What is Design Thinking? "Business schools tend to focus on inductive thinking (based on directly observable facts) and deductive thinking (logic and analysis, typically based on past evidence)," he writes. A.G. Lafley, Former P&G CEO "Design schools emphasize abductive thinking—imagining what could be possible. This new thinking approach helps us challenge assumed constraints and add to ideas, versus A. G. Lafley, formerthem.” discouraging CEO of P&G
What is Design Thinking? Design thinking is “a discipline that uses the designer’s sensibility and methods to match people’s needs with what is technologically feasible and what a viable business strategy can convert into customer value and market opportunity.” Tim Brown, "Design Thinking. " Harvard Business Review, June 2008. p. 86.
What is Design Thinking? Tim Brown, "Design Thinking. " Harvard Business Review, June 2008. p. 86.
Elements of Design Thinking?D.School Bootcamp Bootleg,Dec. 2010. p. 1.
Ongoing study: Implementation of Design Thinking (DT) in large firmsExploratoryInterview study with 18 companies in Germany and theUSInterviewees: People central for the implementation of DTCollaboration with D.School Potsdam
Design Thinking practice Picture of D-school process
Perceptions of the meaning of“design thinking”• Process• Design Methodologies• Mindset(s)• Principles• Mindset and Methods… and problems with thenotion
Implementation of designthinking• Top-down or bottom up initiative• Various sources of knowledge about DT• Implementation set-up • Support Team • Facilitating team • Education• Strategic use of projects for biggest impact
How design thinking is usedStrategic issues- Developing Strategies for going green- Redesigning HR policiesProjects- Development projects - New products, new software applications- Process improvement - solving complex problemsIndividual level- As a different way to think about everyday problemsCherry picking
Perceived benefits of design thinkingValue on both organizational & project levelExpected benefits:• Increased user focus• More innovative outputs – better concepts
Perceived benefits of designUnexpected benefits: thinking• Improved communication• Bridging of boundaries• Increased speed of the development process• Uncovering structural problems• Culture changeCritique• Less value created than expected, difficult to measure• Not addressing the business side
Implementation challengesProving the value of design thinking• Showing proof of success early on• Traceability of impact on final productAdaptation of the concept• IDEO concept too focused on products – not software/services• Company context & culture• Time and cost constraints
Implementation challengesOrganizational issues• Integration with existing processes and structures• Tiredness of managerial concepts• Political barriers• Middle management not as convinced as top management• Short term results vs. long term perspectiveGetting the right resources• Problem to get access to customers• Difficult finding the right people for teams
Next steps• Workshops with the participating companies in the US/Germany• Refining research purpose• Deeper case studies in some of the companies during 2012
Gift-GivingBrief: Redesign the gift-giving experience for your tablemate.
Build Customer Understanding• The most important part of designing for someone is to gain empathy for that person.• One way to do this is to have a good conversation. (interview)• Partner A will have 3 minutes to interview Partner B, and then we will tell you when to switch.
Build Customer UnderstandingAs a starting point, ask your partner to tell you aboutthe last time they gave a gift.Additional questions:• To whom did they give it?• Why was it meaningful?• How did they come up with the idea for the gift?• What was difficult about finding and giving this gift? 2x3min
Defining the InsightsTry to synthesize your learning into a few ‘needs’that you have discovered, and a few ‘insights’ thatyou find interesting.• “Needs” should be verbs – things they are trying to do.• “Insights” new learnings about your partner’s feelings/worldview to leverage in your design (make inferences). 3min
Defining the problem statementIt should feel like a problem worth tackling!Lisa, needs a way to give a gift to her son, becauseshe doesn’t want to support consumerism but stillwants to give him a present.
Defining the problem statementIt should feel like a problem worth tackling!Lisa the responsible mother, needs a way to give asustainable gift to her 5 year old son, because shedoesn’t want to support consumerism but still wantsto give him a joyful present. 3min
Generate new ideas• Idea generation, not evaluation — you can evaluate your ideas later• GO FOR VOLUME!• Be Visual – words just when necessary 5min
Collect user feedback• This is not just about testing your ideas. This is another opportunity to learn more about your partner’s feelings and worldview.• Spend the time listening to your tablemate’s reactions and questions.• Fight the urge to explain and defend your ideas—see what they make of them! 2x3min