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UNIT 1 Questions forms A Yes/No questions (which expect the answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’) 1 Most verbs need to use the auxiliary do/does/did to make questions 2 Verbs with be, can and have (got) don’t need the auxiliary d0/does/did 3 Negative Yes/No questions expect a particular answer Do you like to play soccer? B Wh- questions 1 Question words (who, what, and how, etc) come at the beginning of the question 2 If who, what or which is the subject of the sentence, we don’t use the auxiliary do/does/did, and we use normal sentence word order 3 If there is a preposition, it comes at the end of the question (unless it is very formal speaking or writing) What did you do last night? C Alternative questions (which espect the answer to be one of two options) There are two types of alternative questions; (a) a Yes/No type and (b) a Wh- type Do you want to listen to music or go to the party?
Prepositions of place, time and movement In ‘time’ phrases: at/in/on These prepositions can be used to indicate the time of an action My bithday is on 11th July I listened to music at night In ‘place’ phrases: at/it/on These prepositions can be used to indicate actual position, and they can also be used in expressions I will wait to you at the bus stop I left the book in bed In ‘movement’ phrases: at/to/into/towards These prepositions can be used to indicate the movement of a person or an object We arrived at the concert I walked to school
UNIT 2 Present Simple & Present Continuous Present simple 1 Positive statements 2 Negative statements 3 Questions 4 Short answers I play the guitar Do you play the guitar? Present continuous The present form of be + the –ing form of the verb I’m reading a book He’s studying for the exam
Modifiers 1 Fairly usually modifies adjectives and adverbs It’s a fairly large building but there isn’t enough space 2 Quite suggests a higher degree than fairly He’s quite good at science 3 Pretty is stronger than quite It’s a pretty cool building 4 A bit is often used with the same meaning as a little He’s a bit young to participate at the olympics 5 Really is used to show emphasis The book was really interesting 6 Extremely, incredibly and terribly are also used to show emphasis I was extremely happy that i pass the exams
UNIT 3 Types of comparison To a higher degree (comparative form + than) He is taller than it used to be To the same degree (as…as) I´m as fast as i used to be To a lower degree (with less + than and the least) I’m less keen on sports than i used to be (Not) as…as (compare things which are different) I’m not as good at sports as i used to be As…as (compare things which are the same) I´m as good at school as i used to be
Reflexives & own Reflexives 1 When the object is the same person/thing as the subject 2 When you want to emphasise the subject or object 3 With by to mean alone I cook the dinner by myself I forced myself not to play videogames Own 1 on my own/on his own, etc. To mean ‘without the help of others’ 2 on my own/on his own, etc. To mean ‘alone’ 3 my own/her own, etc. To mean ‘belonging to no other person’ I bought my own house I organised the party on my own
UNIT 4 Narrative tenses Past simple Verb + -ed (remember there are many irregular verb forms) He played soccer yesterday Past continuous Was/were + -ing I was reading a book last night Past perfect simple Had + past participle She had written a letter Past perfect continuous Had been + -ing He had been playing the guitar
Time conjunctions As Is used (with simple tenses) to talk about two situations which develop or change together As i was playing the guitar, i listened to music When We often use when to refer to periods of time When i studied a lot, i had better grades While We usually use while to describe two longer actions or situations going on the same time While i was doing the homework, i was watching tv
Eventually/Finally Mean ‘in the end’. We used them to say that something happens later It was a very closed race but eventually he won At first/To begin with Refer to the beginning of a situation, to make a contrast with something different that happens later At first she enjoyed reading the book, but after a while she don´t wanted to read As soon as Can be used to talk about two actions or events that happen very quicklyone after the other As soon as i arrived at home, i watch the tv After/Afterwards/After that After is not usually alone. Instead we use other expressions like afterwards and after that We’re going to go to the cinema and afterwards we’re going to the restaurant By the time Is used before a verb and means ‘not later than’
UNIT 5 Modals Can We use can to ask for and give permission You can go to the park Could We use could to to ask permission when you are noy sure what the answer will be Could you come tomorrow? May We use may to ask for or give permission in formal situations May i go to drink water?
Ought to/Should We usew to talk about obligations and duties in the future, present and past You should go to the gym Mus t We use to talk about present and future strong obligations and necessities that come from the speaker You must remember to drink your medicine Needn’t/Don’t need/Don’t have to We use to talk lack of obligation in the present or future You don’t need to bring the tickets
Used to and Would Used to We use to talk about past habits and ststes that do not occur now or no longer exist I used to play alot of videogames, but now i hardly play He used to go to the gym, but he’s put on a lot of weigh Would Is also used to talk about past habits and repeated actions but not about past states When i was a child, i would go to play videogames When i was a child, i would go to the park