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California part iii_panama_los_angeles


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California part iii_panama_los_angeles

  1. 1. California Part III Panama & Los Angeles Melissa Colwell History 141
  2. 2. The Panama Canal... <ul><li>-Built from 1904 to 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>-48 mile ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade </li></ul><ul><li>-One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, the canal had an enormous impact on shipping between the two oceans, replacing the long and treacherous route via either the Strait of Magellan or Cape Horn at the southernmost tip of South America. A ship sailing from New York to San Francisco via the canal travels 9,500 km (5,900 mi), well under half the 22,500 km (14,000 mi) route around Cape Horn </li></ul><ul><li>-The first attempt to construct a canal began in 1880 under French leadership, but was abandoned after 21,900 workers died, largely from disease (particularly malaria and yellow fever) and landslides </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 3.   <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-The French, under Ferdinand de Lesseps, began construction on a sea-level canal (i.e., without locks) through what was then Colombia's province of Panama, on January 1, 1880 </li></ul><ul><li>-In 1893, after a great deal of work, the French scheme was abandoned due to disease and the sheer difficulty of building a sea-level canal, as well as lack of French field experience, such as with downpours that caused steel equipment to rust. The high toll from disease was one of the major factors in the failure; as many as 22,000 workers were estimated to have died during the main period of French construction (1881–1889) </li></ul><ul><li>-Beyond the hygienic and technical difficulties, financial mismanagement and political corruption also contributed to the French failure </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  4. 4.   <ul><li>-The United States launched a second effort, incurring a further 5,600 deaths but succeeding in opening the canal in 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>-In June 1902, the U.S. Senate voted in favor of pursuing the Panamanian option, provided the necessary rights could be obtained. (It is claimed that the vote was swayed by William Nelson Cromwell.) </li></ul><ul><li>-The United States, under President Theodore Roosevelt, bought out the French equipment and excavations for US$40 million and began work on May 4, 1904 </li></ul><ul><li>-John Frank Stevens, Chief Engineer from 1905 to 1907, successfully argued the case against the incredibly massive excavation required for a sea-level canal like the French had tried to build and convinced Theodore Roosevelt of the necessity and feasibility of a canal built with dams and locks </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5.   <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Created in 1913 by the damming of the Charges River, Gatun Lake is an essential part of the Panama Canal which forms a water passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, permitting ship transit in both directions </li></ul><ul><li>-Gatun Lake also serves to provide the millions of gallons of water necessary to operate the Panama Canal locks each time a ship passes through </li></ul><ul><li>- The building of the canal was completed in 1914, two years ahead of the target date of June 1, 1916. The canal was formally opened on August 15, 1914 with the passage of the cargo ship SS Ancon. Coincidentally, this was also the same month that fighting in World War I (the Great War) began in Europe. The advances in hygiene resulted in a relatively low death toll during the American construction; still, about 5,600 workers died during this period (1904–1914). This brought the total death toll for the construction of the canal to around 27,500 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Los Angeles... <ul><li>-William Mulholland (September 11, 1855 – July 22, 1935) was the head of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, in Los Angeles. He was responsible for building the water aqueducts and dams that allowed the city to grow into one of the largest in the world. His methods of obtaining water for the city led to disputes collectively known as the California Water Wars. </li></ul><ul><li>-In 1880 Mulholland oversaw the laying of the first iron water pipeline in Los Angeles </li></ul><ul><li>-Mulholland also provided technical assistance on the Panama Canal </li></ul><ul><li>-The Los Angeles City Water Company's aqueduct project was publicly debated before it acquired significant property in Owens Valley, because it needed voter approval for its bond financing </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 7.   <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Mulholland, who was best described as a self-taught engineer, was now laying the foundations that would transform Los Angeles into today's metropolis. Up until then, Los Angeles' growth had been limited as it lay within a chaparral-covered desert.. As Mulholland's public works began to send thousands of gallons of water across the area, irrigation and expansion quickly followed </li></ul><ul><li>- The Los Angeles Aqueduct was 233 mi (375 km) long and completed in November 1913, taking water from the Owens Valley in the Eastern Sierra, in a project requiring over 5,000 workers and 164 tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>- By 1905, through aggressive purchases, the Los Angeles City Water Company had acquired enough acreage to begin building the city's aqueduct. </li></ul>
  8. 8.   <ul><li>-By 1928 the Los Angeles aqueduct had drained the 100 mi² (300 km²) Owens Lake dry. This situation, and the diversion of the Owens River, precipitated the California Water Wars. Owens Valley farmers resisted violently, even dynamiting the aqueduct at Jawbone Canyon. They also opened sluice gates to divert the flow of water. The farmers' most successful tactic was to raise their asking price for their land. Eventually, the city administration was forced to negotiate. </li></ul><ul><li>- Mulholland's career effectively ended on March 12, 1928, when the St. Francis Dam, which he had designed and supervised the building of, failed just hours after he personally inspected the site </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  9. 9.   <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-The collapse of the central part of the dam sent 12.5 billion US gallons (47 million m3) of water into the Santa Clarita Valley, north of Los Angeles. Within seconds of the dam wall failing, a 100 ft (30 m) high torrent proceeded down the Santa Clara riverbed at 18 mph (29 km/h), swamping everything in its path until it reached the Pacific Ocean at Ventura </li></ul><ul><li>-Recovery crews worked for days to dig out bodies and clear away the mud from around Santa Paula. The final death toll was estimated to be 450 killed, which included 42 school children. </li></ul><ul><li>-Mulholland took full responsibility for the worst US civil engineering disaster of the 20th century and resigned in March 1929 </li></ul>