Structure and function of the lungs


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  • Explain difference between inspiration, expiration and respiration Page 5 in Books
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  • Link Breathing to Gaseous exchange. Where does it occur? How Does it occur?
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  • Page 7 in Books ACTIVITY - Turn Two Tables Upside Down Table 1 (ALVEOLI) 3 Students being “Oxygen” 1 Student being “Carbon Dioxide” Table 2 (CAPILLARIES) 3 Students being “Carbon Dioxide” 1 Student being “Oxygen” Which partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen has highest concentration? Let them diffuse Link to oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
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  • Structure and function of the lungs

    1. 1. Lloyd Dean Respiratory System
    2. 2. Lesson Objectives <ul><li>By the end of the lesson you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure and function of the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Identify, describe and explain the role of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles in the mechanics of breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the transport of gases is achieved from the respiratory system into the cardiovascular system </li></ul>
    3. 4. Component Structure Function Epiglottis <ul><li>Small flap of cartilage </li></ul>Prevents food entering the trachea Trachea <ul><li>Tube which carriers air </li></ul><ul><li>Covered in hairs (Cilia) </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by C-shaped cartilage rings (Protect) </li></ul>Also known as the wind pipe; passage for oxygen to travel through Bronchus <ul><li>Cartilage rings </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle </li></ul>Splits trachea into two tube to allow oxygen in right and left lungs Bronchioles <ul><li>Further division of bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Very narrow tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to alveoli </li></ul>Allows oxygen to filter into alveoli Alveoli <ul><li>Air sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Thin walls </li></ul>Site for exchange of gasses Diaphragm <ul><li>Muscle that sits underneath lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to the ribs and sternum </li></ul><ul><li>Base of thoracic cavity </li></ul>Enables thoracic cavity to be increased and decreased Intercostal muscles <ul><li>Muscles that sit between the ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Internal and external </li></ul>Enables thoracic cavity to be increased and decreased
    4. 5. Breathing Mechanics <ul><li>Four things need to happen in order for respiratory system to fulfil its function: </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>External Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Expiration </li></ul>
    5. 6. Inspiration <ul><li>Diaphragm flattens and stretches lungs downward </li></ul><ul><li>Intercostals pull the ribcage up and out causing the lungs to stretch </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of air causes a drop in air pressure in the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Air in the lungs is at a lower pressure than the air outside, so air enters the lungs </li></ul>
    6. 7. Expiration <ul><li>Diaphragm relaxes </li></ul><ul><li>Intercostals relax </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs recoil </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of air in the lungs decreases causing an increase in the air pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows from higher to lower pressure so the air flows out of the lungs </li></ul>
    7. 8. Intercostal and Diaphragm Muscles <ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Dome shaped muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Separates thoracic cavity from abdominals </li></ul><ul><li>Intercostal Muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Changes the shape rib cage during breathing </li></ul><ul><li>External intercostals contract to breathe in </li></ul><ul><li>Internal intercostals contract during forced breathing out </li></ul><ul><li>(Author Unknown, Date Unknown) </li></ul>(Dugdale, 2009)
    8. 9. Inspiration and Expiration During Exercise
    9. 10. Inhalation and Exhalation
    10. 11. External Respiration (WebMD, 2009) <ul><li>Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood stream </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs at Alveoli </li></ul>
    11. 12. Diffusion <ul><li>Oxygen (0 2 ) is required in tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has to be removed </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange occurs through Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of particles from a high concentration area, to a low concentration area </li></ul><ul><li>Rule = Diffusion only occurs down a concentration gradient </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration (pressure ) oxygen in lungs must be higher than concentration (pressure) in capillaries </li></ul>
    12. 13. Partial Pressure <ul><li>Individual pressure of a particular gas within a mixture of gases </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion occurs from high to low concentrations </li></ul>INHALED % GAS EXHALED % 79.04 Nitrogen 79 20.93 Oxygen 17 0.03 Carbon Dioxide 4
    13. 14. Exchange of Gases <ul><li>Fast rate of diffusion occurs with: </li></ul><ul><li>Large surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Small distance between areas involved </li></ul><ul><li>Other Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary size </li></ul><ul><li>Moist surface of alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Slow capillary blood flow = Complete Oxygenation </li></ul><ul><li>Haemoglobin – Magnet for oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of gases in the bodies cells </li></ul><ul><li>Works similar to external respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Cell use of oxygen to make ATP </li></ul>
    14. 15. Gas Exchange
    15. 16. Gas Exchange