Harriet Lynette


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  • A graph from studies done in the UK explains how a child with down syndrome develops in many areas.
  • Children with Down syndrome often display forms of communication from infancy however, communicate by showing skills non- verbally. This includes using gestures to communicate as well as signs. When having a hearing impairment or being hard of hearing, it is found harder to communicate verbally as the sounds you hear may be different to what everyone else hears. Therefore language may be altered or harder to understand. For the 75% of children with Down syndrome who are diagnosed with ‘hard of hearing’ this is an obstacle in their development.
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  • Curriculum framework
  • Harriet Lynette

    1. 1. Down Syndrome By Harriet Jobling & Lynette Nicefore
    2. 2. <ul><li>A child without Down Syndrome has 46 chromosomes- 23 from the mother </li></ul><ul><li> - 23 from the father </li></ul>What is Down Syndrome?
    3. 3. <ul><li>A child with DS has an EXTRA 21 chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>A total of 47 chromosomes </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>- A Child without DS - A child with DS </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>There are three types of Down Syndrome: </li></ul><ul><li>Trisomy 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Translocation Down Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaic Down Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Which has to do with </li></ul><ul><li>where the chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>are placed. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>The EXTRA genetic materials (chromosomes), cause delays both mentally and physically. </li></ul>                 A child with Down syndrome
    7. 7. Different Characteristics <ul><li>A broad flat face </li></ul><ul><li>Slanted eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Short nose </li></ul><ul><li>Small low set ears </li></ul><ul><li>Small mouth with </li></ul><ul><li>protruded tongue </li></ul>http://www.healthbama.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/downsyndrome1.jpg
    8. 8. <ul><li>Usually short </li></ul><ul><li>Small but broad hands and feet </li></ul><ul><li>They usually have hypotonia (poor muscle tone) </li></ul><ul><li>Joints are hyper flexible </li></ul><ul><li>They may have mild to moderate mental retardation </li></ul>
    9. 9. What Medical Problems Are Associated with Down Syndrome? <ul><li>Coeliac disease </li></ul><ul><li>Dental disease </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental delays </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Food sensitivities </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>5-10%may have gastrointestinal abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>75% may have hearing loss </li></ul><ul><li>Close to 50% may have heart defects and disease </li></ul><ul><li>50-75% have sleep apnea </li></ul>Health Statistics
    11. 11. <ul><li>Increased respiratory and ear infections </li></ul><ul><li>Increased colds, bronchitis, tonsillitis, and pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk of childhood leukemia </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord compression </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid disease approx. 15% </li></ul><ul><li>Pre mature aging </li></ul><ul><li>- Alzheimer’s type symptoms <40yrs old </li></ul>
    12. 12. Implications For Development <ul><li>As well as medical implications, there a delays in various areas of development associated with Down Syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>According to The Down Syndrome Association of Victoria “ Everyone with Down syndrome will experience some delay in their development and some level of learning disability, but the extent and specific areas of delay vary from one individual to another” (Better Health Victoria, 2000, Para. 8) </li></ul><ul><li>Age Appropriate goals </li></ul><ul><li>Primary school development </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Down_syndrome_explained?OpenDocument </li></ul>
    13. 13. An Overview of Developmental progress from 5-11years in Children with Down Syndrome http://www.down-syndrome.org/information/development/childhood/?page=3
    14. 14. The Communicating Child <ul><li>It is believed that Speech and Language development provide the greatest developmental delay. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to understand speech however difficulties expressing speech </li></ul><ul><li>Use gestures and signs to communicate non verbally from a young age. </li></ul><ul><li>Sue Buckley describes the delay: “ Spoken language skills are usually delayed relative to the children's non-verbal ability and this suggests a profile of specific language impairment.” (Buckley S, 2000, Para. 2) </li></ul><ul><li>The 75% rate hearing loss in children with down syndrome may play a part in this delay. </li></ul><ul><li>Once talking, correct use of speech communication is used </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties with grammar and clear speech </li></ul><ul><li>Class Tone and grammar exercise </li></ul><ul><li>May experience difficulties with Syntax -the order of words and elements related to structure in sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.down-syndrome.org/information/language/overview </li></ul>
    15. 15. Healthy Physically Active Child delays <ul><li>Feeding/ eating at a young age </li></ul><ul><li>Co ordination and balance </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotonic (Low muscle tone) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased difficulty with posture (Spinal Cord Compression) </li></ul><ul><li>Gross motor mile stones are variable for example a child with DS might begin to walk around two or may not walk until the age of four or five. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased heart and health issues may make the body weak at times adding delay to this area of development </li></ul>A child with Down Syndrome sitting with back support
    16. 16. The Thinking Child <ul><li>Low short term memory skills compared to typically developing children at the same age </li></ul><ul><li>inhibitory processes in learning (delayed thought process) </li></ul><ul><li>chronological age vs. mental age </li></ul>
    17. 17. Putting it into Perspective (Mental Age) To the Early Childhood Field <ul><li>A study was performed by Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, titled Patterns of Syntactic Development in Children with and with out Down's syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>It was found that a child with DS may be 8.7 years old with a Mental age of 4.6yrs. The study states that the average typical developing child who is chronologically 4.4 has a mental age of 5.0. (Joffe, Victoria – Varlokosta, Spyridoula 2007, Para. 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore in an early childhood setting we need to be aware of this and support children's developmental abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.eric.ed.gov </li></ul>
    18. 18. Statement Made By Father of a Child with Down Syndrome <ul><li>“ My son Stan is six, and he cannot talk, but he communicates very well using the Makaton sign-language system. At times, you’d think he has the abilities of a three year-old, but on another occasion, he’ll help make breakfast and lay the table. His care and attention to people’s feelings is startling and the sort of thing you expect from a twelve-year-old. I’m so excited about what Stan can achieve.” </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bbc.co.uk/ouch/messageboards/F8146589?thread=5345002 </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Social Child <ul><li>Interactions with others implicated due to language expression barrier at a young age </li></ul><ul><li>Generally display more solitary play as well as onlooker play </li></ul><ul><li>The Feeling Child </li></ul><ul><li>Can switch emotions very quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Can express emotions in a variety of ways </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed understanding of what feelings are and may express this through behaviour </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Creative Child <ul><li>There are no identified implications for this area of development, however the expression of creative development may be stalled due to cognitive delay in the process of thought. Therefore this may be the link to the imagination of the experience to applying it. </li></ul><ul><li>The Childs Sense of Self </li></ul><ul><li>Links with the delay of cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of self is identified and expressed at a later age </li></ul>
    21. 21. The Spiritual and Moral Child <ul><li>Children may take longer to understand the desired and appropriate behaviour and therefore understanding right from wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Links back to ‘mental’ age. </li></ul><ul><li>Children with Down Syndrome are at higher risk of medical complications such as ADD which may result in a developmental delay in this area. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Linking Spiritual and Cognitive Development <ul><li>The NSW Curriculum framework links the development of spirituality with cognitive development. “This sense evolves along with cognitive development and increasing capacities to take the perspective of others and to appreciate the impact of ones own behaviour on other people.” (Department of Community Services p. 72) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.community.nsw.gov.au </li></ul>
    23. 23. Adapting A Children's Service To Support a Child with Down Syndrome <ul><li>Avoid having foods at the centre that the child may have allergies to as there may be food sensitivities. </li></ul><ul><li>Support in language expression- language cards, knowledge and use of of sign language and symbols that the child and their family may use to communicate with the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra resources for stimulation and strengthening of muscle development added to centre program. This includes adapting play resources to create equal opportunities. E.g. have available a wider beam as well as balance beam at a lower level. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional needs support resources such as back supportive chairs and railings down ramps. </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Support the family and other families at the centre with resources and services regarding the additional need. This could be brochures and books. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure all staff have knowledge of aspects of Down Syndrome as well as how to communicate with the child at a level the child is going to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer extra support in areas such as meal times, helping the child to eat due to low muscle tone. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Working With Families <ul><li>Work together to form a partnership with families and create a consistent care giving routine at the centre and at home. E.g. communication book, meetings and phone calls, and open door policies. </li></ul><ul><li>This coincides with QIAS Accreditation Principle 2.1 which states “Staff and families communicate effectively to exchange information about each child and the centre”. (NCAC, 2006 p. 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of having partnerships with families who have a child with down syndrome include- support network for family and staff members, constant feedback on development as well as a consistency with care routines and providing best possible support for the child. Also the child will feel secure when trusting caregiver and development enhanced when families and staff work together. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ncac.gov.au/resources/qias_pub.asp </li></ul>
    26. 26. Living With Down Syndrome from a Parents Perspective <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEBlSOotC2A </li></ul><ul><li>Parents of three children with Down Syndrome discuss their experiences and challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>Tips are also discussed which are important to adapt to in an early childhood setting to ensure the best support and development. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes gross motor activity important to a program and the importance of supplying healthy nutrition due to 15% speed of the metabolism for a non- down syndrome child. </li></ul>