As an ECE in order for me to include Jose in the class I must first know about his disorder and work my way from there.
These facts will help me to keep focus on what Jose’s needs really are. It will prevent me or other staff in the room from providing aides that are not helpful to Jose’s development.
*Image from http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/eyediagram/images/NEA08.gif. Arrow notes added in by me.
All these changes will not only benefit Jose but other children in the centre. For example having pictures with a written description in the daily schedule may help other children who are developing their language abilities. Another example are audio recorded books, these may help children who again are developing their language skills and would like to follow along with the words in the book.
All strategies discussed on this page are from Class notes: Week 5.
Teaching strategies fromconnectAbility workshop worksheet done in Week 6 class.
These questions will serve as a starting point for me and the other staff in the room to include Jose in all aspects of the childcare centre. I felt it was important to ask what interests Jose has because I shouldn’t only focus on Jose’s disorder but learn about Jose as a whole child. I also asked about strategies used at home and in his last centre because I felt that if possible we could adapt those strategies into the centre and keep things somewhat consistent for Jose. Finally I asked which services were accessed in Winnipeg because as mentioned before, I could find out if those services had branches in Toronto which may make the move and adapting to life in Toronto a bit easier for Jose and his family.
The image shown in the slide is a book called “All Children Have Different Eyes” by Edie Glaser and Dr. Maria Burgio. This book can be bought at http://www.lowvisionkids.com/store.php.The idea is to pair children with Jose to help social development if needed and also give Jose a chance to learn from his peers and vice versa.
Although Jose is not blind, all agencies listed provide assistance and resources for low vision as well.
Meeting the needs_of_children_and_families
MEETING THE NEEDS OF CHILDREN AND FAMILIES: JoseAlviya VawdaInclusion of Children with SpecialNeedsECEP- 233April 4th, 2011
JOSE: CASE STUDY“You are working as an ECE in a preschool room. Jose (age 4) is a child with low vision who has just started in your room. Jose has just moved to Toronto. He had been in a childcare in Winnipeg before his father was transferred. Jose is an only child in a two-parent family, both parents work. Jose’s parents ask you about services in the Toronto area” (Case Studies, Week
A LOOK AT JOSE’S CASEThe following are the main points I picked up on and feel are huge factors when looking at Jose’s case. I have included an explanation for why each point is significant. Jose has low-vision: This may impact the type of experiences and materials Jose can work with. I must consider what adaptations need to be made to the experiences and materials to meet Jose’s needs. In no way should Jose be excluded but steps should be taken to include him in all aspects of the childcare. Jose is an only child, in a two parent family: This is important to know because both parents can be asked questions about Jose, in an attempt to get to know Jose better. Also since Jose is an only child we know that his parents attention is focused on him. He and his family are new to Toronto: This may mean that Jose and his family do not know a lot about life in Toronto.
A LOOK AT JOSE’S CASE CONTINUED ... to Toronto and thus Jose’s family moved from Winnipeg are not new to the country. This is important because this may mean there won’t be a language barrier and the family is familiar with life, laws etc in Canada. Also the family may have accessed national services in Winnipeg that have branches in Toronto. The move was due to a job transfer. This is important to know because the family did not move due to a calamity or other dire reasons. This is important to know as the family will may not need extra social support services as a family with an emergency would require. Jose’s parents have asked about services in the area. Since the parents have asked for the services, getting permission in the way of a Form 14 sign will be easier to do.
WHAT IS NORMAL VISION VS. LOW VISION?Normal vision is the “ability to see comfortably what is around us, whether far away or near, with or without glasses” (CNIB, 2011). Normal vision is considered anything between 20/20 and 20/30. This means that a person can see objects as far as 20 feet away clearly. Any small changes of up to 20/60 is manageable for most people. It just means that they can see at 20 feet what people with 20/20 vision could see at 60 feet (CNIB,2011).In comparison low vision is changes in vision anywhere from 20/60 to 20/190 which makes visual activities for the individual difficult. (CNIB, 2011). Many times low vision is
FACTS ABOUT LOW VISIONAn important thing to remember is low vision is not the same as being blind. An individual can still see but at a very short distance. In order to be considered blind a person’s vision must be 20/200 or more (CNIB, 2011).Many people associate low vision as an elderly person issue. This may be due to the fact that the majority of individuals with a low vision issue are elderly however low vision can occur at any age (CNIB, 2011).
CAUSES OF LOW VISIONMany people believe that watching TV for extensive periods of time is the cause for low vision. This is untrue. The following are a list of causes for low vision: Birth defects Injuries Certain diseases of the body Commonly it is due to scarring because of deterioration of thelight-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye (retina). Cataract Glaucoma Damage to the optic nerve (carrier for visual images to the
A LOOK AT LOW VISIONThis is a diagram of a normal human eye*. The blue arrows indicate where damage typically is seen for an individual with low vision. Please note that not ALL problems are seen in one eye. Damage to optic nerveScarring ordeterioration of retina. Cataract (clouded lens) *Image from http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/eyediagram/images/NEA08.gif. Arrow notes added in,
HOW IS LOW VISION DIAGNOSED?Typically an optometrist “conducts eye examinations, prescribe glasses and diagnoses some eye disease” (Class notes, Week 9).For further help an optometrist will refer an individual to a ophthalmologist. Ophthalmologist are trained to conduct “eye exams, provide medical eye care, surgical eye care, diagnosis and treat eye conditions related to other diseases, like diabetes, arthritis , or brain conditions ( multiple sclerosis/optic neuritis), carry out eye disease and injury preventive services and plastic surgery” (WebMD, 2011).
AFTER LOW VISION HAS BEEN DIAGNOSED.After a ophthalmologist diagnoses low vision, he/she may refer you to “other low-vision and rehabilitation specialists or suggest low- vision aids” (CNIB, 2011).Examples of low vision aids: Optical Devices Non- Optical Devices Magnifying glasses Large print reading material Strong reading glasses Large print on household devices such as telephones, calculators (CNIB,2011).
EFFECTS OF LOW VISIONLow vision effects children in each area of development.Here are some examples in each group Physical DevelopmentGross and fine motor skills such as hand-eye- coordination are slow todevelop. Intellectual DevelopmentDifficulty reading and writing Social and Emotional DevelopmentInteraction with others Cognitive Development “Concept development(e.g., object identification, function, and characteristics)” (Ministry of Children and Youth Services, 2010)
FIRST STEPS IN INCLUSION Talk with ParentsThis is discussed further in slide 17. Ask Jose’s parents to fill out a Form 14 to begin the search for appropriate services (Class notes: Week 5). Talk with JoseLearn what Jose is interested in, what he feels he wants to learn and develop at. Talk with StaffDiscuss what you have learned by talking to Jose, and his parents. Plan ways to implement strategies and brainstorm ideas to best include Jose at the centre. Individual Program Plan“Assist in creating and implementing an IPP. [Provide] thoughts, ideas, observations, strategies and solutions” (Class notes: Week 5). Contact a Resource ConsultantThe resource consultant will assist Jose’s family, and the staff of the centre in learning the strengths, needs, goals and more for Jose.
HOW CAN JOSE’S NEEDS BE MET? Physical EnvironmentDue to Jose’s disorder being visual I felt the followingchanges should be made. Enlarge the font on all objects meant for children’s use. These would include cubby names, various centres names, calendar, daily schedule, clock etc. Include simple, large pictures where applicable (Medicine Net, 2004). There can be audio recorded versions of books available. If Jose knows Braille and is comfortable using it, signs and books in the room can be included in Braille. Adjust lighting (Medicine Net, 2004) Contrasting colors to make objects stand out
HOW CAN JOSE’S NEEDS BE MET? Physical EnvironmentStabilize:“Secure toys or materials” (Class notes: Week 5). This isimportant as coordination is sometimes a problem forchildren with low vision (Albinism, 2002).Enhance:Use bright colours to make objects stand out. This relatesback to using contrasting colours in the room to makethem easier to see.Enlarge:Enlarge toys and materials that Jose uses to make themeasier to see and handle. Example: use large beads orobjects such as paper towel rolls to sting beads. (Classnotes: Week 5)
HOW CAN JOSE’S NEEDS BE MET? Teaching Strategies Giving instructionsThis may be an effective strategy for Jose because it is verbalrather then visual. Giving instructions can help Jose out a lotwhen he first comes to the centre and is getting use to how thingswork. The staff and I will use this strategy to let Jose know whatwe may be doing next, or how to carry out a new task or skill.Hand over HandThis strategy can be effective because it is a full physical prompt.It will help the staff teach the necessary steps of everyday tasksto Jose. Prompting & FadingAs Jose gets familiar with the centre the staff and I will fade onthe strategy of giving instructions. From giving full instructions wewill fade to prompting and over time saying nothing at all.
TEACHING STRATEGIES Visual CommunicationThis strategy can be adapted to meet Jose’s needs.Children with low vision often struggle in the area oflanguage development. This strategy will not only help Josecommunicate but also “say and use more verbal words” PECSPECS stands for picture exchange communication system.Jose could use this system to communicate with staff aboutsomething he may need or want (Class notes: Week 8)
HOW CAN JOSE’S PARENTS BE INCLUDED? The first steps to include Jose in all areas of childcare is to speak with his parents about Jose. Some of the things that I feel would be important to discuss are: What areas of development is Jose strong in? Which areas of development is Jose working on? What interests does Jose have? Does Jose use any visual aids? If yes, which ones? What services were used in Winnipeg? What strategies are used at home to help Jose? What strategies were used at the Winnipeg childcare centre to include Jose?
HOW CAN OTHER CHILDREN BE INCLUDED? There can be children’s books in the room that help the other children understand what low vision is. Children who are strong in an area that Jose is working at can be paired with him and help him develop in the area further. If Jose is comfortable doing so, he can discuss with the group what low vision is and how life is for him.
AGENCIES FOR LOW VISION IN TORONTO CANADIAN NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE BLIND TORONTO PRESCHOOL SPEECH AND LANGUAGE SERVICES: BLIND-LOW VISION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAMType of agency: Registered charity. Type of agency: Intervention Program. A referralPhone: 1-800-563-2642 can be made to access family support, intervention of consultation services (Ministry of Children andNational Office: 1929 Bayview Ave Youth Services, 2011). Toronto, ON M4G, Canada Phone: 416 338 8255Website: http://www.cnib.ca/en/ Website: http://www.tpsls.on.ca/blv/index.htm CANADIAN COUNCIL OF THE BLINDType of agency: National organization that providespeer support, advocacy public awareness, learningand empowerment (CCB, 2010)Phone: (613)567-0311National Office: 401 - 396 Cooper St. Ottawa, ON K2P 2H7 Canada Provincial chapters can becontactedWebsite: http://www.ccbnational.net/content/
FOCUS ON ONE AGENCY: CANADIAN NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THEContact Information: BLIND Phone: 1-800-563-2642 National Office: 1929 Bayview Ave Toronto, ON M4G, Canada Website: http://www.cnib.ca/en/Their Vision:“CNIB is a registered charity, passionately providing community-basedsupport, knowledge and a national voice to ensure blind and partially sightedCanadians have the confidence, skills and opportunities to fully participate in life”(CNIB,2011).Service Jose and his Family will Benefit From:“Child and Family Services: Provides supportive counselling, servicecoordination, information, advocacy and programming for children and their families.Early Intervention Services Specialists work with children from birth to school ageand their families to assess developmental needs associated with vision loss, takinginto consideration additional disabilities, and environmental needs to helpschools accommodate students with vision loss” (CNIB, 2011).
BIBLIOGRAPHYClass notes:Inclusion of Children With Special Needs ( Week 4, Week 5,Week 6, Week 8, Week 9)Websites: The National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation (2002) How does low vision affect motor skill and coordination development? http://www.albinism.org/faq/children.html#Anchor-How- 46384 (March 28th, 2011) Canadian Council for the Blind (2010) Contact Info http://www.ccbnational.net/content/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=50&Itemid=53 (March 28th,2011) CNIB (2011) What is Low Vision? http://www.cnib.ca/en/your-eyes/eye-conditions/low-vision/ (March 9th, 2011) Medicine Net (2004) Low Vision, What Does It Mean? http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=22102&page=2 (March 23rd, 2011) Ministry of Children and Youth Services (2010) Blindness and low vision http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/earlychildhood/blindnesslowvision/index.aspx(March 27th, 2011) Ministry of Children and Youth Services (2010) Services for children who are blind or have low visionhttp://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/earlychildhood/blindnesslowvision/brochure. aspx (March 27th, 2011) Toronto Preschool Speech & Language Services (2010) Blind –Low Vision Early Intervention Program http://www.tpsls.on.ca/blv/index.htm (March 28th,2011) WebMD (2011) Eye Health Information Centre: Eye Doctors: Optometrists and Ophthalmologists http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/eye-doctors-optometrists-ophthalmologists (March 11th, 2011)