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Back and ab (part 1)


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Back and ab (part 1)

  1. 1. +ESS 3092: KINESIOLOGYWeek 6
  2. 2. +Back andAbdomen3
  3. 3. +Shoulder Girdle - PosteriorTrapeziusRhomboid major & minorLevator Scapulae
  4. 4. TrapeziusOrigin spinous process (T), skullInsertion lateral clavicle, acromionprocess, scapular spineLocation posteriorMovements elevation (upper & middle), depression (lower) retraction (adduction) upward rotation (middle &lower)p. 66
  5. 5. Rhomboid Major & MinorOrigin spinous process (C7, T1-5)Insertion medial border of scapulaLocation posterior/medialMovements downward rotation elevation retractionp. 69
  6. 6. Levator ScapulaeOrigin transverse processes (C)Insertion Superior angle of scapulaLocation posteriorMovements elevation (primary) retraction, downward rotation(assists)p. 68
  7. 7. +Trunk & Spinal ColumnChapter 12Bones & bony landmarksJoint StructureMovementsMuscles surrounding the joint
  8. 8. +Vertebral ColumnOne of most complex parts protects spinal cord24 articulating vertebrae5 regoins 4 curves; support
  9. 9. +Curves absorption of shockCervical support headThoracic present at birthLumbar develops: wt bearingSacrococcygeal fusedPosterior Convex
  10. 10. Bony Landmarks spinous process transverse process body odontoid process/dens skeleton superior & inferiorarticular processCTL
  11. 11. Thoracic CavityRIBS true (7) false (5) floating (2) costal cartilageSTERNUM manubrium body costal facets xiphoid process
  12. 12. Key Bony Landmarks Neck muscles Mastoid process Cervical (spinous & transverse) Thoracic (spinous & transverse) Manubrium Clavicle (medial) Posterior spine muscles Cervical (spinous & transverse) Thoracic (spinous & transverse) Posterior ribs Anterior trunk muscles Xiphoid process Ribs Costal cartilage (ribs) Iliac & pubic crest
  13. 13. +Vertebral ColumnCervical JointsAtlanto-occipital Occipital condyles, 1st vertebrae Flexion, extension (sag)Atlanto-axial Atlas (C1), axis (C2) Rotation Pivot-joint Most mobileOdontoidProcess
  14. 14. VERTEBRAL COLUMN JointsArticulation b/w vertebral bodiesAnterior segment Vertebral bodies (cartilaginous) Intervertebral discPosterior segment (gliding) Transverse & spinous processes Intervertebral jointsT L
  15. 15. +Intervertebral DiscBears & distributes loadMobilityNucleus pulposus 75-90% water
  16. 16. + Vertebral MovementGreatest mobility one curve ends then next beginsExaggerated curve (vs flat & rigid) increased mobility flat back – loss of lumbar lordosisCervical & lumbar most mobile
  17. 17. +Vertebral Movement
  18. 18. Layers of the Intrinsic Back Muscles Superficial Layer Both Splenius muscles Intermediate Layer Erector Spinae (bilateral andipsilateral action) Designated by region frommedial to lateral Designated by insertion Deep Layer Interconnect and stabilize thevertebra Small muscles that make fineadjustments to vertebra19
  20. 20. + Cervical MusclesCapitis originate C vertebrae insert occipital boneAnterior- flexors lateral flexionPosterior – extensors Rotation lateral flexion
  21. 21. +Neck - CervicalLargest & most powerful Sternocleidomastoid (pg 279) Lateral Splenius- 2 (pg 281) Posterior
  22. 22. SternocleidomastoidOrigin Sternal manubrium,medial clavicleInsertion Mastoid process oftemporal boneLocation: LateralMovements Flexion Lateral (ipsilateral) flexion Rotation (contralateral)
  23. 23. Splenius CapitisOrigin (inferior) Spinous process of C7-T4Insertion Mastoid process & occipital boneLocation: PosteriorMovements Cervical Spine: Extension Ipsilateral rotation, ipsilateral flexion
  24. 24. +Splenius Capitis Synergist: Semispinalis capitis and cervicis, Splenius cervicis,Spinalis cervicis, Interspinales, Longissimus cervicis,Iliocostalis cervicis Antagonist: Sternocleidomastoid and others25
  25. 25. +Splenius Cervicis O: Lig nuchae (T3-C6) I: Transverse process of C1-C4 Location: Posterior Movements Cervical Spine: Extension Ipsilateral rotation, ipsilateral flexion Synergist: Semispinalis capitis Spinaliscervicis, Interspinales Antagonist: Sternocleidomastoid and others26
  26. 26. SemispinalisOrigin Transverse processes ofC4-T7Insertion Occipital boneLocation: PosteriorMovements Cervical Spine: ExtensionContralateral rotation
  27. 27. Trunk - LumbarAnterior Rectus Abdominis External Oblique Internal ObliquePosterior Erector Spinae
  28. 28. +Divisions of the sacrospinalis (akaErector spinae)30Lateral Column. Intermediate Column. Medial Column.Iliocostalis Longissimus Spinalis.(a) I. lumborum. (a) L. dorsi. (a) S. dorsi.(b) I. dorsi. (b) L. cervicis. (b) S. cervicis.(c) I. cervicis. (c) L. capitis. (c) S. capitis.
  29. 29. Erector Spinae(sacrospinalis) Origin Sacrum, spinous processes oflower two thoracic & alllumbar Insertion Transverse and spinousprocesses as well as ribs andskull Location: Posterior Movements (spine) Extension (C & L) Ipsilateral flexion (C & L)Iliocostalis Longissimus Spinalis
  30. 30. +Erector Spinae Muscle is thickest in S & L regions most movement Controls forward flexion Extension of trunk Posterior stability posture
  31. 31. Rectus AbdominisOrigin Pubic crestInsertion Cartilage of ribs 5-7,xiphoid processLocation: anteriorMovements (LS) Trunk flexion
  32. 32. Rectus AbdominisControls Post pelvic tilt & curvature LS Flattens lower back What effect does this have onerector spinae & hip flexors? more effectiveDefinition 3 depressions area of tendinous connective tissue
  33. 33. External ObliqueOrigin Lateral side of ribs 5-12Insertion Anterior iliac crest, pubic crestLocation: Lateral/AnteriorMovements Flexion (together) Ipsilateral flexion Contralateral rotation(independently)
  34. 34. Internal ObliqueOrigin Anterior iliac crest andinguinal ligamentInsertion Cartilage of ribs 8-10 andlinea albaLocation:anterior/medialMovements Flexion Ipsilateral flexionFiber direction
  35. 35. +Internal Obliques37
  36. 36. +What functions do the anterior trunkmuscles play? In what order from superficial to deep are these layers? Functions: Flexion (forward and lateral) Rotation38
  37. 37. +Transverse abdominus39
  38. 38. +Transverse abdominis Origin: Thoracolumbar fascia, lower 6 ribs, iliac crest Insertion: Pubis, abdominal aponeurosis Functions: Forced expiration Spinal stabilization Compression of abdominal viscera Expulsion of abdominal contents, including but not limited to babies!40
  39. 39. +Exercise Find: Acromian Process Cocochoid process Greater tubercle Medial and lateral epicondyles Spine of scapula Inferior angle of scapula Iliac crest C7 and L141