‫‪ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION‬‬              ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬      ‫‪FOR WESTERN ASIA‬‬                   ...
Distr.                                                  GENERAL                                                  E/ESCWA/S...
V
Preface          The economic development in the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for WesternAsia (ESCWA) reg...
‫ﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻊ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﺴﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻪ‬           ...
CONTENTS                                                                                                                  ...
CONTENTS (continued)                                                                                                      ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬  ‫‪iv‬‬     ‫ﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ ......................................................................................
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬  ‫27‬     ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ- ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ..........................................................
CONTENTS (continued)                                                                                                      ...
CONTENTS (continued)                                                                                                      ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬                                                      ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬   ‫3‬     ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓ...
‫56‬     ‫6.‪ -IV‬ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ 2002-7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( ............................‬          ...
CONTENTS (continued)                                                                                                      ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬                                                    ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬  ‫7‬      ‫1.‪ -I‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴ...
CONTENTS (continued)                                                                                                      ...
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬                                                               ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻁﺭ‬   ‫6‬     ‫ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎ...
Symbols and abbreviations                                                               ‫ﺭﻤﻭﺯ ﻭﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭﺍﺕ‬Billion cubic metre...
CHAPTER I. OVERVIEW OF GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE,                            POPULATION AND ECONOMY             ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل- ﻟﻤﺤﺔ...
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
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UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
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UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
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UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
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UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries
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United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia: Compendium of Environmental Statistics (English & Arabic)

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  1. 1. ‫‪ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪FOR WESTERN ASIA‬‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪COMPENDIUM OF ENVIRONMENT STATISTICS‬‬ ‫‪IN THE ESCWA REGION‬‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪United Nations‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬
  2. 2. Distr. GENERAL E/ESCWA/SD/2009/13 9 December 2009 ORIGINAL: ARABIC/ENGLISH ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ FOR WESTERN ASIA ‫ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ‬ COMPENDIUM OF ENVIRONMENT STATISTICS IN THE ESCWA REGION ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ‬ United Nations New York, 2009 ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ 2009 ،‫ﻨﻴﻭﻴﻭﺭﻙ‬09-0530 IV
  3. 3. V
  4. 4. Preface The economic development in the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for WesternAsia (ESCWA) region is accompanied by an overexploitation of resources and adverse impacts on theenvironment, particularly in terms of deteriorating air and water quality, diminishing water resources, landdegradation and desertification, and loss of biodiversity, all of which affect the sustainability and the qualityof life in the region. In order to address such problems and provide solutions, ESCWA member countries need tostrengthen the environmental legislation and implement regulations and action plans for monitoring the stateof environment mainly for water and air with emphasis on environmental accounts and defined goals onreaching regional and international environmental standards. A broad-based programme of environmentstatistics needs to be developed in order to compile and disseminate timely, reliable, relevant and comparableenvironment data; and build up a sound database related to various aspects of the environment for use bygovernment officials, concerned stakeholders and the public. Environmental information and reporting areimportant in order to enhance environmental planning, integrate environmental concerns and economicgrowth into decision-making to promote sustainable development at the national and international levels, andevaluate national environmental performance. The ESCWA has been assisting member countries in developing their environment statistics,indicators and accounts since 2004, benefiting from constant interaction with academicians, researchers,various governmental and private organizations as well as regional and other international agencies. ESCWA published the first issue of the “Compendium of Environment Statistics in the ESCWARegion” in 2007, which contained comprehensive data and indicators on various environmental elementsin the ESCWA region. This second issue addresses eight themes treated separately in each chapter, namely:(a) overview, (b) freshwater resources, (c) freshwater use, (d) water accounts and environmental protectionexpenditure, (e) waste management, (f) energy consumption, (g) air pollution, and (h) Goal 7 of the MDGs.Each chapter starts with an overview of the main issues and describes briefly the statistical tables. The datapresented in this publication covers the 14 members of ESCWA when available including the Sudan whichjoined ESCWA in 2008. The approach used for the collection of information relied on the 2008 United Nations StatisticsDivision (UNSD) environment statistics on waste and water. The data was complemented from national,regional and international publications and databases, with priority given to official national sources. Thedata collected, the related metadata and the selected indicators have been added to the ESCWA StatisticsInformation System (ESIS), available at: http://esis.escwa.org.lb/. The economic section of ESCWA’s Statistics Division, in particular Wafa Aboul Hosn, team leaderand Therese El-Gemayel, research assistant, worked on data collection and treatment, and prepared all theparts of the Compendium which was reviewed by Giovanni Savio, Chief of the Economic Statistics section.We extend our gratitude to officials from member countries for their collaboration; experts on environmentstatistics and accounts from the United Nations Statistics Division, Eszter Horvath, Alessandra Alfieri,Michael Vardon and Yongi Min, from MedStat Cécile Roddier Quéfelec, and ESCWA professionals inwater and environment for sharing data, reports and the responses to the questionnaire on environmentstatistics as well as for the organization of workshops and ideas-sharing; and George J. Nasr, Professor at theLebanese University for providing peer review. ESCWA strives to improve the quality of its publications through the suggestions and comments ofreaders in the readership questionnaire sent along this publication to Ms. Wafa Aboul Hosn, Team Leader,at: aboulhosn@un.org. iii
  5. 5. ‫ﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻊ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﺴﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺘﺭ ‪‬ﻱ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺘﻀﺎﺅل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﻭﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺭ ﻭﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨ ‪‬ﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ، ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻘ ‪‬ﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻴﻤﺱ ﺒﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺘﻬﺎ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻭﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻭﺤﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻭﺨﻁﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺭﺼﺩ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ، ﻭﻻ ﺴﻴﻤﺎ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﻭﻍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟ ‪‬ﺔ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﻟﻺﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ، ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﻤﻨﻪ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺜﻭﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻭﻨﺸﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﻭﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﻤل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ. ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺘﻌﻤﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬ ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ، ﻭﺩﻤﺞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠ ‪‬ﺎﺕ ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ، ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ.‬‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺤﺭﺼﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ )ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 4002، ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺼل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﺴﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﻭﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟ ‪‬ﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺃﺼﺩﺭﺕ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ "ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ"، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ، ﺘﻐﻁﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ. ﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻴﺘﻁ ‪‬ﻕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﻀﻴﻊ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼﻭل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ: )ﺃ( ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﺎ ‪‬ﺔ؛‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫)ﺏ( ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ؛ )ﺝ( ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ؛ )ﺩ( ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ؛ )ﻫ( ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ؛ )ﻭ( ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ؛ )ﺯ( ﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ؛ )ﺡ( ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔ ‪‬ﺔ. ‪‬ﺴﺘﻬل ﻜل ﻓﺼل ﺒﻠﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ ّ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴ ‪‬ﺔ، ﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺸﺭﺡ ﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ. ﺘﻐ ﹼﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﻤﺠﻤل ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ، ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﻨﻀﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 8002.‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ. ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻁﻴﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤ ‪‬ﺔ. ﻭﺃﻀﻴﻔﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠ ‪‬ﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﻗ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﻟﻺﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ: /‪.http://esis.escwa.org.lb‬‬‫ﻭﺍﻀﻁﻠﻊ ﻗﺴﻡ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﻺﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﻭﻻ ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ ﺃﺒﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﺔ ﺘﺭﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻤ ‪‬ل، ﺒﻤﻬ ‪‬ﺔ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﻫﺎ، ﻭﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻜل ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ، ﻭﺭﺍﺠﻌﻬﺎ ﺠﻴﻭﻓﺎﻨﻲ ﺴﺎﻓﻴﻭ،‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﻗﺴﻡ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ‪‬ﺔ. ﻭﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﺘﻘ ‪‬ﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ، ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ، ﻻ ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺇﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻫﻭﺭﻓﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﻟﻴﺴﺎﻨﺩﺭﺍ ﺃﻟﻔﻴﻴﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﺎﻴﻜل ﻓﺎﺭﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﻴﻭﻨﻐﻲ ﻤﻴﻥ، ﻭﺴﻴﺴﻴل ﺭﻭﺩﻴﻴﻪ ﻜﻴﻔﻠﻴﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ-ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﻲ )ﻤﻴﺩﺴﺘﺎﺕ(، ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ، ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻭﺭﺸﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ، ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ ﺠﻭﺭﺝ ﻨﺼﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨ ‪‬ﺼﺔ.‬ ‫ﺼ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺇﺫ ﺘﺘﻁﹼﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ، ﺘﺭ ‪‬ﺏ ﺒﺄﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘ ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺭ ﺇﺭﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ ‪‬ﺩﺓ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ ﺃﺒﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻥ، ﺭﺌﻴﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ: ‪.aboulhosn@un.org‬‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫‪iv‬‬
  6. 6. CONTENTS PagePreface .................................................................................................................................................. iiiSymbols and abbreviations ................................................................................................................... xviiChapter I. OVERVIEW OF GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE, POPULATION AND ECONOMY .............................................................................................................................. 1 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 1 Overview of Geography and Climate in the ESCWA Region ................................................... 2 Population and Urbanization Overview ..................................................................................... 5 Challenges Stemming from Population Growth ........................................................................ 5 Migration .................................................................................................................................... 6 Economic Growth Overview...................................................................................................... 10 II. FRESHWATER RESOURCES .............................................................................................. 13 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 13 Overview of Water Resources in the ESCWA Region .............................................................. 14 Conventional Freshwater Resources .......................................................................................... 14 Non-Conventional Freshwater Resources .................................................................................. 15 Indicators of Freshwater Resources ........................................................................................... 16 Trends ......................................................................................................................................... 17 III. FRESHWATER MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................ 31 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 31 Overview of Freshwater Abstraction in the ESCWA Region .................................................... 32 Groundwater Dependency and Water Deficit ............................................................................ 33 Wastewater treatment ................................................................................................................. 33 Water market .............................................................................................................................. 34 Freshwater quality ...................................................................................................................... 48 VI. INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC ACCOUNTING ..................... 58 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 58 Overview of Integrated Environmental Economic Accounting in the ESCWA Region ............ 59 Overview of Environmental Expenditure in the ESCWA Region ............................................. 66 Public Environmental Expenditure in Jordan ................................................................. 66 Public Environmental Expenditure in Lebanon ......................................................................... 67 Overview of Lebanon Oil Spill .................................................................................................. 71 V. WASTE MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................................... 72 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 72 Overview of Waste Management in the ESCWA Region ......................................................... 73 v
  7. 7. CONTENTS (continued) Page VI. ENERGY CONSUMPTION ................................................................................................... 82 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 82 Overview of the Energy Sector in the ESCWA Region ............................................................. 83VII. AIR POLLUTION ................................................................................................................... 92 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 92 Overview of Air Pollution in the ESCWA Region .................................................................... 93 Climate Change: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions .................... 93 Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) .......................................................................................... 97VIII. MDG 7: ENSURING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ....................................... 109 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 109 Overview of Goal 7 of the MDGs .............................................................................................. 110 Access to Safe Drinking Water .................................................................................................. 110 Access to Sanitation ................................................................................................................... 111 Urban Population in the Slums................................................................................................... 111 LIST OF ANNEXES I. Definitions by Chapter ............................................................................................................... 120 II. WHO Drinking Water Guidelines .............................................................................................. 130 III. WHO Air Quality Guidelines ..................................................................................................... 133 IV. UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment 2008 .................................................................. 134 vi
  8. 8. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫‪iv‬‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ ...........................................................................................................‬‫‪xvii‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻭﺯ ﻭﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭﺍﺕ ...............................................................................................‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬ ‫1‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل- ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ................................‬ ‫1‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫2‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ......................................‬ ‫5‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ ..............................................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫5‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ ...............................................................‬ ‫6‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺭﺓ...........................................................................................‬ ‫01‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ .......................................................................‬ ‫31‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ- ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ..............................................................................‬ ‫31‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫41‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ......................................................‬ ‫41‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ .......................................................................‬ ‫51‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ..................................................................‬ ‫61‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ .....................................................................‬ ‫71‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ .......................................................................................‬ ‫13‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ- ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ...............................................................................‬ ‫13‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫23‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ...............................................‬ ‫33‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ .......................................................‬ ‫33‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ .............................................................................‬ ‫43‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ......................................................................................‬ ‫84‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ...............................................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫85‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ- ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ..........................................................‬ ‫85‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫95‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ................................‬ ‫66‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ........................................................‬ ‫66‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ....................................................................‬ ‫76‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ......................................................................‬ ‫17‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻨﺴﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ .................................................................‬ ‫‪vii‬‬
  9. 9. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫27‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ- ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ..................................................................................‬ ‫27‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫37‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ .......................................................‬ ‫28‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ- ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ .................................................................................‬ ‫28‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫38‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ .........................................................‬ ‫29‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ- ﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ .....................................................................................‬ ‫29‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫39‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻠ ‪‬ﺙ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ .........................................................‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫39‬ ‫ﺘﻐ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ: ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻭﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ ...........................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫79‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ...................................................................‬‫901‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ- ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ 7 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔﻴﺔ: ﻜﻔﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ...................................‬‫901‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬‫011‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ 7 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔﻴﺔ ..................................................‬‫011‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺭﺏ .............................................................‬‫111‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ...........................................................‬‫111‬ ‫ﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭﺓ .................................................................‬ ‫ﻜ‬‫021‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻓﻘﺎﺕ .........................................................................................................‬ ‫‪viii‬‬
  10. 10. CONTENTS (continued) Page LIST OF TABLES I.1. Main Geographical Features ...................................................................................................... 3 I.2. Main Climatic Features (year 2007)........................................................................................... 4 I.3. Population and Urbanization ...................................................................................................... 8 I.4. Migration in ESCWA Countries (Thousands) ........................................................................... 10 I.5. Gross Domestic Product in ESCWA Countries at Constant Prices (base year 2000) and Growth Rates of Real GDP (Billion US$)........................................................................... 11 I.6. Gross Domestic Product Per Capita in ESCWA Member Countries at Constant Prices (base year 2000) in US$ .................................................................................................. 12 II.1. Average Precipitation in Volume (Mcm/yr) .............................................................................. 18 II.2. Total Surface Water (Mcm/yr) ................................................................................................... 19 II.3. Groundwater Recharge (Mcm/yr) .............................................................................................. 20 II.4. Total Freshwater from Conventional Sources (Mcm/yr) ........................................................... 21 II.5. Desalination Production and Capacity ....................................................................................... 22 II.6. Water Reuse (Mcm/yr) ............................................................................................................... 23 II.7. Total Non-Conventional Water (Mcm/yr) ................................................................................. 24 II.8. Total Conventional and Non-Conventional Water Resources (Mcm/yr) ................................... 25 II.9. Selected Indicators on Water Resources .................................................................................... 26II.10. Percentage and Number of Population Affected by Water Scarcity in 2007 ............................. 27III.1. Total Freshwater Abstracted (Mcm/yr) ...................................................................................... 36III.2. Sectoral Water Consumption (Mcm/yr) ..................................................................................... 37III.3. Total Freshwater Abstracted ...................................................................................................... 39III.4. Water Use Indicators .................................................................................................................. 42III.5. Wastewater Management ........................................................................................................... 43III.6. Wastewater Treatment Plants ..................................................................................................... 44III.7. Water Market 2007 (Million US$) ............................................................................................. 45III.8. Municipal Water and Wastewater Capital Expenditure Forecast (Million US$) ....................... 46III.9. Water Market in the ESCWA Region ........................................................................................ 47III.10. Selected Indicators for Groundwater Quality in Bahrain ........................................................... 50III.11. Selected Indicators for Surface Water Quality in Egypt ............................................................ 51III.12. Selected Water Quality Indicators in Palestine .......................................................................... 52III.13. Water Quality Indicators in the Gulf Countries: Bahrain and Kuwait ....................................... 53III.14. Water Quality Indicators in the Gulf Countries: Oman and Qatar ............................................. 54III.15. Water Quality Indicators in the Gulf Countries: Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates ............................................................................................................................. 55III.16. Discharge of Organic Water Pollutants (Total and from Different Sectors) .............................. 56IV.1. Pilot SEEAW Physical Water Use Table, Jordan, 2007 (Mcm) ................................................ 61IV.2. Pilot SEEAW Physical Supply, Jordan, 2007 (Mcm) ................................................................ 62IV.3. Matrix of Flows within the Economy in Jordan, 2007 (Mcm) ................................................... 63 ix
  11. 11. CONTENTS (continued) PageIV.4. Mean Annual Water Consumption for All Uses in Bahrain (1985-2005) (Mcm)...................... 63IV.5. Pilot SEEAW Physical Use, Bahrain 2005 (Mcm) .................................................................... 64IV.6. Egypt Water Balance 2002-2007 (Billion cubic metres) ........................................................... 65IV.7. Environmental Expenditure at Constant Prices in Jordan, (2000=100) (2000-2007) ................ 68IV.8. Environmental Expenditure by Sector in Jordan ....................................................................... 69IV.9. Selected Indicators for Lebanon ................................................................................................. 70IV.10.Economic Impact of the July 2006 Hostilities on the Environment in Lebanon........................ 71 V.1. Municipal Waste Generated (Thousand tons) ............................................................................ 76 V.2. Total Waste Generation (Thousand tons)................................................................................... 77 V.3. Hazardous Waste ........................................................................................................................ 78 V.4. Landfills ..................................................................................................................................... 79 V.5. Selected Indicators for Palestine ................................................................................................ 80 V.6. Selected Indicators for Qatar ...................................................................................................... 81VI.1. Oil and Natural Gas Proven Reserve, Production and Lifespan, 2007 ...................................... 86VI.2. Total Oil Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region .......................... 87VI.3. Total Natural Gas Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region ............ 88VI.4. Total Electricity Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region ............... 89VI.5. Total Energy Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region .................... 90VI.6. Energy Use (kg oil equivalent) Per $1,000 GDP (Constant 2005 PPP) ..................................... 91VII.1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) (Thousand tons per year) ................................................. 99VII.2. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide Per Capita (Ton/capita) .............................................................. 100VII.3. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Egypt ............................................................................. 100VII.4. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Jordan............................................................................. 101VII.5. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Kuwait............................................................................ 101VII.6. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Saudi Arabia .................................................................. 102VII.7. Ozone-Depleting Substances Consumption in ODP metric tons ............................................... 102VII.8. CFC Consumption (ODP metric tons) in the ESCWA region ................................................... 103VII.9. HCFC Consumption (ODP metric tons) in the ESCWA region ................................................ 104VII.10. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Lebanon.................................................................. 105VII.11. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Qatar ....................................................................... 106VII.12. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Yemen .................................................................... 106VIII.1. Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources (total) (%) ................................................... 112VIII.2. Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources (urban) (%) ................................................. 113VIII.3. Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources (rural) (%) .................................................. 114VIII.4. Access to Improved Sanitation (total) (%) ......................................................................... 115VIII.5. Access to Improved Sanitation (urban) (%) ....................................................................... 116VIII.6. Access to Improved Sanitation (rural) (%) ......................................................................... 117VIII.7. ESCWA Urban Population Living in Slums ...................................................................... 118 x
  12. 12. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫3‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ...........................................................................‬ ‫1.‪-I‬‬ ‫4‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ )ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002( ...........................................................‬ ‫2.‪-I‬‬ ‫8‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ................................................................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫3.‪-I‬‬ ‫01‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ )ﺒﺎﻵﻻﻑ( .....................................................................‬ ‫4.‪-I‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ )ﺴﻨﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ 0002( ﻭﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫5.‪-I‬‬ ‫11‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ )ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ( ..........................................................‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫6.‪-I‬‬ ‫21‬ ‫)ﺴﻨﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ 0002( ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻭﻻﺭ ............................................................................‬ ‫81‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻁﻠﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ..........................................................‬ ‫1.‪-II‬‬ ‫91‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ..........................................................‬ ‫2.‪-II‬‬ ‫02‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( .............................................‬ ‫3.‪-II‬‬ ‫12‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ..........................................‬ ‫4.‪-II‬‬ ‫22‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻼﺓ ﻭﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﻯ ...............................................................‬ ‫5.‪-II‬‬ ‫32‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ............................................................‬ ‫6.‪-II‬‬ ‫42‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ......................................................‬ ‫7.‪-II‬‬ ‫52‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ..................‬ ‫8.‪-II‬‬ ‫62‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ .....................................................................‬ ‫9.‪-II‬‬ ‫72‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﺘﺄ ﹼﺭﻭﺍ ﺒﺸﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻭﻋﺩﺩﻫﻡ .............................................‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫01.‪-II‬‬ ‫63‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( .................................................‬ ‫1.‪-III‬‬ ‫73‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( .......................................................‬ ‫2.‪-III‬‬ ‫93‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ .........................................................................‬ ‫3.‪-III‬‬ ‫24‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ .................................................................................‬ ‫4.‪-III‬‬ ‫34‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ......................................................................................‬ ‫5.‪-III‬‬ ‫44‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ............................................................................‬ ‫6.‪-III‬‬ ‫54‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ( .......................................................................‬ ‫7.‪-III‬‬ ‫64‬ ‫ﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ( ..................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫8.‪-III‬‬ ‫74‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ...........................................................................‬ ‫9.‪-III‬‬ ‫05‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓ ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ..........................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫01.‪-III‬‬ ‫15‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ...........................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫11.‪-III‬‬ ‫25‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ..................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫21.‪-III‬‬ ‫35‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ: ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ .................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫31.‪-III‬‬ ‫45‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ: ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ ......................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫41.‪-III‬‬ ‫55‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ: ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ...............‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫51.‪-III‬‬ ‫65‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ )ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤل ﻭﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ( .........................................‬ ‫61.‪-III‬‬ ‫16‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻱ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( .......................................‬ ‫1.‪-IV‬‬ ‫26‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻱ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( ........................................‬ ‫2.‪-IV‬‬ ‫36‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺘﺩﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( .................................‬ ‫3.‪-IV‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ، ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ، 5891-5002‬ ‫4.‪-IV‬‬ ‫36‬ ‫)ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( .....................................................................................‬ ‫46‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻱ، ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ، 5002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( .....................................‬ ‫5.‪-IV‬‬ ‫‪xi‬‬
  13. 13. ‫56‬ ‫6.‪ -IV‬ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ 2002-7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( ............................‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫86‬ ‫7.‪ -IV‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.................................................................‬ ‫96‬ ‫8.‪ -IV‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ............................................................‬ ‫07‬ ‫9.‪ -IV‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻥ ..................................................................................‬ ‫17‬ ‫01.‪ -IV‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺘﻤﻭﺯ/ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ 6002 ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ .........................................‬ ‫67‬ ‫1.‪ -V‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ( ...............................................................................‬ ‫77‬ ‫2.‪ -V‬ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻟﺩﺓ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ(......................................................................‬ ‫87‬ ‫3.‪ -V‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ .........................................................................................‬ ‫97‬ ‫4.‪ -V‬ﻁﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ............................................................................................‬ ‫08‬ ‫5.‪ -V‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ...............................................................................‬ ‫18‬ ‫6.‪ -V‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻘﻁﺭ ..................................................................................‬ ‫68‬ ‫1.‪ -VI‬ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅ ﹼﺩ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ، 7002 ...................................‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫78‬ ‫2.‪ -VI‬ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ................................‬ ‫88‬ ‫3.‪ -VI‬ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ...............‬ ‫98‬ ‫4.‪ -VI‬ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ..........................‬ ‫09‬ ‫5.‪ -VI‬ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ..............................‬ ‫19‬ ‫6.‪ -VI‬ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ )ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ( ﻟﻜل ﺃﻟﻑ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ )ﻤﻤﺎﺜل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ( .......‬ ‫99‬ ‫1.‪ -VII‬ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ( ........................................................‬‫001‬ ‫2.‪ -VII‬ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ( ...............................................‬‫001‬ ‫3.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ ................................................................‬‫101‬ ‫4.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ...............................................................‬‫101‬ ‫5.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ..............................................................‬‫201‬ ‫6.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ .............................................‬‫201‬ ‫7.‪ -VII‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ(................................‬‫301‬ ‫8.‪ -VII‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ( ............‬‫401‬ ‫9.‪ -VII‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻠﺠﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ( ...‬‫501‬ ‫01.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ .................................................................‬‫601‬ ‫11.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺭ .................................................................‬‫601‬ ‫21.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ................................................................‬‫211‬ ‫1.‪ -VIII‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺸﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ( ..............................‬ ‫ﺴ‬‫311‬ ‫2.‪ -VIII‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺸﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ( ...............................‬ ‫ﺴ‬‫411‬ ‫3.‪ -VIII‬ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺸﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ( ......................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬‫511‬ ‫4.‪ -VIII‬ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺼﺭﻑ ﺼ ‪‬ﻲ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ(.....................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺤ‬‫611‬ ‫5.‪ -VIII‬ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺼﺭﻑ ﺼ ‪‬ﻲ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ( ......................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺤ‬‫711‬ ‫6.‪ -VIII‬ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺼﺭﻑ ﺼ ‪‬ﻲ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ( .......................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺤ‬‫811‬ ‫7.‪ -VIII‬ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻌﻴﺸﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ )ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ( ...............................‬ ‫‪xii‬‬
  14. 14. CONTENTS (continued) Page LIST OF FIGURES I.1. Mid-year population estimates for ESCWA countries ....................................................... 7 I.2. Trend of real GDP growth in ESCWA countries ............................................................... 11 II.1. Available Surface and Ground Water as Percentage of Total Renewable Water Resources ................................................................................................................. 28 II.2. Total Renewable Freshwater from Conventional Sources 2005-2007 ............................... 28 II.3. Total Conventional to Non-Conventional Water Resources .............................................. 29 II.4. Share of Water Resources in the ESCWA Region, 2007 ................................................... 29 II.5. Per Capita Water Resources from Available Water Resources .......................................... 30III.1. Sectoral Water Withdrawal (Mcm/yr) ................................................................................ 40III.2. Per Capita Total Water Withdrawal ................................................................................... 41VII.1. CO2 Emissions in the ESCWA Region .............................................................................. 96VII.2. Total ESCWA CO2 Emissions and Percentage of World Emissions ................................. 107VII.3. Emission of Carbon Dioxide per Capita in the ESCWA Region ....................................... 107VII.4. ODS Consumption in ODP Metric Tons in the ESCWA Region....................................... 108VII.5. Total ODS Consumption .................................................................................................... 108VIII.1. Trends of Access to Improved Water and Sanitation of ESCWA Population .................... 119 xiii
  15. 15. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫7‬ ‫1.‪ -I‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ .........................................................‬ ‫11‬ ‫2.‪ -I‬ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ............................................‬ ‫82‬ ‫1.‪ -II‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ ‪‬ﺔ .................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫82‬ ‫2.‪ -II‬ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠ ‪‬ﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ ‪‬ﺔ 5002-7002 .........................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫92‬ ‫3.‪ -II‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ .........................................‬ ‫92‬ ‫4.‪ -II‬ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، 7002 ..........................................................‬ ‫03‬ ‫5.‪ -II‬ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ..................................................‬ ‫04‬ ‫1.‪ -III‬ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ......................................................‬ ‫14‬ ‫2.‪ -III‬ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ .........................................................‬ ‫69‬ ‫1.‪ -VII‬ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ..........................................................‬‫701‬ ‫2.‪ -VII‬ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭ ‪‬ﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ .................‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫701‬ ‫3.‪ -VII‬ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ .........................................‬‫801‬ ‫4.‪ -VII‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ( .............‬‫801‬ ‫5.‪ -VII‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ .................................................................‬‫911‬ ‫1.‪ -VIII‬ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺤﺼﻭل ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺼﺭﻑ ﺼ ‪‬ﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ .......................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫‪xiv‬‬
  16. 16. CONTENTS (continued) Page LIST OF BOXES I.1. Population Growth and Distribution in Lebanon ....................................................................... 6 I.2. ‘Climigration’ in Syria ............................................................................................................... 7 II.1. Desalination in Saudi Arabia...................................................................................................... 16 II.2. Per Capita Water Resources 2007 .............................................................................................. 17III.1. Wastewater Reuse in Jordan....................................................................................................... 34IV.1. Summary of the Oil Spill, Lebanon............................................................................................ 71 V.1. Eurostat and the Data Centre on Waste ...................................................................................... 74 V.2. Communal Solidarity for Waste Management in South Lebanon.............................................. 75VI.1. Iraq and Energy Reserves ........................................................................................................... 84 xv
  17. 17. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻁﺭ‬ ‫6‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ...............................................................................................‬ ‫1.‪-I‬‬ ‫7‬ ‫"ﻫﺠﺭﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﺨ ‪‬ﺔ" ﻓﻲ ﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ .....................................................................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫2.‪-I‬‬ ‫61‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ...................................................................................‬ ‫1.‪-II‬‬ ‫71‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ..........................................................................‬ ‫2.‪-II‬‬ ‫43‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ .....................................................................................‬ ‫1.‪-III‬‬ ‫17‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺨﺹ ﺍﻨﺴﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ، ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ...................................................................................................‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫1.‪-IV‬‬ ‫47‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫1.‪-V‬‬ ‫57‬ ‫ﺘﻀﺎﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻲ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻨﻭﺏ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ .........................................................................‬ ‫2.‪-V‬‬ ‫48‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ .......................................................................................................‬ ‫1.‪-VI‬‬ ‫‪xvi‬‬
  18. 18. Symbols and abbreviations ‫ﺭﻤﻭﺯ ﻭﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭﺍﺕ‬Billion cubic metre Bcm ‫ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬Chlorofluorocarbons CFC ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬Cubic metre m3 ‫ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬Not Produced or Not Available … ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﺎﺡ‬ESCWA: The Economic and Social ESCWA ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ: ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ‬Commission for Western Asia comprises ‫ﺁﺴﻴﺎ. ﻭﺘﻀﻡ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ: ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ‬Arabia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates and Yemen ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Food and Agriculture Organization, FAOSTAT ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Statistical Database ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬GCC: The Gulf Cooperation Council GCC ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ، ﻭﻴﻀﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬comprises Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, ‫ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Greenhouse gas GHG ‫ﻏﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬Gross domestic product GDP ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬Hectare HA ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻠﺠﻥ‬International Standard Industrial ISIC ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬Classification of all Economic Activities ‫ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬Kilogram kg ‫ﻜﻐﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻏﺭﺍﻡ‬Kilometre km ‫ﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬Kilowatt hour kWh.‫ﻙ.ﻭ.ﺱ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻭﺍﻁ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬Liquefied petroleum gas LPG ‫ل‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ ﻨﻔﻁﻲ ﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Metre m ‫ﻤﺘﺭ‬Metric ton Mt ‫ﻁﻥ ﻤﺘﺭﻱ‬Millennium Development Goals MDGs ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Millimetre Mm ‫ﻤﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺭ‬Million cubic metre Mcm ‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬Negligible/Zero - ‫ﻀﺌﻴل/ﺼﻔﺭ‬Number No. ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬Ozone depleting potential ODP ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Ozone depleting substance ODS ‫ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Per cent % ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬Purchasing power parity PPP ‫ﻤﻤﺎﺜل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬Square kilometre Km2 ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬Square metre m2 ‫ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬Thousand 000’ ‫ﺃﻟﻑ‬Tons of oil equivalent TOE ‫ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ‬United States dollar US$ ‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‬World Health Organization WHO ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬Year Yr ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬ xvii
  19. 19. CHAPTER I. OVERVIEW OF GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE, POPULATION AND ECONOMY ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل- ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ Statistical Highlights1. The ESCWA region represents 5.5 per cent of the world total area and 3.6 per cent of the world’s population2. The annual average population growth rate in the ESCWA region was 2.36 per cent in 20073. The population in the ESCWA region was estimated at 244.5 millions in 2007, and is projected to rise to 342.9 millions in 2025, and 458.4 millions in 20504. The average population density in the ESCWA region was 33.3 inhabitants per km2 in 20075. The urban population represented 70 per cent of the total population in the ESCWA region in 20056. The ESCWA region had 51 per cent of world proven oil reserves and 27 per cent of world proven natural gas resources in 20077. The ESCWA region contains only 0.56 per cent of the global renewable water resources and 70 per cent of the land is arid8. The gross domestic product (GDP) at constant prices (2000=100) amounted to US$ 765,299 billion in 20079. Growth rate of real GDP was 5.11 in the ESCWA region in 2007, compared to 6.11 in 2006 ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸ ﹼل ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 5.5 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺘﻀﻡ 6.3 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬  ‫ﻜ‬ -1 2007 ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 63.2 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ -2‫ﺭ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒـ 5.442 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻭﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ 9.243 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﹸﺩ‬ -3 2050 ‫5202 ﻭ4.854 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ 2007 ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 3.33 ﻓﺭﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ -4 ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002، ﺸ ﹼل ﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ 07 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻜ ﻜ‬ -5‫ﺕ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 15 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅ ﹼﺩ، ﻭ72 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻀ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ -6 ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅ ﹼﺩ‬ ‫ﻜ‬‫ﺘﻀﻡ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 65.0 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ 07 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﻀﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺤﻠﺔ‬  -7 2007 ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ )0002=001( 992 567 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ -86.11 ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ 11.5 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒـ‬ -9 2006 ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬

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