technical information and support Mobilizing of quality inputs consumes extra time and money; hence, transaction costs may reflect level of adoption Land topography, soil types, and mode of irrigation are important factors for SRI adoption Lack of knowledge of SRI practices, skilled labourers needed for cono weeding operation, suitable markers, poor water control in the fields, and unsuitable soils, TC are constraining the full adoption of SRI