Physiological anatomy of respiratory system
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Physiological anatomy of respiratory system






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Physiological anatomy of respiratory system Physiological anatomy of respiratory system Presentation Transcript

  • Physiological Anatomy of Respiratory systemD.A. Asir John Samuel, BSc (Psy), MPT (Neuro Paed), MAc, DYScEd, C/BLS, FAGE Lecturer, Alva’s college of Physiotherapy, Moodbidri Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Respiration• Exchange of gases between an organism and its environment• Physiological processes that contribute to uptake of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Anatomical structures• Respiratory passages• Lungs• Respiratory muscles operating on body structures of thoracic cage Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Respiratory passages• Nasal cavity• Pharynx• Larynx• Trachea• Bronchi• bronchioles Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Nose (nasal cavity)• Both olfactory and respiratory functions• Inspired air is warmed or cooled• Brought close to body temperature• Also moistened by fluid derived from transudation through epithelium and secretions of glands and goblet cells Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Nose (nasal cavity)• Warming and humidification of inspired air• Moist air is necessary for integrity and proper functioning of ciliated epithelium• Secretions have bactericidal actions• Stiff hairs trap dust and foreign particles• Resonator in voice and speech Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Pharynx• Nasal cavity opens posteriorly into nasopharynx• During swallowing, respiration is temporarily inhibited permitting food to enter oropharynx• Elevation of larynx and closure of vocal cords prevents entry of food into larynx Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Larynx• Lower part of pharynx and at upper end of trachea• Cartilagenous, cartilages being held together ligaments• Production of voice• Achieved by forcible expulsion of air from lungs, causing production of sound• Contraction of adductor muscles and glottis Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Trachea and main bronchi• Tubular structure about 10cm long and 1cm in diameter• Begins at lower end of larynx• Lumen of trachea is kept patent by a number of C-shaped fibro cartilaginous ring• Divides into right and left bronchus Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Lungs• One on either side• Large cone-shaped spongy structures which occupy most of thoracic cavity• Left lung is divided into 2 lobes and right into 3• Lined by pleura (visceral and parietal) Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Lung lobes Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Bronchioles Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Terminal branches• Bronchioles branch further and the smallest subdivisions being terminal bronchiole• It is estimated, no. of divisions from tracheal bifurcation to terminal bronchiole is 16• Total no. of divisions till alveoli is 23 Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
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  • Dead space• The bronchiole tree upto and including terminal bronchiole is purely conducting pathway for passage of air• Respiratory gas exchange does not occur in this region• Referred to as anatomical dead space Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Gas exchange apparatus• Terminal bronchiole divides into respiratory bronchioles• Respiratory bronchioles give rise to a number of short passages called alveolar ducts• These open into wider alveolar sacs• On the walls located pulmonary alveoli• Some alveoli present in respiratory bronchioles Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
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  • AlveolusDr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Pulmonary alveoli• Alveoli are lined by a single layer of flat epithelial cells• Alveolar type I cells are principal lining• Type II are cuboidal cells, secrete surfactant• Average width is 0.3 mm• 300 million alveoli in human lung Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Surfactant• Formed from fatty acids by alveolar type II cells• Complex mixture of several phospholipids, proteins and ions• Most important components are phospholipid, dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DDPC), surfactant appoproteins and calcium ions Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • RD (Respiratory Distress)• Deficiency of surfactant at birth causes a serious pulmonary disease of new born called Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS) or hyaline membrane disease• Lung shows several areas of collapse• Reduced compliance• Poor expansion• Presence of fluid in alveoli Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Muscles of respiration• Downward and upward movement of diaphragm• Elevation and depression of ribs Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Pleural pressure• Pressure of fluid in the narrow space b/w visceral pleura and parietal pleura• Normally a slight suction, which means a slightly negative pressure• At beginning of inspiration is about -5 cm of H2O• Required to hold lungs open to their resting level Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Pleural pressure• During normal inspiration, the expansion of chest cage pulls outward on lungs with still greater force• Creates still more negative pressure to an average of about -7.5 cm of H2O• Increasing negativity of pleural pressure from - 5 to -7.5 cm of H2O• During expiration, events are reversed Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Alveolar pressure• Pressure of air inside the lung alveoli• Pressure in all parts of respiratory tree are equal to atmospheric pressure• 760 mm of Hg/0 cm of H2O• During normal inspiration, alveolar pressure decreases to about -1 cm of H2O Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Alveolar pressure• Slight negative pressure is enough to pull 0.5 liter of air into lungs in 2 seconds• During expiration, opposite changes occur• Alveolar pressure rises to about +1 cm of H2O• This forces 0.5 liter of inspired air out of lungs during 2-3 seconds of expiration Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Transpulmonary pressure• Pressure difference b/w alveolar pressure and pleural pressure• Pressure difference between that in alveoli and that on outer surfaces of lungs• Measure of elastic forces in lungs that tend to collapse at each instant respiration• Recoil pressure Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Compliance of lungs• Extent to which lungs expand for each unit increase in transpulmonary pressure• Total compliance of both lungs together in normal human being averages about 200 ml of air/1 cm of H2O• Every time transpulmonary pressure increases by 1 cm of H2O, lung volume expands 200 ml Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Compliance diagram• Inspiratory compliance curve and expiratory compliance curve• Determined by, elastic forces of lungs- Elastic forces of lung tissue itself- Elastic forces caused by surface tension of fluid that lines inside walls of alveoli Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Pressure-volume curve Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Pressure-volume curve Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
  • Spirometry• The process by which pulmonary ventilation is recorded by the volume movement of air into and out of lungs• Consists of drum inverted over a chamber of water, with drum counterbalanced by weight• Drum rises and falls. Recorded on paper Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
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  • Spirometry Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)
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  • Dr.Asir John Samuel (PT)