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  1. 1. Alexis Gibson History141
  2. 2. <ul><li>The reasoning behind the canal was to create a passageway that united the Atlantic ocean to the Pacific. It would minimize the length of travel. </li></ul><ul><li>It was started in 1881 by the French. </li></ul><ul><li>Panama was one of the only areas in South America that a canal that great would be possible </li></ul><ul><li>They tried to build a sea level canal which failed miserably. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1889 their funding ran out and the project went bankrupt. Many engineers lost their life savings. </li></ul><ul><li>At this time they were missing a lot of technological advances that could have helped make the canal successful. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Colombia hoped to gain control over Panama after hearing of the Canal and knowing how much revenue it would bring. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1903 they rejected a treaty that would give the U.S. control of the canal. </li></ul><ul><li>This lead to a revolt in the state of Panama. </li></ul><ul><li>The new republic entered into negotiation with president Theodore Roosevelt and signed a treaty giving the U.S. the rights to build the canal. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>When beginning the construction of the canal, President Roosevelt set up a health and sanitation campaign. Panama was a place full of disease that killed many of the French workers when construction first took place. </li></ul><ul><li>They put in over $90,000 worth of wire screens to protect people from the mosquito's which carried the malaria virus. </li></ul><ul><li>They fumigated houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Panama was looking much better. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>John Stevens was the chief engineer of this project. He had a great idea to create electrical “Gatun Locks.” These would lift the ships up to the water level of the Panama Canal. </li></ul><ul><li>There are a total of 6 steps. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two control gates. One named “Mira Flores” allows people to lift and lower the ships. </li></ul><ul><li>Panama Canal was first opened on Aug. 15, 1914/ </li></ul><ul><li>It cost less than estimated and was finished ahead of schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>The total cost with French and American efforts together was about 639 million dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a number one attraction for tourists. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>William Mulholland started out as a very ambitioned ditch digger. </li></ul><ul><li>He climbed through the ranks and became superintendent of the LA water system. </li></ul><ul><li>He eventually became one of the highest paid public officials in California. </li></ul><ul><li>Many things were named after him. </li></ul><ul><li>Best known as the savior of the LA water supply. </li></ul><ul><li>The Los Angeles water supply was coming solely from a tiny river which was eventually sucked dry in 1903. </li></ul><ul><li>The rapid growth of this city was sabotaging the water supply. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Mulholland heard of a potential new source of water that was in Owens Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>The Owens Valley had the Sierra Nevada on one side and mountains on the other. It was a remarkable river because the city was mostly dry and never had rain. </li></ul><ul><li>Mulholland wanted to move the river but it was owned by the town’s farmers and the Federal government. </li></ul><ul><li>He slowly and secretly bought the rights to parts of the river. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The river was a great source of water for the city of Los Angeles. To their surprise it was more than 4 times the water they needed. </li></ul><ul><li>L.A. flourished agriculturally. This was when all the palm trees were planted. </li></ul><ul><li>The beautiful city was attracting many people and population grew during this time 11 times faster than New York. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>After a while LA was running out of water once again. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1924 the city bought more land and siphoned more water from the Owens valley. </li></ul><ul><li>The less water the river had the more it destroyed the living conditions for the residents living there. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Owens Valley rallied together and tried to put a stop to the flow of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Their efforts soon turned violent. They blew up the aqueduct using dynamite. </li></ul><ul><li>Mulholland sent 600 police to secure the area from this point on. </li></ul><ul><li>New water supply sources included Monolake. </li></ul><ul><li>LA eventually returned water back to Monolake to preserve the animal life and nature. </li></ul>