Early Theories of Aging
Thanatophobia

Extend maximum life span
Hippocrates – gradual loss of body heat
Erasmus Darwin – r...
Theories of Aging
Psychological

◦ Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1943)
◦ Erikson’s Psychological Stages (1956)
◦ Selective...
Theories of Aging
Psychological

◦ Primarily related to success
◦ Personal development
Sociological

◦ Engagement
◦ Expe...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
Theory of Successful Aging
Theories of Aging
Erikson’s

Psychosocial Stages

◦ Development through late adulthood
◦ Positive/Negative Outcomes
Late...
Theories of Aging
Selective

Optimization with
Compensation (Baltes & Baltes, 1990)
◦ Select priorities/likes/most import...
Theories of Aging
SOC

◦ Functional competence is key
Related

◦
◦
◦
◦

concepts

Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977)
Self-est...
Theories of Aging: Sociological
Activity

Theory (Havighurst, 1961)

◦ Engaged in mental and physical activities
◦ Commun...
Theories of Aging
Theories of Aging
Damage

from wear and tear

◦ Chemical reactions that occur naturally in the
body begin to produce a # ...
Theories of Aging
Theories of Aging
Free-radical

theory (damage)

◦ Chemical compounds that contain an
unpaired electron in an outer orbit...
Theories of Aging

 Mitochondrial

respiration–
“leaking intermediates”
 Superoxide dismutase
Theories of Aging
Free

radical targets

◦ Cell membranes
◦ DNA & RNA
◦ Enzymes
Damage

to tissues, ultimately systems
Theories of Aging
Accumulation

of defects in metabolic

pathways
Does aging originate in the mitochondria?
Oxidation o...
Theories of Aging
Strategy

for reducing free radicals:

◦ Consumption of Vitamins E and C
 “anti-oxidants”

◦ Mechanism...
Theories of Aging
Cross-linkage

(damage)

◦ Corrupted DNA not repaired
◦ Cross-linking occurs in protein-based collagen
...
Theories of Aging
Genetic

theories

◦ Genes related to
pathologies
◦ Could dictate cellular aging
◦ DNA mutations of
mit...
Theories of Aging


Hayflick Limit
 Cells

will divide & reproduce only a limited
number of times “Cell Clock”
 Number ...
Theories of Aging
Telomere

Hypothesis

◦ Shortens with each replication
of the chromosome
◦ Replication at a fixed rate ...
Theories of Aging
Gradual

Imbalance Theory

◦ Nervous system
◦ Endocrine system
◦ Impaired relationship btwn the two
Ho...
Theories of Aging
There is no overwhelming support for
just one biological theory of aging.
Likely theories overlap and ea...
Slowing the Aging Process
Improve

nutrition
↓ total food consumed
Maintain general activity levels
Have social/commun...
Slowing the Aging Process
Caloric

restriction

◦ Total amt of food is reduced
 How much?

◦ Major nutrients, minerals, ...
Slowing the Aging Process
Biosphere

2 experiments
N = 8; ~2 years
Lower
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦

Metabolic rate
Body temperature
S...
Slowing the Aging Process
General

◦
◦
◦
◦

activity level

Active in life
Social contacts
Taking care of self
Living the...
Role of PA/Exercise/Sport?
Compression

of morbidity?
Decrease premature mortality?
SOC?
Social opportunities?
Quality of Life
The difference between active living
& just being alive.
Active

life expectancy
Quality of Life (more to come)
Activities

of Daily
Living (ADLs)
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦

Walking
Dressing
Bathing/toileting
Eating
Ge...
Summary
Factors

that optimize
successful aging:
◦ Avoiding disease
◦ Engaging in life activities
◦ Maintaining high cogn...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Theories of aging s14

1,825

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,825
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
66
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Theories of aging s14

  1. 1. Early Theories of Aging Thanatophobia Extend maximum life span Hippocrates – gradual loss of body heat Erasmus Darwin – reduced responses to stimuli, loss of excitability Others – metabolic rate, irradiation, genetics “geriatrics” coined in 1914 First geriatric medical journal published in 1945 ACSM founded in 1954 NIA created in 1974
  2. 2. Theories of Aging Psychological ◦ Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1943) ◦ Erikson’s Psychological Stages (1956) ◦ Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC, 1980) Sociological ◦ Activity ◦ Continuity Biological ◦ Damage ◦ Genetic ◦ Gradual Imbalance
  3. 3. Theories of Aging Psychological ◦ Primarily related to success ◦ Personal development Sociological ◦ Engagement ◦ Experience & environment
  4. 4. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Theory of Successful Aging
  5. 5. Theories of Aging Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages ◦ Development through late adulthood ◦ Positive/Negative Outcomes Late Adulthood ◦ Pride & satisfaction vs. lack of accomplishment ◦ Dignity & acceptance vs. frustration Keys: close relationships; productivity with family and/or work; evaluation of the rear view
  6. 6. Theories of Aging Selective Optimization with Compensation (Baltes & Baltes, 1990) ◦ Select priorities/likes/most important ◦ Optimize skills and talents ◦ Compensate for decrements in ability Examples ◦ Playing music ◦ Lifting weights ◦ Running
  7. 7. Theories of Aging SOC ◦ Functional competence is key Related ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ concepts Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977) Self-esteem Control Cognitive capacity
  8. 8. Theories of Aging: Sociological Activity Theory (Havighurst, 1961) ◦ Engaged in mental and physical activities ◦ Community/family/profession Continuity (Atchley, 1971) ◦ Carry forward positive habits, relationships, regardless of advancing age Can social beings successfully age without solid social connections? Cognitive function?
  9. 9. Theories of Aging
  10. 10. Theories of Aging Damage from wear and tear ◦ Chemical reactions that occur naturally in the body begin to produce a # of irreversible defects in molecules. ◦ What is the source of “microinsults”?     Physical Chemical Infectious Mechanical Loss of function & System failure Injury Repair
  11. 11. Theories of Aging
  12. 12. Theories of Aging Free-radical theory (damage) ◦ Chemical compounds that contain an unpaired electron in an outer orbital ◦ Able to link to tissue and cause damage
  13. 13. Theories of Aging  Mitochondrial respiration– “leaking intermediates”  Superoxide dismutase
  14. 14. Theories of Aging Free radical targets ◦ Cell membranes ◦ DNA & RNA ◦ Enzymes Damage to tissues, ultimately systems
  15. 15. Theories of Aging Accumulation of defects in metabolic pathways Does aging originate in the mitochondria? Oxidation of mitochondrial DNA Widespread impact
  16. 16. Theories of Aging Strategy for reducing free radicals: ◦ Consumption of Vitamins E and C  “anti-oxidants” ◦ Mechanism? ◦ Use of supplements?
  17. 17. Theories of Aging Cross-linkage (damage) ◦ Corrupted DNA not repaired ◦ Cross-linking occurs in protein-based collagen fibers ◦ Over time, results in      Stiffening of tissue Rigidity of blood vessels Tight ligaments & tendons Cataracts Atherosclerosis
  18. 18. Theories of Aging Genetic theories ◦ Genes related to pathologies ◦ Could dictate cellular aging ◦ DNA mutations of mitochondria build during lifetime
  19. 19. Theories of Aging  Hayflick Limit  Cells will divide & reproduce only a limited number of times “Cell Clock”  Number is genetically programmed  Limitations
  20. 20. Theories of Aging Telomere Hypothesis ◦ Shortens with each replication of the chromosome ◦ Replication at a fixed rate may indicate that the telomere is the “clock” that determines the lifespan of any given cell ◦ Dolly’s fate
  21. 21. Theories of Aging Gradual Imbalance Theory ◦ Nervous system ◦ Endocrine system ◦ Impaired relationship btwn the two Hormones impacted Adaptation impaired Is aging the result of decreased ability to survive stress??
  22. 22. Theories of Aging There is no overwhelming support for just one biological theory of aging. Likely theories overlap and each explain some aspect(s) of aging
  23. 23. Slowing the Aging Process Improve nutrition ↓ total food consumed Maintain general activity levels Have social/community involvement Perform moderate amounts of physical exercise
  24. 24. Slowing the Aging Process Caloric restriction ◦ Total amt of food is reduced  How much? ◦ Major nutrients, minerals, & vitamins necessary for health are maintained
  25. 25. Slowing the Aging Process Biosphere 2 experiments N = 8; ~2 years Lower ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Metabolic rate Body temperature SBP & DBP Blood glucose Insulin Thyroid hormones Okinawan population Experimental data in humans?
  26. 26. Slowing the Aging Process General ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ activity level Active in life Social contacts Taking care of self Living the “good life”
  27. 27. Role of PA/Exercise/Sport? Compression of morbidity? Decrease premature mortality? SOC? Social opportunities?
  28. 28. Quality of Life The difference between active living & just being alive. Active life expectancy
  29. 29. Quality of Life (more to come) Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Walking Dressing Bathing/toileting Eating Getting up from a bed or chair Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) ◦ Managing finances ◦ Using the telephone ◦ Light housework ◦ Heavy housework ◦ Meal preparation ◦ Shopping Spiritual health: Relationships, values, purpose
  30. 30. Summary Factors that optimize successful aging: ◦ Avoiding disease ◦ Engaging in life activities ◦ Maintaining high cognitive and physical function
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×