1-1Planes of Motion• Imaginary two-dimensional surfacethrough which a limb or body segmentis moved• Motion through a plane...
1-2Cardinal planes of motion• 3 basic or traditional– in relation to the body, not inrelation to the earth• Anteroposterio...
1-3Cardinal planes of motion• Sagittal or AnteroposteriorPlane (AP)
1-4Cardinal planes of motion• Frontal, Lateral orCoronal Plane
1-5Cardinal planes of motion• Transverse, Axial orHorizontal Plane
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Foundations of Structural Kinesiology 1-9Axes of rotation• For movement to occur in a plan...
1-10Axes of rotation• Frontal, coronal, lateral ormediolateral axis
1-11Axes of rotation• Sagittal or anteroposterioraxis
1-12Axes of rotation• Vertical, long orlongitudinal axis– Runs straight down through topof head & is at a right angle totr...
2-14Muscle Nomenclature• Muscles are usually named due to– visual appearance– anatomical location– function• Shape –• Size...
2-15Muscle Nomenclature• Location - rectus femoris, palmarislongus• Points of attachment - coracobrachialis,extensor hallu...
2-16Muscle Nomenclature• Action & size – adductor magnus• Shape & location – serratus anterior• Location & attachment – br...
2-17Shape of Muscles & Fiber Arrangement• Muscles have different shapes & fiberarrangement• Shape & fiber arrangement affe...
2-18Shape of Muscles & Fiber Arrangement• Cross section diameter• Muscle’s ability to shorten
2-19Shape of Muscles & Fiber Arrangement• 2 major types of fiber arrangements– each is further subdivided according toshap...
2-20Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Categorized intofollowing shapes– Flat– Fusiform– Strap– Convergent– Sphincter orcircular
2-21Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Flat muscles– usually thin & broad, originating frombroad, fibrous, sheet-like aponeuros...
Rectus abdominusManual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-22
2-23Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Fusiform muscles– spindle-shaped with a central belly thattapers to tendons on each end–...
2-24Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Strap muscles– more uniform in diameter withessentially all fibers arranged in along par...
2-25Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Radiate/Convergent muscles– also described sometimes as beingtriangular, fan-shaped or c...
2-26Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Sphincter or circular muscles– technically endless strap muscles– surround openings & fu...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-27Fiber Arrangement - Pennate• Pennate muscles– have shorter ...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-28Fiber Arrangement - Pennate• Categorized based upon the exa...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-29Fiber Arrangement - Pennate–Unipennate muscles• fibers run ...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-30Fiber Arrangement - Pennate–Bipennate muscle• fibers run ob...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-31Fiber Arrangement - Pennate–Multipennate muscles• have seve...
2-32Muscle Tissue Properties• Skeletal muscle tissue has 4 propertiesrelated to its ability to produce force &movement abo...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-33Muscle Terminology• Intrinsic muscles
2-34Muscle Terminology• Extrinsic muscles
2-35Muscle Terminology• Action• Origin• Insertion• Origin/insertion juxtaposition
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-36Muscle Terminology• Any of the muscles in the group can bes...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-37Muscle Terminology• Innervation - segment of nervoussystem ...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-38Types of muscle contraction• Isometric contraction– tension...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-39Types of muscle contractionMuscle Contraction(under tension...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-40Types of muscle contraction• Isotonic contractions involve ...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-41Types of muscle contraction• Movement may occur at any give...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-42Types of muscle contraction• Concentric contractionsinvolve...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-43Types of muscle contraction• Concentric contraction– muscle...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-44Types of muscle contraction• Concentric contraction
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-45Types of muscle contraction• Eccentric contraction (musclea...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-46Types of muscle contraction• Eccentric contraction (musclea...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-47Types of muscle contraction• Eccentric contraction (musclea...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-48Types of muscle contraction• Eccentric contraction (muscle ...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-49Types of muscle contraction• Isokinetics - a type of dynami...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-50Role of Muscles• Agonist muscles– cause joint motion throug...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-51Role of Muscles• Agonist muscles– Primary or prime movers, ...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-52Role of Muscles• Antagonist muscles– located on opposite si...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-53Role of Muscles• Stabilizers– surround joint or body part– ...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-54Role of Muscles• Synergist
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-55Role of Muscles• Helping synergists– have an action in comm...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-56Role of Muscles• True synergists– contract to prevent an un...
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-57Role of Muscles• Neutralizers– counteract or neutralize the...
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Kinesiology planes of motion copy-1

  1. 1. 1-1Planes of Motion• Imaginary two-dimensional surfacethrough which a limb or body segmentis moved• Motion through a plane revolves aroundan axis• There is a ninety-degree relationshipbetween a plane of motion & its axis
  2. 2. 1-2Cardinal planes of motion• 3 basic or traditional– in relation to the body, not inrelation to the earth• Anteroposterior or SagittalPlane• Lateral or Frontal Plane• Transverse or HorizontalPlane
  3. 3. 1-3Cardinal planes of motion• Sagittal or AnteroposteriorPlane (AP)
  4. 4. 1-4Cardinal planes of motion• Frontal, Lateral orCoronal Plane
  5. 5. 1-5Cardinal planes of motion• Transverse, Axial orHorizontal Plane
  6. 6. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Foundations of Structural Kinesiology 1-9Axes of rotation• For movement to occur in a plane, itmust turn or rotate about an axis asreferred to previously• The axes are named in relation to theirorientation
  7. 7. 1-10Axes of rotation• Frontal, coronal, lateral ormediolateral axis
  8. 8. 1-11Axes of rotation• Sagittal or anteroposterioraxis
  9. 9. 1-12Axes of rotation• Vertical, long orlongitudinal axis– Runs straight down through topof head & is at a right angle totransverse plane of motion– Runs superior/ inferior– Commonly includes internalrotation, external rotationmovements
  10. 10. 2-14Muscle Nomenclature• Muscles are usually named due to– visual appearance– anatomical location– function• Shape –• Size –• Number of divisions –• Direction of its fibers –
  11. 11. 2-15Muscle Nomenclature• Location - rectus femoris, palmarislongus• Points of attachment - coracobrachialis,extensor hallucis longus, flexordigitorum longus• Action - erector spinae, supinator,extensor digiti minimi• Action & shape – pronator quadratus
  12. 12. 2-16Muscle Nomenclature• Action & size – adductor magnus• Shape & location – serratus anterior• Location & attachment – brachioradialis• Location & number of divisions – bicepsfemoris
  13. 13. 2-17Shape of Muscles & Fiber Arrangement• Muscles have different shapes & fiberarrangement• Shape & fiber arrangement affects– muscle’s ability to exert force– range through which it can effectively exertforce onto the bones
  14. 14. 2-18Shape of Muscles & Fiber Arrangement• Cross section diameter• Muscle’s ability to shorten
  15. 15. 2-19Shape of Muscles & Fiber Arrangement• 2 major types of fiber arrangements– each is further subdivided according toshape• Parallel muscles– Fibers run parallel to the tendon– produce a greater range of movement thansimilar sized muscles with pennatearrangement
  16. 16. 2-20Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Categorized intofollowing shapes– Flat– Fusiform– Strap– Convergent– Sphincter orcircular
  17. 17. 2-21Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Flat muscles– usually thin & broad, originating frombroad, fibrous, sheet-like aponeuroses– allows them to spread their forces overa broad area
  18. 18. Rectus abdominusManual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-22
  19. 19. 2-23Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Fusiform muscles– spindle-shaped with a central belly thattapers to tendons on each end– allows them to focus their power ontosmall, bony targets
  20. 20. 2-24Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Strap muscles– more uniform in diameter withessentially all fibers arranged in along parallel manner– enables a focusing of power ontosmall, bony targets– Ex. sartorius
  21. 21. 2-25Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Radiate/Convergent muscles– also described sometimes as beingtriangular, fan-shaped or convergent– have combined arrangement of flat &fusiform– originate on broad aponeuroses &converge onto a tendon
  22. 22. 2-26Fiber Arrangement - Parallel• Sphincter or circular muscles– technically endless strap muscles– surround openings & function toclose them upon contraction
  23. 23. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-27Fiber Arrangement - Pennate• Pennate muscles– have shorter fibers– arranged obliquely to their tendons in amanner similar to a feather– arrangement increases the cross sectionalarea of the muscle, thereby increasing theforce capacity
  24. 24. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-28Fiber Arrangement - Pennate• Categorized based upon the exactarrangement between fibers & tendon– Unipennate– Bipennate– Multipennate
  25. 25. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-29Fiber Arrangement - Pennate–Unipennate muscles• fibers run obliquely from a tendonon one side only
  26. 26. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-30Fiber Arrangement - Pennate–Bipennate muscle• fibers run obliquely on both sidesfrom a central tendon
  27. 27. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-31Fiber Arrangement - Pennate–Multipennate muscles• have several tendons with fibersrunning diagonally between them–Bipennate & unipennate producestrongest contraction
  28. 28. 2-32Muscle Tissue Properties• Skeletal muscle tissue has 4 propertiesrelated to its ability to produce force &movement about joints– Irritability or excitability– Contractility– Extensibility/Plasticity– Elasticity
  29. 29. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-33Muscle Terminology• Intrinsic muscles
  30. 30. 2-34Muscle Terminology• Extrinsic muscles
  31. 31. 2-35Muscle Terminology• Action• Origin• Insertion• Origin/insertion juxtaposition
  32. 32. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-36Muscle Terminology• Any of the muscles in the group can besaid to cause the action, even though itis usually an effort of the entire group• A muscle may cause more than oneaction either at the same joint or adifferent joint depending upon thecharacteristics of the joints crossed bythe muscle
  33. 33. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-37Muscle Terminology• Innervation - segment of nervoussystem defined as being responsible forproviding a stimulus to muscle fiberswithin a specific muscle or portion of amuscle– A muscle may be innervated by more thanone nerve & a particular nerve mayinnervate more than one muscle or portionof a muscle
  34. 34. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-38Types of muscle contraction• Isometric contraction– tension is developed withinmuscle but joint angles remainconstant
  35. 35. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-39Types of muscle contractionMuscle Contraction(under tension)Isometric IsotonicEccentricConcentric
  36. 36. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-40Types of muscle contraction• Isotonic contractions involve muscledeveloping tension to either cause orcontrol joint movement– dynamic contractions– Tension remains the same as the musclelength changes• Isotonic contractions are eitherconcentric or eccentric on basis ofwhether shortening or lengtheningoccurs
  37. 37. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-41Types of muscle contraction• Movement may occur at any given jointwithout any muscle contractionwhatsoever– referred to as passive– solely due to external forces such as thoseapplied by another person, object, orresistance or the force of gravity in thepresence of muscle relaxation
  38. 38. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-42Types of muscle contraction• Concentric contractionsinvolve muscledeveloping tension as itshortens• Eccentric contractionsinvolve the musclelengthening undertension
  39. 39. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-43Types of muscle contraction• Concentric contraction– muscle develops tension as itshortens
  40. 40. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-44Types of muscle contraction• Concentric contraction
  41. 41. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-45Types of muscle contraction• Eccentric contraction (muscleaction)– muscle lengthens under tension
  42. 42. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-46Types of muscle contraction• Eccentric contraction (muscleaction)
  43. 43. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-47Types of muscle contraction• Eccentric contraction (muscleaction)
  44. 44. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-48Types of muscle contraction• Eccentric contraction (muscle action)– Some refer to this as a muscle actioninstead of a contraction since the muscle islengthening as opposed to shortening• Various exercises may use any one orall of these contraction types for muscledevelopment
  45. 45. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-49Types of muscle contraction• Isokinetics - a type of dynamic exerciseusing concentric and/or eccentric musclecontractions– speed (or velocity) of movement is constant– muscular contraction (ideally maximumcontraction) occurs throughout movement– Ex. Biodex, Cybex, Lido
  46. 46. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-50Role of Muscles• Agonist muscles– cause joint motion through a specifiedplane of motion when contractingconcentrically– known as primary or prime movers, ormuscles most involved
  47. 47. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-51Role of Muscles• Agonist muscles– Primary or prime movers, or muscles mostinvolved• Some agonist muscles, because of their relative location,size, length, or force generation capacity, are able tocontribute significantly more to the joint movement thanother agonists– Assisters or assistant movers• Agonist muscles that contribute significantly less to thejoint motion– Consensus among all authorities regarding whichmuscles are primary movers and which are weakassistants does not exist in every case
  48. 48. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-52Role of Muscles• Antagonist muscles– located on opposite side of joint from agonist– have the opposite concentric action– known as contralateral muscles
  49. 49. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-53Role of Muscles• Stabilizers– surround joint or body part– contract to fixate or stabilize the area to enableanother limb or body segment to exert force &move– known as fixators– essential in establishing a relatively firm base forthe more distal joints to work from when carryingout movements– Ex. biceps curl• muscles of scapula & glenohumeral joint must contract inorder to maintain shoulder complex & humerus in arelatively static position so that the biceps brachii canmore effectively perform curls
  50. 50. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-54Role of Muscles• Synergist
  51. 51. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-55Role of Muscles• Helping synergists– have an action in common but also have actionsantagonistic to each other– help another muscle move the joint in the desiredmanner and simultaneously prevent undesiredactions– Ex. Anterior & posterior deltoid• Anterior deltoid acts as an agonist in glenohumeralflexion, while posterior deltoid acts as an extensor• Helping each other, they work in synergy with middledeltoid to accomplish abduction
  52. 52. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-56Role of Muscles• True synergists– contract to prevent an undesired joint action ofagonist and have no direct effect on agonist action– Ex. Finger flexors are provided true synergy bywrist extensors when grasping an object• Finger flexors originating on forearm and humerus areagonists in both wrist flexion & finger flexion• Wrist extensors contract to prevent wrist flexion by fingerflexors• This allows finger flexors to utilize more of their forceflexing the fingers
  53. 53. Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Neuromuscular Fundamentals 2-57Role of Muscles• Neutralizers– counteract or neutralize the action of anothermuscle to prevent undesirable movements suchas inappropriate muscle substitutions– referred to as neutralizing– contract to resist specific actions of other muscles– Ex. when only supination action of biceps brachiiis desired, the triceps brachii contracts toneutralize the flexion action of the biceps brachii

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