UN-ESCWA: Compendium of Environmental Statistics in MENA Countries

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United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia: Compendium of Environmental Statistics (English & Arabic)

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia: Compendium of Environmental Statistics (English & Arabic)

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  • 1. ‫‪ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪FOR WESTERN ASIA‬‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪COMPENDIUM OF ENVIRONMENT STATISTICS‬‬ ‫‪IN THE ESCWA REGION‬‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪United Nations‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬
  • 2. Distr. GENERAL E/ESCWA/SD/2009/13 9 December 2009 ORIGINAL: ARABIC/ENGLISH ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ FOR WESTERN ASIA ‫ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ‬ COMPENDIUM OF ENVIRONMENT STATISTICS IN THE ESCWA REGION ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ‬ United Nations New York, 2009 ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ 2009 ،‫ﻨﻴﻭﻴﻭﺭﻙ‬09-0530 IV
  • 3. V
  • 4. Preface The economic development in the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for WesternAsia (ESCWA) region is accompanied by an overexploitation of resources and adverse impacts on theenvironment, particularly in terms of deteriorating air and water quality, diminishing water resources, landdegradation and desertification, and loss of biodiversity, all of which affect the sustainability and the qualityof life in the region. In order to address such problems and provide solutions, ESCWA member countries need tostrengthen the environmental legislation and implement regulations and action plans for monitoring the stateof environment mainly for water and air with emphasis on environmental accounts and defined goals onreaching regional and international environmental standards. A broad-based programme of environmentstatistics needs to be developed in order to compile and disseminate timely, reliable, relevant and comparableenvironment data; and build up a sound database related to various aspects of the environment for use bygovernment officials, concerned stakeholders and the public. Environmental information and reporting areimportant in order to enhance environmental planning, integrate environmental concerns and economicgrowth into decision-making to promote sustainable development at the national and international levels, andevaluate national environmental performance. The ESCWA has been assisting member countries in developing their environment statistics,indicators and accounts since 2004, benefiting from constant interaction with academicians, researchers,various governmental and private organizations as well as regional and other international agencies. ESCWA published the first issue of the “Compendium of Environment Statistics in the ESCWARegion” in 2007, which contained comprehensive data and indicators on various environmental elementsin the ESCWA region. This second issue addresses eight themes treated separately in each chapter, namely:(a) overview, (b) freshwater resources, (c) freshwater use, (d) water accounts and environmental protectionexpenditure, (e) waste management, (f) energy consumption, (g) air pollution, and (h) Goal 7 of the MDGs.Each chapter starts with an overview of the main issues and describes briefly the statistical tables. The datapresented in this publication covers the 14 members of ESCWA when available including the Sudan whichjoined ESCWA in 2008. The approach used for the collection of information relied on the 2008 United Nations StatisticsDivision (UNSD) environment statistics on waste and water. The data was complemented from national,regional and international publications and databases, with priority given to official national sources. Thedata collected, the related metadata and the selected indicators have been added to the ESCWA StatisticsInformation System (ESIS), available at: http://esis.escwa.org.lb/. The economic section of ESCWA’s Statistics Division, in particular Wafa Aboul Hosn, team leaderand Therese El-Gemayel, research assistant, worked on data collection and treatment, and prepared all theparts of the Compendium which was reviewed by Giovanni Savio, Chief of the Economic Statistics section.We extend our gratitude to officials from member countries for their collaboration; experts on environmentstatistics and accounts from the United Nations Statistics Division, Eszter Horvath, Alessandra Alfieri,Michael Vardon and Yongi Min, from MedStat Cécile Roddier Quéfelec, and ESCWA professionals inwater and environment for sharing data, reports and the responses to the questionnaire on environmentstatistics as well as for the organization of workshops and ideas-sharing; and George J. Nasr, Professor at theLebanese University for providing peer review. ESCWA strives to improve the quality of its publications through the suggestions and comments ofreaders in the readership questionnaire sent along this publication to Ms. Wafa Aboul Hosn, Team Leader,at: aboulhosn@un.org. iii
  • 5. ‫ﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ‬‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻊ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﺴﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺘﺭ ‪‬ﻱ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺘﻀﺎﺅل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﻭﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺭ ﻭﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨ ‪‬ﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ، ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻘ ‪‬ﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻴﻤﺱ ﺒﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺘﻬﺎ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻭﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻭﺤﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻭﺨﻁﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻟﺭﺼﺩ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ، ﻭﻻ ﺴﻴﻤﺎ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﻭﻍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟ ‪‬ﺔ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﻟﻺﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ، ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﻤﻨﻪ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺜﻭﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻭﻨﺸﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﻭﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﻤل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ. ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺘﻌﻤﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬ ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ، ﻭﺩﻤﺞ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠ ‪‬ﺎﺕ ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ، ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ.‬‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺤﺭﺼﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ )ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 4002، ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺼل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﺴﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﻭﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟ ‪‬ﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺃﺼﺩﺭﺕ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ "ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ"، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ، ﺘﻐﻁﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ. ﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻴﺘﻁ ‪‬ﻕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﻀﻴﻊ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼﻭل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ: )ﺃ( ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﺎ ‪‬ﺔ؛‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫)ﺏ( ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ؛ )ﺝ( ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ؛ )ﺩ( ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ؛ )ﻫ( ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ؛ )ﻭ( ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ؛ )ﺯ( ﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ؛ )ﺡ( ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔ ‪‬ﺔ. ‪‬ﺴﺘﻬل ﻜل ﻓﺼل ﺒﻠﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ ّ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴ ‪‬ﺔ، ﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺸﺭﺡ ﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ. ﺘﻐ ﹼﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﻤﺠﻤل ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ، ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﻨﻀﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 8002.‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ. ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻁﻴﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤ ‪‬ﺔ. ﻭﺃﻀﻴﻔﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠ ‪‬ﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﻗ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﻟﻺﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ: /‪.http://esis.escwa.org.lb‬‬‫ﻭﺍﻀﻁﻠﻊ ﻗﺴﻡ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﻺﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﻭﻻ ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ ﺃﺒﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﺔ ﺘﺭﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻤ ‪‬ل، ﺒﻤﻬ ‪‬ﺔ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﻫﺎ، ﻭﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻜل ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ، ﻭﺭﺍﺠﻌﻬﺎ ﺠﻴﻭﻓﺎﻨﻲ ﺴﺎﻓﻴﻭ،‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﻗﺴﻡ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ‪‬ﺔ. ﻭﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﺘﻘ ‪‬ﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ، ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ، ﻻ ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺇﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻫﻭﺭﻓﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﻟﻴﺴﺎﻨﺩﺭﺍ ﺃﻟﻔﻴﻴﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﺎﻴﻜل ﻓﺎﺭﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﻴﻭﻨﻐﻲ ﻤﻴﻥ، ﻭﺴﻴﺴﻴل ﺭﻭﺩﻴﻴﻪ ﻜﻴﻔﻠﻴﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ-ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﻲ )ﻤﻴﺩﺴﺘﺎﺕ(، ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ ‪‬ﺔ، ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻭﺭﺸﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ، ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺘﺎﺫ ﺠﻭﺭﺝ ﻨﺼﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨ ‪‬ﺼﺔ.‬ ‫ﺼ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺇﺫ ﺘﺘﻁﹼﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ، ﺘﺭ ‪‬ﺏ ﺒﺄﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘ ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺭ ﺇﺭﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ ‪‬ﺩﺓ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ ﺃﺒﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻥ، ﺭﺌﻴﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﻕ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ: ‪.aboulhosn@un.org‬‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫‪iv‬‬
  • 6. CONTENTS PagePreface .................................................................................................................................................. iiiSymbols and abbreviations ................................................................................................................... xviiChapter I. OVERVIEW OF GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE, POPULATION AND ECONOMY .............................................................................................................................. 1 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 1 Overview of Geography and Climate in the ESCWA Region ................................................... 2 Population and Urbanization Overview ..................................................................................... 5 Challenges Stemming from Population Growth ........................................................................ 5 Migration .................................................................................................................................... 6 Economic Growth Overview...................................................................................................... 10 II. FRESHWATER RESOURCES .............................................................................................. 13 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 13 Overview of Water Resources in the ESCWA Region .............................................................. 14 Conventional Freshwater Resources .......................................................................................... 14 Non-Conventional Freshwater Resources .................................................................................. 15 Indicators of Freshwater Resources ........................................................................................... 16 Trends ......................................................................................................................................... 17 III. FRESHWATER MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................ 31 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 31 Overview of Freshwater Abstraction in the ESCWA Region .................................................... 32 Groundwater Dependency and Water Deficit ............................................................................ 33 Wastewater treatment ................................................................................................................. 33 Water market .............................................................................................................................. 34 Freshwater quality ...................................................................................................................... 48 VI. INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC ACCOUNTING ..................... 58 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 58 Overview of Integrated Environmental Economic Accounting in the ESCWA Region ............ 59 Overview of Environmental Expenditure in the ESCWA Region ............................................. 66 Public Environmental Expenditure in Jordan ................................................................. 66 Public Environmental Expenditure in Lebanon ......................................................................... 67 Overview of Lebanon Oil Spill .................................................................................................. 71 V. WASTE MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................................... 72 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 72 Overview of Waste Management in the ESCWA Region ......................................................... 73 v
  • 7. CONTENTS (continued) Page VI. ENERGY CONSUMPTION ................................................................................................... 82 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 82 Overview of the Energy Sector in the ESCWA Region ............................................................. 83VII. AIR POLLUTION ................................................................................................................... 92 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 92 Overview of Air Pollution in the ESCWA Region .................................................................... 93 Climate Change: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions .................... 93 Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) .......................................................................................... 97VIII. MDG 7: ENSURING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ....................................... 109 Statistical Highlights .................................................................................................................. 109 Overview of Goal 7 of the MDGs .............................................................................................. 110 Access to Safe Drinking Water .................................................................................................. 110 Access to Sanitation ................................................................................................................... 111 Urban Population in the Slums................................................................................................... 111 LIST OF ANNEXES I. Definitions by Chapter ............................................................................................................... 120 II. WHO Drinking Water Guidelines .............................................................................................. 130 III. WHO Air Quality Guidelines ..................................................................................................... 133 IV. UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment 2008 .................................................................. 134 vi
  • 8. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫‪iv‬‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ ...........................................................................................................‬‫‪xvii‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻭﺯ ﻭﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭﺍﺕ ...............................................................................................‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬ ‫1‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل- ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ................................‬ ‫1‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫2‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ......................................‬ ‫5‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ ..............................................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫5‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ ...............................................................‬ ‫6‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺭﺓ...........................................................................................‬ ‫01‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ .......................................................................‬ ‫31‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ- ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ..............................................................................‬ ‫31‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫41‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ......................................................‬ ‫41‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ .......................................................................‬ ‫51‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ..................................................................‬ ‫61‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ .....................................................................‬ ‫71‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ .......................................................................................‬ ‫13‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ- ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ...............................................................................‬ ‫13‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫23‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ...............................................‬ ‫33‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ .......................................................‬ ‫33‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ .............................................................................‬ ‫43‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ......................................................................................‬ ‫84‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ...............................................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫85‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ- ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ..........................................................‬ ‫85‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫95‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ................................‬ ‫66‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ........................................................‬ ‫66‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ....................................................................‬ ‫76‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ......................................................................‬ ‫17‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻨﺴﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ .................................................................‬ ‫‪vii‬‬
  • 9. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫27‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ- ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ..................................................................................‬ ‫27‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫37‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ .......................................................‬ ‫28‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ- ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ .................................................................................‬ ‫28‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌ ‪‬ﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫38‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ .........................................................‬ ‫29‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ- ﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ .....................................................................................‬ ‫29‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬ ‫39‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻠ ‪‬ﺙ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ .........................................................‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫39‬ ‫ﺘﻐ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ: ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻭﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ ...........................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫79‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ...................................................................‬‫901‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ- ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ 7 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔﻴﺔ: ﻜﻔﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ...................................‬‫901‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ..................................................................................‬‫011‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ 7 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔﻴﺔ ..................................................‬‫011‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺭﺏ .............................................................‬‫111‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ...........................................................‬‫111‬ ‫ﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭﺓ .................................................................‬ ‫ﻜ‬‫021‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻓﻘﺎﺕ .........................................................................................................‬ ‫‪viii‬‬
  • 10. CONTENTS (continued) Page LIST OF TABLES I.1. Main Geographical Features ...................................................................................................... 3 I.2. Main Climatic Features (year 2007)........................................................................................... 4 I.3. Population and Urbanization ...................................................................................................... 8 I.4. Migration in ESCWA Countries (Thousands) ........................................................................... 10 I.5. Gross Domestic Product in ESCWA Countries at Constant Prices (base year 2000) and Growth Rates of Real GDP (Billion US$)........................................................................... 11 I.6. Gross Domestic Product Per Capita in ESCWA Member Countries at Constant Prices (base year 2000) in US$ .................................................................................................. 12 II.1. Average Precipitation in Volume (Mcm/yr) .............................................................................. 18 II.2. Total Surface Water (Mcm/yr) ................................................................................................... 19 II.3. Groundwater Recharge (Mcm/yr) .............................................................................................. 20 II.4. Total Freshwater from Conventional Sources (Mcm/yr) ........................................................... 21 II.5. Desalination Production and Capacity ....................................................................................... 22 II.6. Water Reuse (Mcm/yr) ............................................................................................................... 23 II.7. Total Non-Conventional Water (Mcm/yr) ................................................................................. 24 II.8. Total Conventional and Non-Conventional Water Resources (Mcm/yr) ................................... 25 II.9. Selected Indicators on Water Resources .................................................................................... 26II.10. Percentage and Number of Population Affected by Water Scarcity in 2007 ............................. 27III.1. Total Freshwater Abstracted (Mcm/yr) ...................................................................................... 36III.2. Sectoral Water Consumption (Mcm/yr) ..................................................................................... 37III.3. Total Freshwater Abstracted ...................................................................................................... 39III.4. Water Use Indicators .................................................................................................................. 42III.5. Wastewater Management ........................................................................................................... 43III.6. Wastewater Treatment Plants ..................................................................................................... 44III.7. Water Market 2007 (Million US$) ............................................................................................. 45III.8. Municipal Water and Wastewater Capital Expenditure Forecast (Million US$) ....................... 46III.9. Water Market in the ESCWA Region ........................................................................................ 47III.10. Selected Indicators for Groundwater Quality in Bahrain ........................................................... 50III.11. Selected Indicators for Surface Water Quality in Egypt ............................................................ 51III.12. Selected Water Quality Indicators in Palestine .......................................................................... 52III.13. Water Quality Indicators in the Gulf Countries: Bahrain and Kuwait ....................................... 53III.14. Water Quality Indicators in the Gulf Countries: Oman and Qatar ............................................. 54III.15. Water Quality Indicators in the Gulf Countries: Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates ............................................................................................................................. 55III.16. Discharge of Organic Water Pollutants (Total and from Different Sectors) .............................. 56IV.1. Pilot SEEAW Physical Water Use Table, Jordan, 2007 (Mcm) ................................................ 61IV.2. Pilot SEEAW Physical Supply, Jordan, 2007 (Mcm) ................................................................ 62IV.3. Matrix of Flows within the Economy in Jordan, 2007 (Mcm) ................................................... 63 ix
  • 11. CONTENTS (continued) PageIV.4. Mean Annual Water Consumption for All Uses in Bahrain (1985-2005) (Mcm)...................... 63IV.5. Pilot SEEAW Physical Use, Bahrain 2005 (Mcm) .................................................................... 64IV.6. Egypt Water Balance 2002-2007 (Billion cubic metres) ........................................................... 65IV.7. Environmental Expenditure at Constant Prices in Jordan, (2000=100) (2000-2007) ................ 68IV.8. Environmental Expenditure by Sector in Jordan ....................................................................... 69IV.9. Selected Indicators for Lebanon ................................................................................................. 70IV.10.Economic Impact of the July 2006 Hostilities on the Environment in Lebanon........................ 71 V.1. Municipal Waste Generated (Thousand tons) ............................................................................ 76 V.2. Total Waste Generation (Thousand tons)................................................................................... 77 V.3. Hazardous Waste ........................................................................................................................ 78 V.4. Landfills ..................................................................................................................................... 79 V.5. Selected Indicators for Palestine ................................................................................................ 80 V.6. Selected Indicators for Qatar ...................................................................................................... 81VI.1. Oil and Natural Gas Proven Reserve, Production and Lifespan, 2007 ...................................... 86VI.2. Total Oil Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region .......................... 87VI.3. Total Natural Gas Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region ............ 88VI.4. Total Electricity Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region ............... 89VI.5. Total Energy Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region .................... 90VI.6. Energy Use (kg oil equivalent) Per $1,000 GDP (Constant 2005 PPP) ..................................... 91VII.1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) (Thousand tons per year) ................................................. 99VII.2. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide Per Capita (Ton/capita) .............................................................. 100VII.3. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Egypt ............................................................................. 100VII.4. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Jordan............................................................................. 101VII.5. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Kuwait............................................................................ 101VII.6. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Saudi Arabia .................................................................. 102VII.7. Ozone-Depleting Substances Consumption in ODP metric tons ............................................... 102VII.8. CFC Consumption (ODP metric tons) in the ESCWA region ................................................... 103VII.9. HCFC Consumption (ODP metric tons) in the ESCWA region ................................................ 104VII.10. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Lebanon.................................................................. 105VII.11. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Qatar ....................................................................... 106VII.12. Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Yemen .................................................................... 106VIII.1. Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources (total) (%) ................................................... 112VIII.2. Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources (urban) (%) ................................................. 113VIII.3. Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources (rural) (%) .................................................. 114VIII.4. Access to Improved Sanitation (total) (%) ......................................................................... 115VIII.5. Access to Improved Sanitation (urban) (%) ....................................................................... 116VIII.6. Access to Improved Sanitation (rural) (%) ......................................................................... 117VIII.7. ESCWA Urban Population Living in Slums ...................................................................... 118 x
  • 12. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫3‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ...........................................................................‬ ‫1.‪-I‬‬ ‫4‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ )ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002( ...........................................................‬ ‫2.‪-I‬‬ ‫8‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ................................................................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫3.‪-I‬‬ ‫01‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ )ﺒﺎﻵﻻﻑ( .....................................................................‬ ‫4.‪-I‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ )ﺴﻨﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ 0002( ﻭﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫5.‪-I‬‬ ‫11‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ )ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ( ..........................................................‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫6.‪-I‬‬ ‫21‬ ‫)ﺴﻨﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ 0002( ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻭﻻﺭ ............................................................................‬ ‫81‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻁﻠﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ..........................................................‬ ‫1.‪-II‬‬ ‫91‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ..........................................................‬ ‫2.‪-II‬‬ ‫02‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( .............................................‬ ‫3.‪-II‬‬ ‫12‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ..........................................‬ ‫4.‪-II‬‬ ‫22‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻼﺓ ﻭﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﻯ ...............................................................‬ ‫5.‪-II‬‬ ‫32‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ............................................................‬ ‫6.‪-II‬‬ ‫42‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ......................................................‬ ‫7.‪-II‬‬ ‫52‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ..................‬ ‫8.‪-II‬‬ ‫62‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ .....................................................................‬ ‫9.‪-II‬‬ ‫72‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﺘﺄ ﹼﺭﻭﺍ ﺒﺸﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻭﻋﺩﺩﻫﻡ .............................................‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫01.‪-II‬‬ ‫63‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( .................................................‬ ‫1.‪-III‬‬ ‫73‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( .......................................................‬ ‫2.‪-III‬‬ ‫93‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ .........................................................................‬ ‫3.‪-III‬‬ ‫24‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ .................................................................................‬ ‫4.‪-III‬‬ ‫34‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ......................................................................................‬ ‫5.‪-III‬‬ ‫44‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ............................................................................‬ ‫6.‪-III‬‬ ‫54‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ( .......................................................................‬ ‫7.‪-III‬‬ ‫64‬ ‫ﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ( ..................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫8.‪-III‬‬ ‫74‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ...........................................................................‬ ‫9.‪-III‬‬ ‫05‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓ ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ..........................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫01.‪-III‬‬ ‫15‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ...........................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫11.‪-III‬‬ ‫25‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ..................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫21.‪-III‬‬ ‫35‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ: ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ .................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫31.‪-III‬‬ ‫45‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ: ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ ......................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫41.‪-III‬‬ ‫55‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ: ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ...............‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫51.‪-III‬‬ ‫65‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ )ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤل ﻭﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ( .........................................‬ ‫61.‪-III‬‬ ‫16‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻱ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( .......................................‬ ‫1.‪-IV‬‬ ‫26‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻱ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( ........................................‬ ‫2.‪-IV‬‬ ‫36‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺘﺩﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( .................................‬ ‫3.‪-IV‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ، ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ، 5891-5002‬ ‫4.‪-IV‬‬ ‫36‬ ‫)ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( .....................................................................................‬ ‫46‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻱ، ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ، 5002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( .....................................‬ ‫5.‪-IV‬‬ ‫‪xi‬‬
  • 13. ‫56‬ ‫6.‪ -IV‬ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ 2002-7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( ............................‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫86‬ ‫7.‪ -IV‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ.................................................................‬ ‫96‬ ‫8.‪ -IV‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ............................................................‬ ‫07‬ ‫9.‪ -IV‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻥ ..................................................................................‬ ‫17‬ ‫01.‪ -IV‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺘﻤﻭﺯ/ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ 6002 ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ .........................................‬ ‫67‬ ‫1.‪ -V‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ( ...............................................................................‬ ‫77‬ ‫2.‪ -V‬ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻟﺩﺓ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ(......................................................................‬ ‫87‬ ‫3.‪ -V‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ .........................................................................................‬ ‫97‬ ‫4.‪ -V‬ﻁﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ............................................................................................‬ ‫08‬ ‫5.‪ -V‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ...............................................................................‬ ‫18‬ ‫6.‪ -V‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻘﻁﺭ ..................................................................................‬ ‫68‬ ‫1.‪ -VI‬ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅ ﹼﺩ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ، 7002 ...................................‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫78‬ ‫2.‪ -VI‬ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ................................‬ ‫88‬ ‫3.‪ -VI‬ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ...............‬ ‫98‬ ‫4.‪ -VI‬ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ..........................‬ ‫09‬ ‫5.‪ -VI‬ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ..............................‬ ‫19‬ ‫6.‪ -VI‬ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ )ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ( ﻟﻜل ﺃﻟﻑ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ )ﻤﻤﺎﺜل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ( .......‬ ‫99‬ ‫1.‪ -VII‬ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ( ........................................................‬‫001‬ ‫2.‪ -VII‬ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ( ...............................................‬‫001‬ ‫3.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ ................................................................‬‫101‬ ‫4.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ...............................................................‬‫101‬ ‫5.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ..............................................................‬‫201‬ ‫6.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ .............................................‬‫201‬ ‫7.‪ -VII‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ(................................‬‫301‬ ‫8.‪ -VII‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ( ............‬‫401‬ ‫9.‪ -VII‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻠﺠﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ( ...‬‫501‬ ‫01.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ .................................................................‬‫601‬ ‫11.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺭ .................................................................‬‫601‬ ‫21.‪ -VII‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ................................................................‬‫211‬ ‫1.‪ -VIII‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺸﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ( ..............................‬ ‫ﺴ‬‫311‬ ‫2.‪ -VIII‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺸﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ( ...............................‬ ‫ﺴ‬‫411‬ ‫3.‪ -VIII‬ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺸﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ( ......................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬‫511‬ ‫4.‪ -VIII‬ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺼﺭﻑ ﺼ ‪‬ﻲ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ(.....................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺤ‬‫611‬ ‫5.‪ -VIII‬ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺼﺭﻑ ﺼ ‪‬ﻲ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ( ......................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺤ‬‫711‬ ‫6.‪ -VIII‬ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺼﺭﻑ ﺼ ‪‬ﻲ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ( .......................................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺤ‬‫811‬ ‫7.‪ -VIII‬ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻌﻴﺸﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ )ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ( ...............................‬ ‫‪xii‬‬
  • 14. CONTENTS (continued) Page LIST OF FIGURES I.1. Mid-year population estimates for ESCWA countries ....................................................... 7 I.2. Trend of real GDP growth in ESCWA countries ............................................................... 11 II.1. Available Surface and Ground Water as Percentage of Total Renewable Water Resources ................................................................................................................. 28 II.2. Total Renewable Freshwater from Conventional Sources 2005-2007 ............................... 28 II.3. Total Conventional to Non-Conventional Water Resources .............................................. 29 II.4. Share of Water Resources in the ESCWA Region, 2007 ................................................... 29 II.5. Per Capita Water Resources from Available Water Resources .......................................... 30III.1. Sectoral Water Withdrawal (Mcm/yr) ................................................................................ 40III.2. Per Capita Total Water Withdrawal ................................................................................... 41VII.1. CO2 Emissions in the ESCWA Region .............................................................................. 96VII.2. Total ESCWA CO2 Emissions and Percentage of World Emissions ................................. 107VII.3. Emission of Carbon Dioxide per Capita in the ESCWA Region ....................................... 107VII.4. ODS Consumption in ODP Metric Tons in the ESCWA Region....................................... 108VII.5. Total ODS Consumption .................................................................................................... 108VIII.1. Trends of Access to Improved Water and Sanitation of ESCWA Population .................... 119 xiii
  • 15. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫7‬ ‫1.‪ -I‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ .........................................................‬ ‫11‬ ‫2.‪ -I‬ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ............................................‬ ‫82‬ ‫1.‪ -II‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ ‪‬ﺔ .................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫82‬ ‫2.‪ -II‬ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠ ‪‬ﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ ‪‬ﺔ 5002-7002 .........................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫92‬ ‫3.‪ -II‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ .........................................‬ ‫92‬ ‫4.‪ -II‬ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، 7002 ..........................................................‬ ‫03‬ ‫5.‪ -II‬ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ..................................................‬ ‫04‬ ‫1.‪ -III‬ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ( ......................................................‬ ‫14‬ ‫2.‪ -III‬ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ .........................................................‬ ‫69‬ ‫1.‪ -VII‬ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ..........................................................‬‫701‬ ‫2.‪ -VII‬ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭ ‪‬ﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ .................‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫701‬ ‫3.‪ -VII‬ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ .........................................‬‫801‬ ‫4.‪ -VII‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ( .............‬‫801‬ ‫5.‪ -VII‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ .................................................................‬‫911‬ ‫1.‪ -VIII‬ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺤﺼﻭل ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺼﺭﻑ ﺼ ‪‬ﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﺤ ‪‬ﻨﺔ .......................‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫‪xiv‬‬
  • 16. CONTENTS (continued) Page LIST OF BOXES I.1. Population Growth and Distribution in Lebanon ....................................................................... 6 I.2. ‘Climigration’ in Syria ............................................................................................................... 7 II.1. Desalination in Saudi Arabia...................................................................................................... 16 II.2. Per Capita Water Resources 2007 .............................................................................................. 17III.1. Wastewater Reuse in Jordan....................................................................................................... 34IV.1. Summary of the Oil Spill, Lebanon............................................................................................ 71 V.1. Eurostat and the Data Centre on Waste ...................................................................................... 74 V.2. Communal Solidarity for Waste Management in South Lebanon.............................................. 75VI.1. Iraq and Energy Reserves ........................................................................................................... 84 xv
  • 17. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺘﺎﺒﻊ(‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻁﺭ‬ ‫6‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ...............................................................................................‬ ‫1.‪-I‬‬ ‫7‬ ‫"ﻫﺠﺭﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﺨ ‪‬ﺔ" ﻓﻲ ﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ .....................................................................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫2.‪-I‬‬ ‫61‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ...................................................................................‬ ‫1.‪-II‬‬ ‫71‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ..........................................................................‬ ‫2.‪-II‬‬ ‫43‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ .....................................................................................‬ ‫1.‪-III‬‬ ‫17‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺨﺹ ﺍﻨﺴﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ، ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ...................................................................................................‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫1.‪-IV‬‬ ‫47‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒ ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ................................................‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫1.‪-V‬‬ ‫57‬ ‫ﺘﻀﺎﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻲ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻨﻭﺏ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ .........................................................................‬ ‫2.‪-V‬‬ ‫48‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ .......................................................................................................‬ ‫1.‪-VI‬‬ ‫‪xvi‬‬
  • 18. Symbols and abbreviations ‫ﺭﻤﻭﺯ ﻭﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭﺍﺕ‬Billion cubic metre Bcm ‫ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬Chlorofluorocarbons CFC ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬Cubic metre m3 ‫ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬Not Produced or Not Available … ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﺎﺡ‬ESCWA: The Economic and Social ESCWA ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ: ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ‬Commission for Western Asia comprises ‫ﺁﺴﻴﺎ. ﻭﺘﻀﻡ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ: ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ‬Arabia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates and Yemen ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Food and Agriculture Organization, FAOSTAT ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Statistical Database ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬GCC: The Gulf Cooperation Council GCC ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ، ﻭﻴﻀﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬comprises Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, ‫ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Greenhouse gas GHG ‫ﻏﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬Gross domestic product GDP ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬Hectare HA ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻠﺠﻥ‬International Standard Industrial ISIC ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬Classification of all Economic Activities ‫ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬Kilogram kg ‫ﻜﻐﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻏﺭﺍﻡ‬Kilometre km ‫ﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬Kilowatt hour kWh.‫ﻙ.ﻭ.ﺱ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻭﺍﻁ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬Liquefied petroleum gas LPG ‫ل‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ ﻨﻔﻁﻲ ﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Metre m ‫ﻤﺘﺭ‬Metric ton Mt ‫ﻁﻥ ﻤﺘﺭﻱ‬Millennium Development Goals MDGs ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Millimetre Mm ‫ﻤﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺭ‬Million cubic metre Mcm ‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬Negligible/Zero - ‫ﻀﺌﻴل/ﺼﻔﺭ‬Number No. ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬Ozone depleting potential ODP ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Ozone depleting substance ODS ‫ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Per cent % ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬Purchasing power parity PPP ‫ﻤﻤﺎﺜل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬Square kilometre Km2 ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬Square metre m2 ‫ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬Thousand 000’ ‫ﺃﻟﻑ‬Tons of oil equivalent TOE ‫ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ‬United States dollar US$ ‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‬World Health Organization WHO ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬Year Yr ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬ xvii
  • 19. CHAPTER I. OVERVIEW OF GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE, POPULATION AND ECONOMY ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل- ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ Statistical Highlights1. The ESCWA region represents 5.5 per cent of the world total area and 3.6 per cent of the world’s population2. The annual average population growth rate in the ESCWA region was 2.36 per cent in 20073. The population in the ESCWA region was estimated at 244.5 millions in 2007, and is projected to rise to 342.9 millions in 2025, and 458.4 millions in 20504. The average population density in the ESCWA region was 33.3 inhabitants per km2 in 20075. The urban population represented 70 per cent of the total population in the ESCWA region in 20056. The ESCWA region had 51 per cent of world proven oil reserves and 27 per cent of world proven natural gas resources in 20077. The ESCWA region contains only 0.56 per cent of the global renewable water resources and 70 per cent of the land is arid8. The gross domestic product (GDP) at constant prices (2000=100) amounted to US$ 765,299 billion in 20079. Growth rate of real GDP was 5.11 in the ESCWA region in 2007, compared to 6.11 in 2006 ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸ ﹼل ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 5.5 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺘﻀﻡ 6.3 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬  ‫ﻜ‬ -1 2007 ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 63.2 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ -2‫ﺭ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒـ 5.442 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻭﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ 9.243 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﹸﺩ‬ -3 2050 ‫5202 ﻭ4.854 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ 2007 ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 3.33 ﻓﺭﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ -4 ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002، ﺸ ﹼل ﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ 07 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻜ ﻜ‬ -5‫ﺕ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 15 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅ ﹼﺩ، ﻭ72 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻀ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ -6 ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅ ﹼﺩ‬ ‫ﻜ‬‫ﺘﻀﻡ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 65.0 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ 07 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﻀﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺤﻠﺔ‬  -7 2007 ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ )0002=001( 992 567 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ -86.11 ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ 11.5 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒـ‬ -9 2006 ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬
  • 20. Overview of Geography and Climate in the ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ESCWA Region ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ The ESCWA region comprises 14 ESCWA ‫ﺘﻀﻡ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 41 ﺒﻠﺩﺍ ﻋﻀﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬members, namely: Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, ‫ﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬Arabia, the Sudan, the Syrian Arab Republic, the ‫ﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻋ‬United Arab Emirates and Yemen. .‫ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ The region covers 7.3 million km2, which ‫ﻭﺘﻐ ﹼﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺯﻫﺎﺀ 3.7 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻜﻡ2، ﺃﻱ 5.5 ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻁ‬represents 5.5 per cent of the world total area. The ‫ﺔ. ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻴ‬surface areas of individual ESCWA member 2.5‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﻴﻥ 496 ﻜﻡ2 ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭ‬countries range from 694 km2 for Bahrain to 2.5million km2 for the Sudan. All ESCWA member ‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻜﻡ2 ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ. ﻭﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻫﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬countries have access to the sea, with the longest ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﺔ، ﻭﺘﻘﻊ ﺃﻁﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺤﻠ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺤﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬coastlines in Saudi Arabia and Egypt at 7,572 km ‫ﺔ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ 275 7 ﻭ898 5 ﻜﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬and 5,898 km respectively while Jordan has a 27 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻁﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺤﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﹼ‬modest coastline of 27 km (table I.1). The highest ‫(. ﻭﻴﻀﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬I.1 ‫ﻜﻡ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬  altitudes are found in Yemen, Lebanon and the ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺎﺕ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻗﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﺎل 666 3 ﻭ090 3 ﻡ‬Sudan at 3,666 m, 3,090 m and 3,075 mrespectively (table I.1). .(I.1 ‫ﻭ570 3 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ The region is rich in oil and gas resources, ‫ﺔ ﺒﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ، ﺇﺫ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻏﻨ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ representing in 2007 some 51 per cent of the world ‫ﺤﺼﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﺯﻫﺎﺀ 15 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ‬proven oil reserves and 27 per cent of the world ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅ ﹼﺩﺓ ﻭ72 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻴ‬proven natural gas resources.1 However, the region (1)suffers from water scarcity and aridity. The inland ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅ ﹼﺩﺓ . ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺘﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺢ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤ‬  ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻴ‬water surface covers only 1.6 per cent of the total ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻔﺎﻑ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻻ ﺘﻐ ﹼﻲ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ESCWA surface area. .‫ﺔ ﺴﻭﻯ 6.1 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ The region contains merely 0.56 per cent of ‫ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﺤﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ 65.0 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ‬the global renewable water resources, while it ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻀﻡ 6.3 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬ accounts for 3.6 per cent of the world’s population. ‫ل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺴﻘﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ. ﻭﻻ ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻜ‬Mean yearly precipitation is less than 100 mm peryear in six ESCWA member countries, and between ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ 001 ﻤﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺴ ﹼﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺘ‬100 and 300 mm per year in four other countries. ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ 001 ﻭ003 ﻤﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬Only Lebanon profits of an average precipitation of ‫ل ﻫﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ. ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬646 mm per year, most of which, however, is ‫ﻗﺩﺭﻩ 646 ﻤﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ، ﻟﻜ ﹼﻪ ﻻ ﻴﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻨ‬unavailable due to seepage into the sea or flow into .‫ﺎ ﺘﻬﺩﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺼﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ، ﻷ ﹼﻬﺎ ﺇ‬  ‫ﻨ ﻤ‬other countries. The water is unevenly distributed ‫ﻭﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ‬and shortages in water supplies in summer are also ‫ﺃﻨﺤﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻤﺩﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻑ‬observed in most regions (table I.2). .(I.2 ‫)ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Agricultural land represented 5.1 per cent of ‫ﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ 1.5 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺸ ﹼﻠﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻜ‬total land in ESCWA region for the year 2007 while 2007 ‫ﺔ ﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻴ‬it was estimated at 23.2 per cent for the year 2005 2005 ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ 2.32 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬(ESCWA calculation based on country data andFAOSTAT database where agricultural land is ‫)ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﻜﺯﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬considered to be cultivated land according to ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻏﺫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ 1 ESCWA, Statistical Abstract of the ESCWA Region, Issue 28 (2009). 2
  • 21. FAOSTAT definition).2 ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺩ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ )ﻓﺎﻭﺴﺘﺎﺕ( ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .(2)(‫ﺒﺎﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻭﺜﺔ‬ 2 http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html, accessed on August 2009. 3
  • 22. Table I.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Main Geographical Features ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴ ّﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ Total Inland Surface Water Length of Maximum Area Surface coasts Continental Shelf Altitude (km2)a/ (km2)b/ (Km)b/ Area (km2)b/ (m)c/ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﻁﺊ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ a/ (‫)ﻜﻡ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬ b/ (‫)ﻜﻡ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬ b/ (‫)ﻜﻡ‬ b/ (‫)ﻜﻡ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬ (‫ﺍﻷﻋﻅﻡ )ﻤﺘﺭ‬ c/ Bahrain 694 … 255 7,968 134 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ Egypt 1,001,450 2,462 5,898 50,066 2,637 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ Iraq 438,317 924 105 1,034 … ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ Jordan 89,324 280 27 82 1,854 ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ‬ Kuwait 17,818 … 756 6,526 … ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ Lebanon 10,452 16 294 1,169 3,090 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Oman 309,500 … 2,810 … 3,075 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ Palestine 6,020 … 42 46,670 1,022 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ Qatar 11,493 … 909 31,156 35 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ Saudi Arabia 2,149,690 … 7,572 95,580 2,000 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ Sudan 2,505,813 114,000 717 15,861 3,000 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Syrian Arab Republic 185,180 1,464 183 852 2,814 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ United Arab Emirates 83,600 … 2,871 51,394 … ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ Yemen 527,970 … 3,149 65,341 3,666 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ ESCWA Total 7,337,321 119,146 25,546 373,699 ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ National data from statistical abstracts, Correspondence with ESCWA: for Oman (excluding internationalwaters, including islands); for Qatar (excluding reclaimed land); and Yemen (excluding international waters and islands). b/ Global Environment Outlook Data Portal, UNEP, 2006. For Iraq, FAO, Aquastat Database, 2005. c/ National data from statistical abstracts, and FAOSTAT website. 4
  • 23. Table I.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Main Climatic Features (year 2007) (2007 ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴ ّﺔ )ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ Average Min. Annual Average Max. Annual Mean Yearly Temperature (degrees Temperature Precipitation Celsius)a/ (degrees Celsius)b/ (mm/yr)a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻅﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ a/ (‫)ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ b/ (‫)ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ a/ (‫)ﻤﻠﻡ‬Bahrain … … 83 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 8.75 40.68 51 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 15.05 30.30 144 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 12.40 23.80 111 ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 19.60 34.20 77 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 12.68 28.24 646 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 10.00 42.60 135 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 14.00 23.13 424 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 23.70 33.90 74 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 17.62 33.48 52 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ b/Sudan 21.16 35.61 416 b/ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Syrian Arab Republic -3.43 43.30 313 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates … … 78 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemenb/ 13.87 35.56 167 b/ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ Sources: a/ Several Country Statistical Abstracts and FAO Aquastat Database 2008. b/ Average Minimum and Maximum Temperatures are for the year of 2006. 5
  • 24. Population and Urbanization Overview ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭ ّﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ In 2003, the population in the ESCWA region ‫ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ was estimated at 222.5 millions and has grown at an ‫ل ﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ل ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ 5.222 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 3002، ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ average annual rate of 2.3 per cent, compared to a 1.22 ‫ل ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻗﺩﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻪ 3.2 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ global average of 1.22 per cent, to reach 244.5 millions in 2007 (table I.3; figure I.1). Egypt is the ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ، ﻟﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ 5.442 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ most populated ESCWA country with 80.5 millions ‫(. ﻭﺘﺤﺘل ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬I.1 ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬I.3 ‫7002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ followed by the Sudan with 40.6 millions; the ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ، ﺇﺫ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺴﻜﺎﻨﻬﺎ‬ populations of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab ‫5.08 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ، ﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ 6.04 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ Republic and Yemen range between 20 and 30 ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ millions. The lowest population agglomeration was 30‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ 02 ﻭ‬ found in Bahrain with less than 1 million ،‫ﻊ ﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻬﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ. ﺃﻤﺎ ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﺘﺠ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ inhabitants in 2007. .2007 ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ According to the medium variant estimate of ‫ﻁ ﻟﻠﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ the World Population Prospects 2008, the ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 8002، ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ population in the ESCWA region is projected to ‫ل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 29.243 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5202، ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ reach 342.92 millions by 2025, with an increase of 40 per cent compared to 2007, and 458.38 millions 458.38‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺩﺭﻫﺎ 04 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻭ‬ by 2050. .2050 ‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﺒﺤﻠﻭل ﻋﺎﻡ‬ The average population density in the region ‫ﺭ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺒـ 83 ﻨﺴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ was estimated at 38 inhabitants per km2 in 2007. ‫ﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002. ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ Bahrain has the highest population density, with ‫ﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 060 1 ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻡ2، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺴﻜﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ 1,060 inhabitants per km2, while Oman has the 2 lowest, with 8.4 inhabitants per km2 (table I.3). A ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻨﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ 4.8 ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻡ‬ special case is the Gaza governorate which has the ‫ﺔ ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎ‬ ‫(. ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﻏ‬I.3 ‫)ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ highest population density in the world with 3,881 ‫ﻴﻀﻡ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ، ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ 188 3 ﻨﺴﻤﺔ‬ inhabitants per km2.3 The characteristics of each of ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻡ2)3(. ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﺴﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ ّ the ESCWA countries are very important ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻫﻲ ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﻤﻬ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ parameters as to reflecting the actual population ‫ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ density and the uneven population distribution .‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ within and between counties. Challenges Stemming from Population Growth ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ The total urban population in ESCWA ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﻌﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻥ‬ increased from 69 per cent in 2000 to 70 per cent in ‫96 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0002 ﺇﻟﻰ 07 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ 2005, adding some 15.5 million people into already ‫ﻠﺕ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺩﺭﻫﺎ 5.51 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫5002، ﺃﻱ ﺃ ﹼﻬﺎ ﺴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ overpopulated urban areas. The urban population ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻀ ﹼﻡ ﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ. ﻭﻴﺸ ﹼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ forms approximately 85 per cent of the total population in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) ‫ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ ﻨﺤﻭ 58 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ subregion and some 66 per cent in the Mashreq ‫ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ، ﻭﻗﺭﺍﺒﺔ 66 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ subregion of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻀﻡ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬  Palestine and the Syrian Arab Republic. Moreover, ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ. ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺭ‬ 71 per cent of the population in Yemen and 57 per ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﻥ 17 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ﻭ75 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ cent in Egypt are rural. Urban growth rates ‫ﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻫﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ. ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﻌﺕ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ increased rapidly in the Arabian peninsula, where the urban population was only 38 per cent in 1970, ‫ﺔ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ compared to 52 per cent in the Mashreq subregion ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ 83 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ excluding Egypt.4 ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0791 ﻤﻘﺎﺒل 25 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻕ‬ 3 Palestine in figure 2007. 4 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), “GEO Data Portal, 2004”, http://geodata.grid.unep.ch., accessed July2009. 6
  • 25. .(4)‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﺼﺭ‬ The population living within 100 km of the ‫ﻭﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﻴﻁ 001 ﻜﻡ ﻤﻥ‬coast increased annually by 2.5 per cent from 1995 ‫ﺓ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺤل ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 5.2 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬to 2005 to reach 79 millions. .‫ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 5991 ﻭ5002 ﻟﻴﺒﻠﻎ 97 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ‬ The concentration of population in urban ‫ﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻯ ﺘﺭ ﹼﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺃ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﺩ‬areas has resulted in increased poverty in those ‫ﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ، ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬areas, inadequate solid waste collection and ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﺘﺼﺭﻴﻔﻬﺎ، ﻭﺘﻔﺎﻗﻡ ﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻤﺔ‬disposal, toxic and hazardous waste problems, poor ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ، ﻭﺴﻭﺀ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻨﻌﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ‬or non-existent sanitation facilities and degradation ‫ﺔ. ﻭﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺤﻠ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬of urban environment and coastal areas. In theabsence of adequate infrastructure facilities, job ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ ﻭﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬opportunities and educational and health facilities, ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ، ﺒﺎﺘﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺘﻔﺭﺽ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎﺕ‬those problems present serious challenges to .‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬achieve the Millennium Development Goals(MDGs). Box I.1. Population Growth and a/, b/ ‫- ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬I.1 ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ Distribution in Lebanona/, b/ Several studies showed the distribution of the ‫ﺓ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻋ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ Lebanese population on its territory. Only 10.4 per cent ‫ﺔ. ﻓﻔﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ of the population was resident in Beirut in 2005, compared to 13.1 per cent in 1996 and 22.3 per cent in ‫ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ 4.01 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل 1.31 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ 1970. The highest populated district was Mount Lebanon ‫6991 ﻭ3.22 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0791. ﺃﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ with 40 per cent in 2005 compared to 39.2 per cent in ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺠﺒل ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻓﺒﻠﻐﺕ 04 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ 1970, followed by the North with 20.5 per cent compared to 17.2 per cent, Bekaa with 12.5 per cent compared to ‫ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 ﻤﻘﺎﺒل 2.93 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0791، ﺘﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ 9.6 per cent, and the South (including Nabatiyeh) with ،‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎل ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ 5.02 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬ 16.6 per cent compared to 11.8 per cent. 12.5 ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل 2.71 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ، ﺜﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻉ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬  Moreover, the average number of children born in (‫ﺔ ﻀﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل 6.9 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺏ )ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ Lebanese families decreased from 4.5 in 1970 to 2.9 in .‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ 6.61 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل 8.11 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬ 1996 and even more to 2.8 in 2000; while the average number of Lebanese families decreased from 5.3 in 1970 to 4.3 in 1996. According to the trend in population ‫ﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ل ﺍﻟﻭﻻﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ growth and family expansion, Lebanon might reach a ‫5.4 ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0791 ﺇﻟﻰ 9.2 ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6991 ﻭ8.2 ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ zero net growth population. ‫ﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫0002؛ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ________________ ‫3.5 ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0791 ﺇﻟﻰ 3.4 ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6991. ﻭﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ a/ “The Socio-Economic Situation in Lebanon”, UNDP, Lebanon, 2004. ‫ل ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﻼﺕ، ﻗﺩ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ‬ b/ “Mapping of Human Poverty and Living Conditions in Lebanon 2004”, UNDP, Lebanon, 2008.Migration ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺭﺓ‬ Migration in ESCWA countries is a very ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺴﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬common process. Of the 233.34 million inhabitants ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ. ﻓﻤﻥ ﺃﺼل 43.332 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬in ESCWA region in 2005, about 19.45 millions ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002، ﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺠﺭﻴﻥ 54.91 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬migrated to different countries. The migration rateincreased 35 per cent between 1995 and 2005, while ‫ل ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺭﺓ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 53 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ. ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬the highest rate of increase was recorded in the ‫ﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻠﺕ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 5991 ﻭ5002، ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﺤ‬  ‫ﺠ‬United Arab Emirates with 87 per cent. In absolute ‫ل ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ 78 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻷﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬terms, the highest migration was registered in Saudi ،‫ل ﻫﺠﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ، ﺴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ 7
  • 26. Arabia with 4.6 millions in 1995 and 6.4 millions in ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺠﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ 6.4 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﻬﺎﺠﺭ ﻓﻲ‬2005 as shown in table I.4. ‫ﻋﺎﻡ 5991 ﺇﻟﻰ 4.6 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﻬﺎﺠﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ .(I.4 Box I.2. ‘Climigration’ in Syria* * ‫- "ﻫﺠﺭﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﺨ ّﺔ" ﻓﻲ ﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬I.2 ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ In 2007/2008, the Syrian Arab Republic witnessed an intense drought that affected its rural areas. Concerns ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ 7002-8002، ﺸﻬﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ were raised due to harvest losses (more than half of the ‫ﺔ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﺃﺜﺎﺭ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺠﻔﺎﻓﺎ ﺸﺩﻴﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ wheat harvest compared to the previous year and one ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻕ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺨﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺼﻴل )ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺼﻑ ﻤﺤﺼﻭل‬ third as for chickpeas and barley). As for human migration, it was reported that 160 villages in the ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻭﺜﻠﺙ ﻤﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﺤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ Northeast of the Syrian Arab Republic were deserted and ‫ﻠﺕ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻨﺯﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ 061 ﻗﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺭ(. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ villagers headed towards urban cities due to severe ‫ﺸﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺸﺭﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﺯﺡ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ‬ drought. The impact of climate change might lead to overpopulation in urban cities thus to the exhaustion of ‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﻔﺎﻑ. ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺃﺜﺭ ﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ already limited natural resources as it would affect the ‫ﺍﻜﺘﻅﺎﻅ ﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ، ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ economy due to an increased number of job seekers in ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ ﺃﺼﻼ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ urban areas. .‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺭ ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻁﻠﻴﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ________________ * “Rising Temperatures, Rising Tensions” Climate change and the risk of violent conflict in the Middle East, O. Brown and A. Crawford, International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2009. Figure I.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ Mid-year Population Estimates for ESCWA Countries ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: United Nations World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. 8
  • 27. Table I.3 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Population and Urbanization ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭ ّﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ Total Population growth rate Urban Rural Population in (percentage) Population Population Year (000)a/ (2005-2010)a/ (percentage)b/ (percentage)b/ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ (‫)ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ a/ (‫)ﺒﺎﻵﻻﻑ‬ a/ (2010-2005) (‫)ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ b/ (‫)ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ b/ 2005 730 2.187% 88.4 11.6 2007 762 2.111%Bahrain 2010 810 1.923% 88.6 11.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ 2005 77,563 1.869% 42.6 57.4 2007 80,510 1.827%Egypt 2010 84,987 1.747% 42.8 57.2 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ 2005 28,383 2.326% 66.9 33.1 2007 29,625 2.069% 66.5 33.5Iraq 2010 31,598 2.411% 66.4 33.6 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ 2005 5,601 3.116% 78.3 21.7 2007 5,976 3.273% 82.6 17.4Jordan 2010 6,506 2.185% 78.5 21.5 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ 2005 2,705 2.997% 98.3 1.7 2007 2,856 2.466%Kuwait 2010 3,057 2.159% 98.4 1.6 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ 2005 4,121 1.204% 86.6 13.4 2007 4,205 0.816%Lebanon 2010 4,303 0.753% 87.2 12.8 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ 2005 2,626 1.91% 71.6 28.5 2007 2,735 2.114%Oman 2010 2,916 2.043% 71.7 28.3 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ 2005 3,781 3.372% 71.5 28.4 2007 4,037 3.206%Palestine 2010 4,431 3.011% 72.1 27.9 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ 2005 887 11.373% 95.4 4.6 2007 1,140 12.346%Qatar 2010 1,511 5.443% 95.8 4.2 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ 2005 23,701 2.317% 81 19 2007 24,778 2.123% ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Saudi Arabia 2010 26,358 2.014% 82.1 17.9 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ 2005 38,856 2.125% 40.8 59.2 2007 40,604 2.229%Sudan 2010 43,386 2.12% 45.2 54.8 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ 2005 19,201 3.337% 53.2 46.8Syrian Arab 2007 20,594 3.507% ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic 2010 22,610 2.454% 54.9 45.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ 2005 4,096 3.673% 77.7 22.3United Arab 2007 4,372 2.896% ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 2010 4,716 2.261% 78 22 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ 2005 21,084 2.881% 28.9 71.1 2007 22,333 2.878%Yemen 2010 24,323 2.811% 31.8 68.2 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ 2005 233,335 2.391% 70 30 2007 244,527 2.362% … …ESCWA Total 2010 261,512 2.198% 71 29 ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ United Nations: World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. b/ United Nations: World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision. Note: Data for the years of 2005 and 2007 are based on estimates, while data for the year 2010 have a medium variant. 9
  • 28. Table I.3 ‫( اﻟﺠﺪول‬continued) Population Within 100 Population Density Kilometres of Coast Year (per Sq. km)a/ 2005 (000)b/ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﻴﻁ 001 ﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ 2005 ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ a/ (‫)ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬ b/ (‫)ﺒﺎﻵﻻﻑ‬ 2005 1,048.0 696 2007 1,060.1Bahrain 2010 1,163.0 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ 2005 73.2 34,868 2007 75.8Egypt 2010 84.0 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ 2005 64.0 1,411 2007 66.3Iraq 2010 72.0 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ 2005 62.0 1,670 2007 64.5Jordan 2010 72.0 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ 2005 152.0 2,178 2007 160.0Kuwait 2010 171.0 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ 2005 392.0 3,719 2007 400.7Lebanon 2010 409.0 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ 2005 8.1 3,875 2007 8.4Oman 2010 9.0 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ 2005 625.0 2,651 2007 667.4Palestine 2010 732.0 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ 2005 72.4 609 2007 76.4Qatar 2010 137.0 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ 2005 11.0 5,352 2007 11.5Saudi Arabia 2010 12.0 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ 2005 15.0 930 2007 16.2Sudan 2010 17.0 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ 2005 103.7 6,448 2007 108.4Syrian Arab Republic 2010 122.0 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ 2005 49.0 2,392 2007 52.4United Arab Emirates 2010 56.0 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ 2005 40.0 13,277 2007 42.4Yemen 2010 46.0 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ 2005 31.8 79,146 2007 33.3ESCWA Total 2010 35.6 ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ United Nations: World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. b/ UNEP (2009). The GEO Data Portal. UNEP. http://geodata.grid.unep.ch. 10
  • 29. Table I.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Migration in ESCWA Countries (Thousands) (‫ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ )ﺒﺎﻵﻻﻑ‬ 1995 2005Bahrain 218.9 295.5 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 172.3 166 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 133.7 28.4 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 1,618.2 2,224.9 ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 996.1 1,669 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 593.8 656.7 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 573.5 627.6 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 1201.0 1,680.1 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 405.9 636.8 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 4,610.7 6,360.7 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 1,111.1 638.6 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 800.9 984.6 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 1,716 3,211.7 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 228.3 264.8 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA Total 14,380.4 19,445.4 ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: United Nations: International Migration Report 2006: A Global Assessment.Economic Growth Overview ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ESCWA’s average growth rate of real GDP ‫ل ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬decreased from 6.11 per cent in 2006 to 5.11 per ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻥ 11.6 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002 ﺇﻟﻰ‬cent in 2007 (table I.5) with the highest rate of ‫(. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺴﺠﻠﺕ‬I.5 ‫11.5 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬increase observed in Qatar in 2006 and in the Sudanin 2007 and the lowest rate in Palestine (figure I.2). ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻨﻤﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002 ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ‬GDP increased from US$ 623,757 billion in 2004 to ‫(. ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬I.2 ‫ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺃﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﻔﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ )ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬US$ 765,299 billion in 2007 (table I.5). Such an ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻤﻥ 757 326 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‬improvement was mainly witnessed in the GCC ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 4002 ﺇﻟﻰ 992 567 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬subregion, whose average rate of growth increased ‫(. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺤ ﹼﻕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ‬I.5 ‫7002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻘ‬markedly between 2006 and 2007. ‫ﻁ ﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻤﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ .2007‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 6002 ﻭ‬ In addition, real GDP per capita in the ‫ل ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ، ﺴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ESCWA region recorded a slight annual increase in ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬2007 from US$ 3,157 to US$ 3,249 (table I.6). ‫ﻁﻔﻴﻔﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻤﻥ 751 3 ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ 942 3 ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬However, this indicator shows a deceleration in ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺘﺒﺎﻁﺅ ﻤﺘﻭ‬ ‫(. ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭ ﻴﻌ‬I.6 ‫)ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ average per capita income growth in somecountries, which can be mainly attributed to their ‫ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﺨل ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺏ‬high population growth rate that absorbed a ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬percentage of their positive rates of real GDP. ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺄﺜﺭﺕ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ .‫ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬ 11
  • 30. Figure I.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ Trend of Real GDP Growth in ESCWA Countries ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ * * Source: UN-ESCWA Statistical Abstract, 28th Issue. 2009. * This is due to political instability and could not be systemic. Table I.5 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Gross Domestic Product in ESCWA Countries at Constant Prices (base year 2000) and Growth Rates of real GDP (Billion US$) (2000 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ )ﺴﻨﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ (‫ﻭﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ )ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ % GDP % GDP growth 2006 growth 2007 ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬Bahrain 9,990 10,775 11,480 12,203 6.54 6.30 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 110,724 118,303 126,688 135,683 7.09 7.10 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 16,458 18,104 19,172 20,341 5.90 6.10 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 9,627 10,408 11,239 11,977 7.98 6.56 ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 50,564 55,881 58,794 61,350 5.21 4.35 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 20,278 20,492 20,614 22,161 0.60 7.50 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 21,721 22,784 24,150 26,019 6.00 7.74 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 4,274 4,562 4,183 4,210 -8.30 0.64 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 24,585 26,080 29,270 30,102 12.23 2.85 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 215,291 227,247 234,423 242,370 3.16 3.39 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 18,641 20,257 22,164 24,495 9.41 10.52 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic 23,481 24,896 26,191 27,849 5.20 6.33 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 88,111 115,655 129,026 135,774 11.56 5.23 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 10,014 10,226 10,381 10,765 1.51 3.70 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA Total 623,757 685,669 727,775 765,299 6.11 5.11 ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: UN-ESCWA Statistical Abstract, 28th Issue. 2009. 12
  • 31. Table I.6 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Gross Domestic Product Per Capita in ESCWA Countries at Constant Prices (base year 2000) in US$ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫)ﺴﻨﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ 0002( ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007Bahrain 14,067 14,866 15,536 16,214 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 1,547 1,624 1,708 1,797 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 599 647 673 702 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 1,792 1,877 1,962 2,022 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 19,321 20,697 21,159 21,518 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 5,114 5,109 5,083 5,406 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 8,763 9,088 9,484 10,026 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 1,176 1,213 1,076 1,048 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 32,167 32,756 35,638 35,809 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 9,341 9,624 9,697 9,799 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 516 549 588 635 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 1,277 1,318 1,350 1,397 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 22,323 28,179 30,370 30,996 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 489 485 478 481 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA Total 2,828 3,041 3,157 3,249 ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: UN-ESCWA Statistical Abstract, 28th Issue. 2009. 13
  • 32. CHAPTER II. FRESHWATER RESOURCES ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ- ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ‬ Statistical Highlights1. The ESCWA region comprised 0.56 per cent of the global renewable water resources in 20072. The ESCWA region enclosed 304.3 Billion cubic metres (Bcm) of conventional water resources, mostly found in Iraq, the Sudan, Egypt and the Syrian Arab Republic in 20073. Nine per cent of the total conventional water resources in the ESCWA region are groundwater4. Almost all renewable water comes from groundwater sources in Bahrain, Kuwait, Palestine and Qatar5. Non-conventional water represented 31 times the total quantity of conventional water in Kuwait in 20076. The ESCWA region produced 1.7 Bcm per year of desalinated water in 2007 and had a desalination capacity of 18,588 Bcm per year in 20067. 61.9 per cent of the desalinated water in the ESCWA region came from Saudi Arabia and 30.8 per cent from Kuwait in 20078. A total of 8 out of 14 ESCWA members have an acute scarcity situation, with less than 500 cubic metres per capita9. Conventional water resources per capita in the ESCWA region were estimated at 1,244 m3 in 2007 compared to 1,022 m3 in 2005 ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺤﺼﺔ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 65.0 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ -1‫ﺕ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 3.403 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ، ﻴﻘﻊ ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻀ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ -2 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ 9 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ -3 ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ‬ -4 2007 ‫ﻓﺎﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻌﺩل 13 ﻤﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ -5‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺤﺼﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 7.1 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻼﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻭﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻼﺓ‬ -6 2006 ‫885 81 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺃﻨﺘﺠﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ 9.16 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻼﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬ -7 ‫ﺤﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ 8.03 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺢ ﺤﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻻ ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ 005 ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬ -8‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 442 1 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ -8 2005 ‫ﺒـ 220 1 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ 14
  • 33. Overview of Water Resources in the ESCWA ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌ ّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Region The ESCWA region faces major water ‫ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻪ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬challenges. Most of the member countries suffer ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ‬ from scarcity, uneven availability of freshwater ‫ﻭﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ، ﻭﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ. ﻭﻤﻊ ﺃﻥ‬   ‫ﹼ‬resources, and deteriorating water quality. While ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻀﻡ 6.3 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻜ‬accounting for 3.6 per cent of the world’spopulation in 2005, the ESCWA region comprised ‫5002، ﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺤﺼﺘﻬﺎ 65.0 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ only 0.56 per cent of the global renewable water ‫ﻉ ﺯﻫﺎﺀ 85 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ. ﻭﻴﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬resources. Moreover, almost 58 per cent of these ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﺤﺼﺘﻪ 73 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬resources are concentrated in Iraq and the Sudan at ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻪ 12 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ. ﻭﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ، ﺘﻌﺩ‬37 and 21 per cent respectively. Consequently, the ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺸﺩ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ region is considered among the poorest in the world .‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬in terms of absolute and per capita water resources.Conventional Freshwater Resources ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ ّﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ Precipitation in the region is very low and ‫ﻻﺕ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻬﻁل ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺩ‬variable, ranging from 51 mm/yr in Egypt to 646 ‫ﻭﻤﺘﻔﺎﻭﺘﺔ، ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ 15 ﻤﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬mm/yr in Lebanon (table I.2). The precipitation in ‫ﺎ ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫(. ﺃ‬I.2 ‫ﻭ646 ﻤﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﹰ‬volume, calculated by multiplying the precipitation ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺴﺎﻗﻁﺔ، ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺤﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﻀﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺴﺎﻗﻁﺎﺕ‬by the surface area of the country, varied between47.3 Mcm per year in Bahrain and 1,196 Bcm ‫ﺏ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ، ﻓﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ 3.74 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻌ‬per year in the Sudan for the year 2007 (table II.1). ‫ﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭ691 1 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻌ‬However, due to drought, which occurs ‫(. ﻟﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬II.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬approximately every decade, resources are more ‫ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻔﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻜل ﻋﻘﺩ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ. ﻭﻴﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ّlimited. Evapotranspiration is very high in the ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺨﺭ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ، ﺘﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ 65 ﻤ‬ ‫ﺭ‬region, reaching, for example, 56 times the average ‫ﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺠﺯ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻴﺅ‬ ‫ل ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻤﺜﻼ، ﻤ‬ ‫ﻁ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ ﻤ ﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺴ‬precipitation in Kuwait, thereby resulting in asubstantial deficit in surface water runoff and .‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻭﺘﺴ‬ ‫ﺸﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺭﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬infiltration. Surface water is relatively abundant in Egypt ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ )8.65 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬(56.8 Bcm), Iraq (34 Bcm), the Sudan (28 Bcm) 28) ‫ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ )43 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬and the Syrian Arab Republic (22.7 Bcm) (table ‫ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ )7.22 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ‬II.2). Surface water resources per capita in thesefour countries amounted to 1,147.6 m3/c/yr in Iraq, ‫(. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺒﻠﻎ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ‬II.2 ‫ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬1,102.3 m3/c/yr in the Syrian Arab Republic, 705.5 ‫ﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ 6.741 1 ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬m3/c/yr in Egypt and 689.6 m3/c/yr in the Sudan. ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ، ﻭ3.201 1 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬The variation between the total surface water ‫ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ5.507 ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻭ6.986 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ. ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤ‬resources and the per capita values is due to the ‫ﻌﺯﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ، ﻓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤل ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬country population. .‫ﺍﻟﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺒﻠﺩ‬ ّ ‫ﻜ‬ Groundwater resources in the ESCWA ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓ‬ ‫ﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬region were estimated at 27.6 Bcm in 2007 (table ‫ﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﻪ 6.72 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻌ‬II.3) representing 9 per cent of total conventional ‫ﺔ‬ ‫( ﺃﻱ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺎﺩل 9 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌ‬II.3 ‫ﻴ‬water (table II.4). Some are non-renewable aquifers ‫ﺔ‬ ‫(. ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﻀﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﺯﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓ‬II.4 ‫ﺔ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬  ‫ﻴ‬containing fossil water, such as the basalt aquiferunderlying Jordan and Saudi Arabia; and that ‫ﺔ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﺤﻔﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺯﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ 15
  • 34. underlying the Arabian Peninsula shared by Iraq, ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴ ﹼ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺯﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺔ‬Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic.5 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ .(5)‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ At the country level, the range of variability ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻨﺴﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬is very wide. The ratio of groundwater to total ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ. ﻓﻬﻲ ﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ 001 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬renewable resources was almost 100 per cent in ،(II.1 ‫ﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠ‬ ‫ﺩ‬Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar as shown in figure II.1. ‫ﻭﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ 05 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬It exceeded 50 per cent in Jordan, Lebanon, Oman,Palestine, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Emirates, while the rest of the ESCWA countries .‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 05 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬had ratios below 50 per cent. Total conventional water resources from ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬surface and groundwater are estimated at 304 Bcm ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ 403 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬(table II.4). Only four countries, namely the Syrian ‫(. ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻤﹼﻊ ﺴﻭﻯ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻫﻲ‬II.4 ‫)ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺘ‬Arab Republic, Egypt, the Sudan and Iraq have ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﺒﺄﻜﺜﺭ‬more than 30 Bcm, most of which comes fromexternal flows with very little change between 2005 ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ، ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺩ ﹼﻘﺎﺕ ﺨﺎﺭﺠ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ 03 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻌ‬and 2007 (figure II.2). 2007‫ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻔﻴﻔﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 5002 ﻭ‬ .(II.2 ‫)ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ The dependency on renewable freshwater, ‫ﺩﺓ‬ ‫ل ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺤ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬surface and groundwater resources is shifting ‫ﺔ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬towards having water from non-conventional .‫ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ، ﻤﻊ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬sources, with the main focus on desalination.Non-Conventional Freshwater Resources ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ Non-conventional water resources are mainly ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻫﻭ‬derived from seawater desalination, which is ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬practiced on a large scale in the Gulf subregion, ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ، ﻭﻻ ﺴﻴﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻠﻎ‬ mainly in Saudi Arabia, where production reached ،(II.5 ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ 390 1 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬1,093 Mcm/yr (table II.5), forming 62 per cent ofESCWA production. The desalination capacity in ‫ﺃﻱ 26 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ. ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ‬ESCWA countries is increasing with new projects ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﻔﻀل ﺇﻁﻼﻕ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬emerging every year. The highest desalination ‫ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺎ. ﻭﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬installed capacities were found in Saudi Arabia, the ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬United Arab Emirates and Kuwait with 7.5 Mcm, ‫ﺘﺼل ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ 5.7 ﻭ7.5 ﻭ2 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬5.7 Mcm and 2 Mcm per day respectively (table ‫(. ﻭﻨﻅﺭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬II.5 ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﹰ‬II.5). On the other hand, due to the lack of water ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ، ﺍﺴﺘﺤﺎل ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬data from countries, a comparison between earlieryears and 2007 could not be established. Although ‫ﻭﻋﺎﻡ 7002. ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ، ﺘﻠﺤﻕ‬desalination capacities are increasing, desalination ‫ﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﹼﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ، ﻻ ﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺒ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬by-products such as the disposal of highly saline ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺨﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻀﻼﺕ ﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬hot water that contains chemical residues have .‫ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭﺍ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬adverse impacts on the environment. Treated wastewater reuse is mainly practiced ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ‬in Egypt, providing approximately 3 Bcm and 0.5 ‫ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﺎﻫﺯ 3 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﺘﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ 5 United Nations Development Programme. Arab Human Development Report 2009. p. 36. 16
  • 35. Bcm in the Syrian Arab Republic, and at a much ‫ل 5.0 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬lesser scale in other ESCWA member countries ‫ﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺒﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬(table II.6). .(II.6 ‫)ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Non-conventional water resources in the ‫ﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﺭﺒﺕ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ESCWA region amounted to approximately 13.9 ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 9.31 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬Bcm in 2007 (table II.7). Supply from non- ‫(. ﻭﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﺇﻤﺩﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ‬II.7 ‫7002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬conventional water resources represented 31 times ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺇﻤﺩﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬the supply from total conventional freshwater inKuwait. .‫ﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌﺩل 13 ﻤ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ Box II.1. Desalination in Saudi Arabia* * ‫- ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬II.1 ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ On 29 April 2009, the biggest desalination plant in ‫ﻓﻲ 92 ﻨﻴﺴﺎﻥ 9002، ﺒﺩﺃ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﺭﻓﻕ ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ‬ the world started operating in Jubail Industrial City, Eastern Provinces, Saudi Arabia. The Independent Water ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ، ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ، ﻓﻲ‬ and Power Plant (IWPP) is formed of 27 units that ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ. ﻭﻴﻀﻡ ﻤﺭﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘل‬ produce 29,630 m3/d of water. The overall water ‫72 ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺘﻨﺘﺞ 036 92 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ. ﻭﺴﻴﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ production will be 800,000 m3/d based on the multiple ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺘﻘﻨ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤل ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ 008 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ effect desalination (MED) technology and will be ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻭﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ 547 2 ﻤﻴﻐﺎﻭﺍﻁ ﻤﻥ‬ producing 2,745 MW of electricity based on the ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻭﻓﻕ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻜﺔ‬ Combined Cycle Gas turbines. The main fuel used will be natural gas. The completion of the project is set to be ‫ﻭﻴﺸ ﹼل ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺯ‬ in 2010 and will cost US$ 3.5 billion. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ. ﻭﻴﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﺘﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0102 ﻭﺘﺒﻠﻎ‬ ___________________ .‫ﻜﻠﻔﺘﻪ 5,3 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ * Independent Water and Power Pant (IWPP), Power and Water Utility Company for Jubail and Yanbu. Accessed on May 28, 2009 from http://www.marafiq.com.sa/e_projects.htm. The total conventional and non-conventional ‫ﻭﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬water resources in the ESCWA countries increased 2005 ‫ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 4.82 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ‬by 28.4 per cent from 2005 till 2007 to reach 318 ‫(. ﻏﻴﺭ‬II.8 ‫ﺏ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻭ7002 ﻟﻴﺒﻠﻎ 813 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻌ‬Bcm (table II.8). However, the ratio of non-conventional to conventional water was 4.6 per cent ‫ﺔ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ 6.4 ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ in 2007, indicating that the use of non-conventional ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ water is not yet widely integrated within ESCWA ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺩﻤﺞ ﻜﻠﻴﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬countries water behaviors (figure II.3). .(II.3 ‫)ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬Indicators of Freshwater Resources ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ‬ Since the Sudan joined ESCWA, the average ‫ﻭﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻨﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬per capita renewable water resources in the ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ESCWA region increased from 913 m3 per year in ‫ﻤﻥ 319 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 3002 ﺇﻟﻰ 442 1 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬2003 to 1,244 in 2007, compared to the world 8 135 ‫ﻁ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻗﺩﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻤﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬average of 8,135 m3 per year. Nine ESCWAmember countries had per capita renewable water ‫ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ. ﻭﻻ ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ 005 ﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬resources below 500 m3 per year, which indicates ‫ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺴﻌﺔ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﻤﻤﺎ‬acute water scarcity. Four countries namely ‫ﻴﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺸﺢ ﺤﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ. ﻭﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ّLebanon, the Sudan, Iraq and the Syrian Arab ‫000 1 ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Republic exceeded 1,000 m3 per capita per year, ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ّwhich represents the chronic water scarcity limit. .‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻤﻥ‬ 17
  • 36. Table II.10 shows the percentage of water ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺸﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬II.10 ‫ﻭﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ scarcity in ESCWA countries, as well as the ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﻪ. ﻓﻔﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬number of population affected by it. 120 millions or ‫7002 ﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﺢ 021 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬49.32 per cent of the ESCWA population were .‫ﻨﺴﻤﺔ ﺃﻱ 23.94 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬affected in 2007. Non-conventional water resources per capita ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬raised in the ESCWA region by 4.4 per cent in 2007 ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 4.4 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻟﻴﺒﻠﻎ‬to 1,301 m3 (figure II.5). .(II.5 ‫103 1 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻌﺒﺔ )ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ Box II.2. Per capita Water Resources 2007 2007 ‫- ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬II.2 ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ 3 Freshwater (m per ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ )ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬ capita per year) Countries ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ (‫ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ Acute Scarcity: Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, <500 Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ 500 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ‬ Qatar, United Arab Emirates, ‫ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ Yemen. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ‬ Scarcity: 500-1000 Egypt ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ Stress: 1000-1700 Lebanon, Sudan ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ 1 000 - 500 :‫ﺍﻟﺸﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ 1 700 – 1 000 :‫ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ‬ Abundance:> 1700 Iraq, Syrian Arab Republic ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ 1 700 ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬Trends ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ Constraints on water resources persist, as ‫ﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬population growth rates continue to rise. Projections ‫ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ. ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ‬of the per capita water resources for 2025 reveal an ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺒﺤﻠﻭل ﻋﺎﻡ 5202 ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺨﻁﻴﺭ‬alarming situation whereby most ESCWA member ‫ﺴﺘﺸﻬﺩﻩ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻟﻥ ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬countries will have an annual rate of less than 500m3 (except for Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, the Sudan and ‫005 ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ )ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬the Syrian Arab Republic). Consequently, several ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ(. ﻭﺇﺯﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﺍ‬technological innovations have been adopted, ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ، ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ، ﻭﻻ ﺴﻴﻤﺎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬particularly in the GCC subregion, including ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ ﺒﺎﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ، ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬desalination, bio-saline agriculture, and ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﺤﺔ ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬groundwater assessment and development for arid ‫ﺨﻁﻁ ﺇﻨﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺘﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺤﻠﺔ. ﻭﻓﻲ ﻅل ﺍﺘﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻭﺓ‬climates. However, as the gap between water ‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ، ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ‬availability and demand widens, planning and ‫ﺘﻀﻊ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺃﻭﻟﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ ﻨﻬﺠﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﹰ‬integrated sustainable management of waterresources and demand, reducing consumption and ،‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﻟﻤﺨﺯﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬improving efficiencies, reusing water and applying ‫ﻴﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬new technologies are absolute priorities for the .‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ESCWA region. Conflicts and instability, however, continue ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺯﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﻀﻁﺭﺍﺒﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺘﺯﺍل ﺘﺸ ﹼل ﻋﻘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ to cause major obstacles in terms of developing ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﻌﻭﻕ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺩ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬long-term plans for sustainable management of .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬water resources in the area. 18
  • 37. Table II.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Average Precipitation in Volume (Mcm/yr) (‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻁﻠﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007Bahrain 59.8a/ 74.2a/ 212.1a/ 47.3a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 1,300a/ 1,300a/ 1,300a/ 1,300a/ ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 75,050a/ 59,980a/ 96,636a/ 64,801a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 6,951a/ 9,304a/ 6,258b/ 7,683a/ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 216.8a/ 187.6a/ ... 2,160c/ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon ... ... ... 6,870c/ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman ... ... ... 26,600c/ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine ... ... ... ... ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar ... ... ... 811c/ ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia ... ... ... 127,000c/ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan ... 885,950d/ 1,070,980d/ 1,196,170d/ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 6,397e/ 5,405e/ 41,991e/ 39,059e/ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates ... … ... 6,530c/ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen ... ... ... 88,300c/ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ Sources: a/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics 2008. b/ Water Balance 2006, Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan, 2006. c/ Aquastat 2007. d/ Sudan Statistical Yearbook, 2007. e/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics 2008 Syria (preliminary version). Note: These figures are long term averages. 18
  • 38. Table II.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Total Surface Water (Mcm/yr) (‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ 2004 2005 2007Bahrain ... ... 4 a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 56,800b/, 1 56,800b/, 2 56,800c/ ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 64,960d/ 54,690d/ 34,000a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 1,180e/ ... 593f/, 3 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 2,200g/ ... 4,100a/ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman ... ... 1,050a/ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine ... ... ... ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar ... ... ... ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 5,000h/ ... 2,200a/, 4 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan ... ... 28,000a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 9,880i/ ... 22,700a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates ... ... 150a/ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen ... ... 2,000a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 137,820 151,0045 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ Aquastat 2007. b/ Egypt Statistical Yearbook 2008. c/ Available Water Resources and Usage in Egypt, CAPMAS, June 2009. d/ Ministry of Planning, Central Statistics Organization Iraq. e/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics 2008. f/ Water Balance 2006, Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan, 2006. g/ ESCWA Water Development Report 2: State of Water Resources in the ESCWA Region, 2007. h/ Ministry of Water and Electricity Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Documents) water affairs 2004 AD. i/ Office of the Prime Minister. Central Bureau of Statistics, Syrian Arab Republic. Notes: 1. Data are for 2004-2005. 2. Data are for 2005-2006. 3. Figures refer to the year of 2005/2006. 4. FAO Estimate. 5. Excluding Kuwait, Palestine and Qatar. 19
  • 39. Table II.3 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Groundwater Recharge (Mcm/yr) (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007 Bahrain ... ... ... 112a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ Egypt 2,300 b/ ... ... 1,300 a/ ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ Iraq ... ... ... 3,280 a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ Jordan 507c/ 533d/ 288e/, 1 550a/ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Kuwait ... ... ... 20 a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ Lebanon 150 c/ ... ... 3,200 a/ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Oman ... ... ... 1,300 a/ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ Palestine ... ... ... 750 a/ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ Qatar ... ... ... 58 a/ ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ Saudi Arabia 3,000f/ ... ... 2,200a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ Sudan ... ... ... 7,000a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ Syrian Arab Republic 4,894 g/ ... ... 6,170 a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ United Arab Emirates ... ... ... 120 a/ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ Yemen ... ... ... 1,500 a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ ESCWA 27,560 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ Aquastat 2007. b/ Regional Survey on the Status and Achievements of ESCWA Member Countries towards Improved WaterSupply and Sanitation. c/ ESCWA Water Development Report 2: State of Water Resources in the ESCWA Region, 2007. d/ Water Resources in Jordan, National Water Master Plan, GTZ, 2004. e/ Water Balance 2006, Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan, 2006. f/ Ministry of Water and Electricity Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Documents) water affairs 2004 AD. g/ Office of the Prime Minister. Central Bureau of Statistics, Syrian Arab Republic. Note: 1. Figures refer to the year of 2005/2006. 20
  • 40. Table II.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Total Freshwater from Conventional Sources (Mcm/yr) (‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ Ratio of Underground to total water resources % 2007 ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ 2005 2006 2007 2007 ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬Bahrain 100a/ ... 116b/ 97% ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 58,848 c/ 59,184 c/ 58,714 c/ 2% ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 75,000 a/ 153,277 c/ 111,906 c/ 3% ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 1,000 a/ ... 932 b/ 59% ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 20 a/ ... 20 b/ 100% ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 4,000 a/ ... 4,500 b/ 71% ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 1,000 a/ ... 2,350 1 55% ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 800 a/ ... 1,100 e/ 68% ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 100 a/ ... 58 1 100% ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 2,400 a/ ... 2,400 b/ 92% ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 65,000 a/ ... 64,500 b/ 11% ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 26,000 a/ 57,073 f/ 53,465 f/ 12% ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 200 a/ ... 220 e/ 55% ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 4,000 a/ ... 4,000 e/ 38% ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 238,468 304,281 9% ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ g/World 55,025,590ESCWA share of World total (%) 0.56 (%) ‫ﺤﺼﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ Sources: a/ Water a Shared Responsibility: The United Nations World Water Development Report 2, 2006. b/ Aquastat 2007. c/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics 2008. d/ ESCWA Water Development Report 2: State of Water Resources in the ESCWA Region, 2007. e/ Global Water Market 2008. f/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics 2008 Syrian Arab Republic. g/ Global Environment Outlook Data Portal. UNEP. Note: 1. ESCWA calculation. 21
  • 41. Table II.5 ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ Desalination Production and Capacity ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻼﺓ ﻭﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﻯ‬ Production Capacity (Mcm) (m3/d) ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﻯ‬ (‫)ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬ (‫)ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻴﻭﻤﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007 2006iBahrain 23a/ 19.66a/ 33a/ 35a/ 518,596 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 60 a/ 60 a/ 60 a/ 60 a/ 431,872 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq ... ... ... 7 b/ 447,201 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 5 c 9.8 b/ 40 d/ … 239,532 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 476 a/ 506.9 a/ 521 a/ 544 a/ 2,081,135 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon ... 47.3 b/ ... … 29,610 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman ... ... 109 b/ … 377,488 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine ... ... ... ... 10,976 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 132 e/, 1 128 e/, 1 136 e/, 1 … 1,197,148 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 1,056 f/ 1,025 f/ 1,033 f/ 1,093 f/ 7,410,462 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan ... ... ... 0.4 b/ 38,635 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 0 g/ ... ... 0 b/ 15,576 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 1,008 h/ 950 b/ ... … 5,730,009 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen ... ... ... 25 b/ 60,370 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 1,765.4 18,588,610 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics 2008. b/ Aquastat 2007. c/ ESCWA Water Development Report 2: State of Water Resources in the ESCWA Region, 2007. d/ An Environmental Profile for Jordan 2006. Ministry of Environment. e/ Qatar Annual Abstract 2007. f/ Saudi Arabia Annual Report, Ministry of Water and Electricity, 2007. g/ Office of the Prime Minister. Central Bureau of Statistics, Syrian Arab Republic. h/ Ministry of Electricity and Water website. United Arab Emirates. i/ Global Water Market 2008. Note: 1. Conversion factor used is 0.003785 to convert from US gallons to cubic metres. 22
  • 42. Table II.6 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Water Reuse (Mcm/yr) (‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ Treated Wastewater Reuse ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007Bahrain ... 16 a/ ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 1,100b/, 1 1,200b/, 2 1,300b/, 3 2,970a/ ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq ... ... ... 0a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 74c/ 79d/ 86e/ 98e/ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait ... ... ... 78a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon ... ... ... 2a/ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman ... ... 37f/ ... ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine ... ... ... ... ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar ... ... ... 43a/ ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 360g/ ... ... 166a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan ... ... ... 0a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 1,280h/ ... ... 550a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 234i/ ... ... 248a/ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen ... ... ... 6a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 3,048 4,161 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ Aquastat 2007. b/ Egypt Statistical Yearbook 2008. c/ Development Report 2: State of Water Resources 2007. d/ Jordan Water Authority, Annual Report 2006. e/ Jordan Water Authority, Annual Report 2007. f/ Aquastat 2006. g/ Ministry of Water and Electricity Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Documents) water affairs 2004 AD. h/ Office of the Prime Minister. Central Bureau of Statistics, Syrian Arab Republic. i/ Ministry of Electricity and Water. United Arab Emirates. Notes: 1. Data are for 2004-2005. 2. Data are for 2005-2006. 3. Data are for 2006-2007. 23
  • 43. Table II.7 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Total Non-Conventional Water (Mcm/yr) (‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007Bahrain 23 1 36 2 33 1 351 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 6,260 4 6,660 4 7,060 4 11,030 2 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq … … … 7 2 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 79 2 89 2 127 2 98 3 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 476 1 507 1 521 1 622 2 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon … 47 1 … 2 3 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman … … 146 2 … ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine … … … … ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 132 1 128 1 137 1 43 3 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 1,456 4 1,025 1 1,033 1 1,259 2 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan … … … 0.4 2 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 3,526 4 … … 550 2 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 1,242 4 950 1 … 248 3 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen … … … 31 2 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 13,194 13,925.4 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: ESCWA calculation. Notes: 1. Desalinated water only. 2. Treated Wastewater Reuse and desalinated water. 3. Treated Wastewater Reuse only. 4. Desalinated water, treated wastewater reuse and agricultural drainage reuse. 24
  • 44. Table II.8 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Total Conventional and Non-Conventional Water Resources (Mcm/yr) (‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ Ratio of Non- Conventional to Change Conventional Water 2005-2007 Resources 2007 (percentage) (percentage) ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬  ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007 (‫)ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ (‫)ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬Bahrain 23 136 332 151 11.0% 30.17% ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 64,744 65,508 66,244 69,744 6.5% 18.79% ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq … 75,000 1 153,278 1 111,913 49.2% 0.01% ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 1,079 1,089 … 1,030 -5.4% 10.52% ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 476 527 521 2 642 21.8% 3110% ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon … 4,000 … 4,502 11.2% 0.04% ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman … 1,146 1 … 2,350 1 135.0% - ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine … 8001 … 1,100 1 37.5% - ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 132.16 228 137 2 101 -55.7% 74.14% ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Saudi Arabia 9,456 3,425 … 3,659 6.8% 52.46% ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan … 65,0001 … 64,500 -0.8% - ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic 22,748 26,0001 57,0731 54,015 107.8% 1.03% ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 1,242 1,150 … 468 -59.3% 112.73% ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen … 4,000 1 … 4,031 0.8% 0.78% ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA … 247,910 … 318,206 28.4% 4.58% ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: ESCWA calculation. Notes: 1: This includes Conventional Water Resources only due to unavailability of Non-Conventional Water Resourcesdata. 2: This includes Non-Conventional Water Resources only due to unavailability of Conventional Water Resources data. 25
  • 45. Table II.9 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators on Water Resources ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ Per Capita Water Resources Per Capita Total Per Capita Water Resources from Conventional and Non- Water Resources from Conventional Resources Conventional Resources Change (cubic metre/yr) (cubic metre/yr) (percentage) ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ (‫)ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ (‫)ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ (‫)ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ 2005 2007 2005 2007 2005-2007Bahrain 137 152 186 198 6.4% ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 759 729 845 866 2.6% ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 2,642 3,777 2,6421 3,778 43.0% ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 179 156 194 172 -11.4% ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 7 7 195 225 15.4% ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 971 1,070 982 1,071 9% ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 381 859 3811 8591 125.6% ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 212 272 2121 2721 28.8% ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 113 46 257 84 -65.5% ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Saudi Arabia 101 97 145 148 2.2% ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 1,673 1,589 1,6731 1,589 -5.0% ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic 1,354 2,596 1,3541 2,623 93.7% ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 49 50 281 107 -61.9% ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 190 179 190 1 180 -4.9% ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 1,022 1,244 1,062 1,301 22.5% ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: ESCWA calculations, Population based on the United Nations: World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. Note: 1. Values are the same due to unavailability of Non-Conventional Water Resources data. 26
  • 46. Table II.10 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Percentage and Number of Population Affected by Water Scarcity in 2007 ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﺘﺄ ﹼﺭﻭﺍ ﺒﺸﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻭﻋﺩﺩﻫﻡ‬  ‫ﺜ‬ Scarcity (percentage)a/ Scarcity Populationb/Bahrain 100% 762,000 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 30% 24,153,000 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 15% 447,800 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 100% 5,976,000 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 100% 2,856,000 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 5% 210,250 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 100% 2,735,000 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 80% 3,229,600 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 100% 1,140,000 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 100% 24,778,000 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 35% 14,211,400 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 65% 13,386,100 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 100% 4,372,000 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 100% 22,333,000 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA Total 49.32% 120,590,150 ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ Global Water Market 2008, Global Water Intelligence. b/ United Nations: World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. 27
  • 47. Figure II.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ Available Surface and Ground Water as Percentage of Total Renewable Water Resources ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ Figure II.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬Total Renewable Freshwater from Conventional Sources 2005-2007 2007-2005 ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ 28
  • 48. Figure II.3 ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬Total Conventional to non-Conventional Water Resources ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ Figure II.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ Share of Water Resources in the ESCWA Region, 2007 2007 ،‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ 29
  • 49. Figure II.5 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ Per Capita Water Resources from AvailableWater Resources ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬Limit of acute water scarcity Limit of acute water scarcity 30
  • 50. ‫‪CHAPTER III. FRESHWATER MANAGEMENT‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ- ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪Statistical Highlights‬‬‫.1‬ ‫‪In the ESCWA region, the total quantity of water abstracted in 2007 was 227 Bcm‬‬‫.2‬ ‫7002 ‪In the ESCWA region, the average per capita water use was 927 m3 in‬‬‫.3‬ ‫‪In the ESCWA region, total water use was distributed in 2007 as follows: 87 per cent for agriculture‬‬ ‫‪use, 7 per cent for industrial use and 6 per cent for domestic use‬‬‫.4‬ ‫525,2 ‪Average water use intensity was 73 per cent in the ESCWA Region in 2007 and as high as‬‬ ‫‪per cent in Kuwait, 1,025 in Saudi Arabia and 622 in the United Arab Emirates‬‬‫.5‬ ‫‪Water deficit was 1,643 cubic metres per capita per year in Saudi Arabia in 2007 and 263 in the‬‬ ‫‪United Arab Emirates‬‬‫.6‬ ‫‪Groundwater dependency reached 100 per cent in Jordan‬‬‫.7‬ ‫‪Wastewater reuse amounted to 2,970 Mcm in Egypt‬‬‫.8‬ ‫456 $‪In the ESCWA region, US$ 3.5 billion will be invested in drinking water services and US‬‬ ‫‪million in the wastewater sector‬‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 722 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002‬ ‫1-‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ 729 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫2-‬‫ﺘﻭﺯﻋﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﺒﻴﻥ 78 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ، ﻭ7 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬ ‫3-‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ، ﻭ6 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ‬‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 37 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻤﻊ ﺤﺩ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻤﻥ 525 2 ﻓﻲ‬ ‫4-‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻭ520 1 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭ226 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻌﺩل 346 1 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭ362 ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫5-‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ 001 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫6-‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ 079 2 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ‬ ‫7-‬‫ﺴﻴﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ ﻤﺒﻠﻎ 5.3 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺏ ﻭ456 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫8-‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫13‬
  • 51. Overview of Freshwater Abstraction in the ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ESCWA Region Groundwater abstraction in the ESCWA ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺯﻫﺎﺀ‬ region reached about 33 Bcm in 2005 excluding ‫33 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 ﻤﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ Iraq and the Sudan, while data on surface water ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ abstraction is missing for most of the countries .(III.1 ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﻭ ﹼﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻓ‬ (table III.1). The agricultural sector used 174.6 Bcm in ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺤﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ 6.471 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ‬ 2007, compared to 137 Bcm in 2003,6 and ‫ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻤﻘﺎﺒل 731 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ accounted for 87 per cent of total water use. ‫3002)6(، ﻟﻴﺴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 78 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ Industrial use accounted for 7 per cent in 2007 while domestic water consumption was limited to 6 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ. ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﺒﻠﻎ 7 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ per cent (figure III.1; table III.2). ‫ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻴﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 6 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬ .(III.2 ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬III.1 ‫)ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ The total water abstracted in the ESCWA ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ region amounted to 226,664 Bcm in 2007 (table ‫(. ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺩ‬III.3 ‫466 622 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ III.3). At the national level, the agricultural sector ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ، ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﺤﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ 57 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ accounted for more than 75 per cent of total water ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ consumption in Egypt, Iraq, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the Sudan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Yemen ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ (table III.2). However, and according to a FAO ‫(. ﻭﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬III.2 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ study in 2004,7 the agricultural share in total water ‫ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 4002)7(، ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺤﺼﺔ‬ use is expected to decline with the increased ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻊ ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻥ‬ pressure from the domestic sector owing to rising ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻅل ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺴﻊ‬ population, increasing urbanization and the rapidly .‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ ﻭﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ growing industrial sector. Average water abstracted per capita in the ‫ﻭﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ESCWA region was estimated at 927 m3 in 2007, ،2007 ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 729 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ compared to 499 m3 in 2005 (figure III.2). ‫(. ﻏﻴﺭ‬III.2 ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل 994 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 )ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ However, the high population growth rate in the ‫ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺒﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻨﻤﻭ‬  region exceeded by far the rate of water resources development. As a result, the annual per capita ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ. ﻭﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ، ﺴﺠل ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ‬ share of water resources is decreasing sharply. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﻀﺎ ﺤﺎﺩﺍ. ﻭﻻ ﻴﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ ﹰ‬ ESCWA member countries are using more than ‫ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ ﺒل ﻴﺸﻤل‬ their internal renewable water resources either by ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ overexploiting groundwater, desalinating seawater ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ. ﻭﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ or recycling wastewater. The rate of average water ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 37 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺃﻗﺼﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ use intensity in ESCWA was 73 per cent in 2007, ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺼل ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ 525 2 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺘﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ with the highest intensities registered in Kuwait at 2,525 per cent, Saudi Arabia at 1,025 per cent and ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 520 1 ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ the United Arab Emirates at 622 per cent (table .(III.4 ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 226 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ III.4). 6 UNESCWA. Compendium of Environment Statistics in the ESCWA Region first issue. 2007. 7 FAO. 2004. Economic valuation of water resources in agriculture. From the sectoral to a functional perspective of naturalresource management. 32
  • 52. ‫‪Groundwater Dependency and Water Deficit‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ 346 1 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ‪The annual water deficit in 2007 was of the‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ، ﻭ362 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜ ‪‬ﺒﺎ 362 ,‪order of 1,643 m3 per capita in Saudi Arabia‬‬ ‫ﹰ ﻌﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫‪m3 in the United Arab Emirates, 212 m3 in Qatar‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭ212 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫.)4.‪and 170 m3 in Kuwait (table III‬‬ ‫ﻭ071 ﻤﺘﺭﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل 4.‪.(III‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫‪Groundwater dependency, which indicates‬‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﺅﺸﺭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫‪the ratio of groundwater abstracted to total‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ‬‫‪freshwater abstracted, reached 100 per cent in‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ 001 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬‫‪Jordan and Palestine in 2007. Comparison between‬‬ ‫7002. ﻭﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓ ‪‬ﺔ )72‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫‪recharged groundwater (27 Bcm) and abstracted‬‬‫‪groundwater (10 Bcm) in 2007 indicates that the‬‬ ‫ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ )01 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ‬‫‪mining of groundwater reserves in the ESCWA‬‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻌﺏ( ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫.‪region was about 17 Bcm per year‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓ ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻴﻘﺎﺭﺏ 71 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ.‬ ‫‪At a national level, Egypt’s depletion rate‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ، ﻴﺼل ﻤﻌ ‪‬ل ﺍﻟﻨﻀﻭﺏ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫‪stands at 4,584 Mcm per year while the recharged‬‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ 485 4 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ‬‫‪groundwater in other ESCWA countries reached‬‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺏ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓ ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫,‪1,281 Mcm in Saudi Arabia, 1,273 Mcm in Yemen‬‬ ‫182 1 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬‫‪1,200 Mcm in Lebanon and 102 Mcm in the United‬‬‫.‪Arab Emirates‬‬ ‫ﻭ372 1 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ ‪‬ﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ﻭ002 1 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭ201 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ ‪‬ﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ.‬‫‪Wastewater Treatment‬‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﻭ ﹼﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ، ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﺒﺎﻹﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ‪Due to the unavailability of data, the total‬‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻤﺠﻤل ﻜﻤ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 7002. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻜﻤ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ‪wastewater volume produced in 2007 could not be‬‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ 816 1 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ ‪‬ﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ‪calculated. Nonetheless, the treated wastewater‬‬ ‫ﻌ‬‫41 ‪volume amounted to 1,618 Mcm in eight of the‬‬‫.)5.‪ESCWA countries for the year of 2005 (table III‬‬ ‫ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل 5.‪.(III‬‬ ‫‪The total volume of wastewater reused in‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﻗﺩﺭﺕ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩ‬‫.7002 ‪the region was estimated at 4.2 Bcm in‬‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺒﺤﻭﺍﻟﻰ 2.4 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ.‬‫079,2 ‪Wastewater reuse was the highest in Egypt at‬‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺠﻠﺕ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬‫055 ‪Mcm, followed by the Syrian Arab Republic at‬‬‫‪Mcm. While it is most needed in the Gulf‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ 079 2 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ ّﺏ، ﺘﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫‪subregion, wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia was as‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ 055 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬‫‪modest as 166 Mcm while it registered 248 Mcm in‬‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ ‪‬ﺏ. ﻭﺭﻏﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻌ‬‫,‪the United Arab Emirates. In Saudi Arabia‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ، ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬‫-‪reclaimed wastewater is used for irrigation of non‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ 661 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬‫‪cash crops, landscape irrigation and industrial‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺴ ‪‬ﻠﺕ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ 842 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺠ‬‫‪cooling. In Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman and the United‬‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻌﺏ. ﻭﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬‫‪Arab Emirates, it is used for municipal irrigation of‬‬‫‪landscaped areas, while Qatar exploits it to irrigate‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺼﻴل ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ‬‫‪animal-food crops (table III.5). However, the‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ. ﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫‪number of wastewater treatment plants in the‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ‬‫.)6.‪ESCWA region remains insufficient (table III‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻟﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻠﺩ ‪‬ﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻬﺎ ﻗﻁﺭ ﻟﺭﻱ ﻤﺯﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﻲ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫33‬
  • 53. ‫(. ﻭﺭﻏﻡ ﺫﻟﻙ، ﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬III.5 .(III.6 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻜﺎﻑ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Box III.1. Wastewater reuse in Jordan* * ‫- ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬III.1 ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ In Jordan, the reuse of treated wastewater reached ‫ﻭﻴﺤل ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ one of the highest levels in the world. About 80 per cent of the treated effluent is discharged in Zerqa river where 80 ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ. ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺯﻫﺎﺀ‬ it is collected and stored downstream in King Talal Dam ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬  and used for restricted irrigation in the southern part of ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺘﺨﺯﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ ﻁﻼل ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬  the Jordan Valley. The remaining 20 per cent which is ‫ﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ 02 ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻏﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ. ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ not located within the Zerqa river watershed, is reused ‫ﺔ ﻓﻼ ﺘﻘﻊ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻨﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺘﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘ‬  ‫ﻴ‬ on-site. The Water Authority of Jordan was awarded KfW ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻬﺎ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﻤﻨﺤﺕ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ 250,000 Euro from KfW Bankengruppe for 2003-2005 to develop water treatment facilities. USAID contributed ‫ 052 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻴﻭﺭﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Bankengruppe with $28 millions to design and build a wastewater ‫ﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 3002 ﻭ5002. ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ treatment facility with Water Reuse Implementation ‫ﺴﺎﻫﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﻜﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺒﻠﻎ 82 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ (WRIP) and The Reuse for Industry, Agriculture and ‫ﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻤﺭﻓﻕ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺌﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﻲ‬ Landscaping (RIAL) projects that ran between 2002 and ‫( ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬WRIP) ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ 2007. ‫( ﺍﻟﻠﺫﻴﻥ ﺠﺭﻯ‬RIAL) ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺭﺍﺀ‬ ___________________ * .2007‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻫﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 2002 ﻭ‬ “Jordan’s experience in treated wastewater reuse”, UNEP-Division of Technology, Industry and Economics.Water Market ‫ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ Estimates of annual current account ‫ﺘﺸﻤل ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ‬expenditure on the water sector include an element ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل. ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬of cost of capital. The total water market for the ‫ﺔ ﻟﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 6.8 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ESCWA countries amounted to US$ 8.6 billion in ‫(. ﻭﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻕ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺏ، ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬III.7 ‫)ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬2007 (table III.7). The market included drinkingwater services, the rehabilitation of existing ‫ﺘﺄﻫﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ، ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ‬facilities, new pipelines and pumping stations, deep ‫ﻀﺦ ﻭﺤﻔﺭ ﺁﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ‬wells and desalination plants. The water sector ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ 5.3 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬amounted to US$ 3.5 billion and the wastewater ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ 456 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ. ﻭﻴﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻗ‬sector reached US$ 654 million. While numbers ‫ﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒل ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻁﹼﺏ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺭ‬are expected to treble over the coming decade, the ‫ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬pressure of growing population densities, the ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﺯﻴﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬potential for water reuse and expectations for higherenvironmental standards require more investment in .‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬this sector. During the next eight years, the water sector ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻏﻀﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﻠﺔ، ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬will quadruple in Jordan, triple in Saudi Arabia and ‫ﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺭ‬is estimated to double in Egypt, Lebanon, Oman, ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻴﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻀﺎﻋﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗ‬Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. On the other ‫ﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻋ‬hand, the wastewater sector will grow by 8.5 times ‫ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ، ﻴﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﻤﻭ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻗ‬in Saudi Arabia, and 5.8 times in Egypt while thelowest growth rates are estimated to be in the Sudan ‫ﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺎﺩل 5.8 ﻤ‬ ‫ﺭ‬and the Syrian Arab Republic8 (table III.8). ‫ل ﺃﺩﻨﻰ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﹸﺴ‬ ‫ﻭ8.5 ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺠ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ .(III.8 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ)8( )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ 8 Global Water Market, 2008. 34
  • 54. The highest water cost in the ESCWA ‫ﻠﺕ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬countries was observed in Oman (US$ 1.37 per ‫ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻌﺏ، 73.1 ﺩﻭﻻﺭ، ﺘﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﻁﺭ 12.1 ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬cubic metre), Qatar (US$ 1.21 per cubic metre) and ‫ﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ 00.1 ﺩﻭﻻﺭ. ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤ‬Palestine (US$ 1.00 per cubic metre). The highestpercentage of unaccounted for water is observed ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﺘﺒﻠﻎ 54 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، ﺘﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻁﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬in Jordan with 45 per cent, Qatar with 45 to 50 35 ‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ 54 ﻭ05 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺜﻡ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ per cent and both Oman and the Sudan with 35 per .(III.9 ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬cent (table III.9). Existing wastewater treatment facilities in the ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺍﺠﻪ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬region face difficulties in handling increasing ‫ﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﺓ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬volumes of wastewater generated by increased ‫ﻯ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ. ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃ‬ ‫ﺩ‬water consumption and urbanization. Wastewater ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻠ‬ ‫ﻭ‬discharge from major urban centers is polluting ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺯﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺍﺤل ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬shallow alluvial aquifers and the coastline, and hascaused urban water tables to rise. Rather than being ‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ. ﻭﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻟﻴﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬treated and reused, wastewater is merely disposed ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ، ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﹼﺹ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ، ﻨﻅﺭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ of, owing to the extensive capital investment ‫ﻴﺘ ﹼﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ. ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﺠﻤل‬ ‫ﻁ‬required. Total treatment plants capacity reached 4 ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺯﻫﺎﺀ 3.5 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬some 5.3 Bcm in 2007, compared to 4 Bcm in 2005. ‫ﻠﺕ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬The highest wastewater treatment capacity is found ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻤﻊ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻗﺩﺭﻫﺎ 087 3 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬in Egypt at 3,780 Mcm per year. This capacitydrops sharply to 585 Mcm in Qatar and 250 Mcm ‫ﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ 585 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ. ﻭﺘﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺒﺤ‬ ‫ﺩ‬in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, several countries ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺭ ﻭ052 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻌ‬including Bahrain, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, the ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺔ. ﻭﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﺨﻁ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ 05 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Sudan, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen, had ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬capacities the equal to or less than 50 Mcm in 2007 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬(table III.9). .(III.9 The most important markets for desalination ‫ﻭﺘﻀﻡ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﺴﻭﺍﻕ‬ in the world are found in the countries of the Gulf ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﹰ، ﻭﺘﺤل ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ّ ‫ﺎ‬subregion, five of which are among the top ten, ‫ﺃﺴﻭﺍﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ. ﻭﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates as ‫ﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬the biggest investors in desalination. Thedesalination industry was worth US$ 28 billion in ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ. ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬2007. .‫82 ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ 35
  • 55. Table III.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Total Freshwater Abstracted (Mcm/yr) (‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ Total Surface Water Abstracted Total Groundwater Abstracted ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007 2004 2005 2006 2007Bahrain ... ... ... ... 48a/, 1 50a/, 1 48a/, 1 40b/, 1, 2 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 51,800 a/ 52,000 a/ 52,500 a/ 52,030 a/ 5,884 a 5,884 a/ 5,884 a/ 5,884 a/ ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan ... 941b/ ... ... 501a/ 506a/ 480a/ 504a/ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 0a/ 0a/ 0a/ 0a/ 0a/ 0a 0a/ 0a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 1,250 a/ 1,088 c/ ... ... ... 700 c/, 3 ... 2,000 d/ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman ... ... ... ... ... 53e/ ... ... ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine ... ... ... ... 249a/ 268a/ 27a/ 286a/ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar ... 444 d/ ... ... ... 221 c/ ... ... ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Saudi Arabia 20,270e/ ... 23,700f/ ... 13,940f/ 13,940f/, 4 21,400g/ 919h/ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic 17,669c/ ... ... ... ... 8,339i/ ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬United Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates … … ... ... 12j/, 5 … 15j/, 5 18j/, 5 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen ... ... ... ... 201a/ 214a/ 221a/ 227a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA … … … … 20,835 32,976 6 … … ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Sources: a/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on EnvironmentStatistics 2008. Statistics 2008. b/ Aquastat 2005. b/ Bahrain Ministry of Energy and Water Website. c/ ESCWA calculation. c/ Aquastat 2005. d/ Aquastat 2007. d/ Lebanon Statistical Yearbook 2007. e/ Ministry of Water and Electricity Kingdom of e/ Water Statistical Book for the GCC, 2008. Saudi Arabia (Documents) water affairs 2004 AD. f/ Aquastat 2006. f/ Ministry of Water and Electricity Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Documents) water affairs 2004 AD. g/ Aquastat 2006. h/ Saudi Arabia Annual Report, Ministry of Water and Electricity, 2007. i/ Office of the Prime Minister. Central Bureau of Statistics, Syrian Arab Republic. j/ Dubai Electricity and Water Authority. United Arab Emirates. Notes: 1. Groundwater Abstracted by Water Supply Industry (ISIC 36) only. 2. Conversion factor used for Bahrain is 0.004545 to convert from MIG into Cubic metre. 3. These are not per capita values. 4. 2004 figures are used for 2005. 5. This figure refers to Dubai only. Data for the United Arab Emirates is not available. 6. Excluding Iraq and Sudan. 36
  • 56. Table III.2 ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ Sectoral Water Consumption (Mcm/yr) (‫اﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼك اﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ )ﻣﻠﻴﻮن ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ/ﺳﻨﺔ‬ Domestic Water Consumption Agricultural Water Consumption ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007 2004 2005 2006 2007Bahrain* ... 161 166 171 ... 158 160 161 *‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 5,800 a/, 1 6,100 a/, 2 6,500 a/, 3 5,496 b/ 58,500 a/, 1 59,000 a/, 2 59,300 a/, 3 53,586 b/ ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq ... ... ... 1,281 b/ ... ... ... 39,284 b/ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan ... 284 c/ 291 d/, 4 210 b/ ... 501 c/ 431 d/ 750 b/ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 332 e/ 354 e/ 371 e/ 379 e/ 17 e/ 18 e/ 19 e/ 20 e/ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon ... ... ... 462 b/ ... ... ... 938 b/ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman ... ... ... 98 b/ ... ... ... 1,274 b/ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 143 e/ 153 e/ 160 e/ 176 e/ ... ... ... 239 f/ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Saudi Arabia ... ... ... 1,730b/ ... ... ... 15,397b/ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan ... ... ... 1,119b/ ... ... ... 36,181b/ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic ... ... ... 597f/ ... ... ... 18,905g/ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 148g/, 5 ... 175g/, 5 529b/ ... ... ... 1,564b/ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen ... ... ... 264b/ ... ... ... 6,270b/ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 12,511 6 174,569 4 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬Share of Total Water Consumption 6.25 87.16 ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ Sources: *Ministry of Water Bahrain, Country paper Sources: a/ Egypt Statistical Yearbook 2008.presented in the ESCWA-MEDSTAT training on Water Accounts, b/ Global Water Market 2008.Jordan, March 2008. c/ Status of Agricultural Sector Report for 2005, a/ Egypt Statistical Yearbook 2008. Jordan. b/ Global Water Market 2008. d/ M.Y. Sbeih. 2007. Water Balance 2006, c/ Status of Agricultural Sector Report for 2005, Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan, Jordan. 2006. In Water demand management in the d/ Water Balance 2006, Ministry of Water and Mediterranean, progress and policies Irrigation, Jordan, 2006. ZARAGOZA, 19-21/03/2007. e/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment e/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics 2008. Statistics 2008. f/ ESCWA calculation. f/ Pricing the Irrigation Water in The Jordan Valley as a Mean Of Water Saving in Palestine. g/ Dubai Electricity and Water Authority. United Arab Emirates. g/ ESCWA calculation. Notes: 1. Data are for 2004-2005. Notes: 1. Data are for 2004-2005. 2. Data are for 2005-2006. 2. Data are for 2005-2006. 3. Data are for 2006-2007. 3. Data are for 2006-2007. 4. Includes drinking water. 4. Excluding Qatar. 5. This figure refers to Dubai only. Data for the United Arab Emirates is not available. 6. Excluding Qatar. 37
  • 57. Table III.2 ‫( ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬continued) Other Sectors Consumption (Commercial, Industrial Water Consumption Government...) ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ (... ،‫ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ )ﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ، ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007 2004 2005 2006 2007 *Bahrain * ... 10 10 10 ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ 1,150a/,Egypt 1 1,150a/, 2 1,150a/, 3 9,618b/ 200a/, 1 200a/, 2 200a/, 3 ... ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq ... ... ... 2,135 b/ ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan ... 32 c/ 40 d/ 40 b/ ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 37 e/ 39 e/ 41 e/ 42 e/ 57 b/ 60 b/ 63 b/ 65 b/ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon ... ... ... 14 b/ ... ... ... ... ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman ... ... ... 28 b/ ... ... ... ... ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ *Palestine * ... ... 19.3 ... ... 19.2 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Saudi Arabia ... ... ... 173b/ ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan ... ... ... 373 b/ ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic ... ... ... 398f/ ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 11g/, 4 ... 15g/, 4 207b/ 84c/, 4 ... 105c/, 4 ... ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen ... ... ... 66 b/ ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 13,124 5 … … … … ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ‬Share of Total Water ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ Consumption 6.55 0.04 ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ * Sources: Country paper presented in the ESCWA- Sources: a/ Egypt Statistical Yearbook 2008.MEDSTAT training on Water Accounts, Jordan, March 2008. b/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on EnvironmentMinistry of Water Bahrain, and Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Statistics 2008. a/ Egypt Statistical Yearbook 2008. f/ Dubai Electricity and Water Authority. United b/ Global Water Market 2008. Arab Emirates. c/ Status of Agricultural Sector Report for 2005, Jordan. Notes: 1. Data are for 2004-2005. d/ Water Balance 2006, Ministry of Water and 2. Data are for 2005-2006. Irrigation, Jordan, 2006. 3. Data are for 2006-2007. e/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics 2008. 4. This figure refers to Dubai only. Data for the United Arab Emirates is not available. Includes f/ ESCWA calculation. Commercial consumption. Notes: 1. Data are for 2004-2005. 2. Data are for 2005-2006. 3. Data are for 2006-2007. 4. This figure refers to Dubai only. Data for the United Arab Emirates is not available. 5. Excluding Qatar. 38
  • 58. Table III.3 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Total Freshwater Abstracted ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007Bahrain 106 a/, 1 110 a/, 1 121 a/, 1 173b/, 1, 2 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 57,684a/, 1 57,884a/, 1 58,384a/, 1 68,700c/, 1 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq … … … 42,700c/, 1 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 866a/, 1 825d/, 1 925e/ 1,000c/, 1 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 596f/, 3 632f/, 3 645f/, 3 661f/, 3 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 1,250a/, 1 1,7884 ... 2,0005 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman ... … ... 1,400c/, 1 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 2495 2695 2755 2865 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar ... 6655 ... 300c/, 1 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 34,2105 … 45,1005 45,1006 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan ... ... ... 37,300c/, 1 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 17,6697 8,3395 ... 19,900c/, 1 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 1,003g/, 4 1,144g/, 4 1,249g/, 4 1,369g/, 4 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen … … … 6,600c/, 1 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA … … … 227,489 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics 2008. b/ Bahrain Ministry of Energy and Water Website. c/ Global Water Market 2008. d/ Status of Agricultural Sector Report for 2005, Jordan. e/ Water Balance 2006, Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan, 2006. f/ Annual Statistical Abstract 2007, Central Statistical Office of Kuwait. g/ Yearly Statistical Report for Electricity and Water, United Arab Emirates, 2003-2007. Notes: 1. Value as reported by source. 2. Conversion factor used for Bahrain is 0.004545 to convert from MIG into Cubic metre. 3. Includes potable and brackish water. 4. ESCWA calculation: sum of surface and groundwater values. 5. ESCWA Calculation: Groundwater values only. 6. Estimated same as 2006. 7. ESCWA calculation: surface water values only. 39
  • 59. ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل 1.‪Figure III‬‬ ‫)‪Sectoral Water Withdrawal (Mcm/yr‬‬‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ(‬ ‫04‬
  • 60. ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل 2.‪Figure III‬‬ ‫‪Per Capita Total Water Withdrawal‬‬‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫14‬
  • 61. Table III.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Water Use Indicators ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ Per Capita Total Water Water Use Abstracted Water Deficit1 Intensity2 Groundwater (cubic metre/p/yr) (cubic metre/p/yr) (percentage) Dependency ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ (‫)ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ (‫)ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ (‫)ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬ 2005 2007 2005 2007 2005 2007 2007 Bahrain 151 227 -14 -75 110% 149% 30% ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ Egypt 746 853 12 -124 98% 117% 9% ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ Iraq 1,504 1,441 1,138 2,336 57% 38% … ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ Jordan 258 84 -80 72 145% 54% 100% ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Kuwait 174 177 -167 -170 2360% 2525% … ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ Lebanon 434 476 537 1,260 45% 27% 100% ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Oman … 512 … 347 … 60% … ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ Palestine 71 71 141 202 34% 26% 100% ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ Qatar 750 263 -637 -212 665% 517% … ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Saudi Arabia … 1,820 … -1,643 … 1025% 2% ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ Sudan … 919 … 670 … 58% … ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic 434 966 920 1,630 32% 37% … ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ United Arab ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 684 313 -635 -263 1400% 622% 1% ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ Yemen … 296 … -116 … 165% 4% ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ ESCWA 499 927 523 337 49% 73% 5% ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: ESCWA calculation. Notes: 1. Water deficit is the difference between water resources available per capita per year and the water abstractedper capita per year. 2. Water use intensity is the ratio of water abstracted per capita per year to the water resources available per capitaper year. 42
  • 62. Table III.5 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Wastewater Management ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ‬ Wastewater Produced Wastewater Treated Treated Wastewater Reuse (Mcm/yr) (Mcm/yr) (Mcm/yr) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ (‫)ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ (‫)ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ (‫)ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ/ﺴﻨﺔ‬ 2005 2005 2007Bahrain ... 62 a/ 16.3a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 3,760 a/, 1 (2000) … 2,970 a/ ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq b/ 790 (2007) b/ 364 (2007) 0 a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 114 (2007)c/ 107 a/ 83.5 a/ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait ... 250 a/ 78 a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon ... a/ 4 (2006) 2 a/ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 9.49 d/ 12 f/ 37 a/ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine ... ... ... ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar e/ 2 (2006) 43 a/, 1 43 a/ ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 730 a/, 1 (2000) 548 a/, 1 166 a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan … … 0 a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 825a/, 1 (2000) 550a/, 1 550a/ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 881a/, 1 (2000) 289a/ (2006) 248a/ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 74 a/, 1 (2000) 46 a/, 1 6 a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ Sources: a/ Aquastat 2000. b/ Report of Environment Statistics in Iraq for 2007, COSIT, 2008. c/ Water Authority of Jordan, Annual Report 2007. d/ ESCWA calculation. e/ Qatar Annual Abstract 2007. f/ Oman Water Statistics 2008. Note: 1. Average 1998-2002. 43
  • 63. Table III.6 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Wastewater Treatment Plants ‫ﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ‬ Non-Conventional Conventional Treatment Plants Treatment Plants ‫ﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ Number Year Number ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬Bahrain … … 0 (2005) ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 67a/ 1999 … ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 0b/ 2006 … ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 13c/ 2000 6 (2000) ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait … … … ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon … … … ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 10d/ 2000 … ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine … … 11 (2007) ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 4e/ 1998 0 (2005) ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 30f/ 1995 … ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Syrian Arab Republic 5g/ 2002 … ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 4c/ 2000 … ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 11a/ 1999 9 (2007) ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 149 … ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ Aquastat 1999. b/ Report of Environment Statistics in Iraq for 2007, COSIT, 2008. c/ Aquastat 2000. d/ Aquastat 2001. e/ Aquastat 1998. f/ Aquastat 1996. g/ Aquastat 2002. 44
  • 64. Table III.7 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Water Market 2007 (Million US$) (‫ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ Total Water Municipal Water Municipal Wastewater Market ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺴﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ Opex1 2007 Capex2 2007 Opex 2007 Capex 2007 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ‬ 1 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ 2 ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ 2007Bahrain 93 180 14 14 310 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 490 488 8.2 110 1,352 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 81.8 266.7 200 13.3 377.8 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 30.5 75.9 26 28.3 167.9 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 297 240 30 65 684.7 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 36.6 26.3 27.3 20.7 123.4 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 84 200 21 18 343.1 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 29.6 14.6 2.8 9.2 59.7 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 141 157.5 35.3 61.1 408.9 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 925 831 231.3 134.4 2,455 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 133.4 25 5.6 2 176.9 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 73.4 46.3 18.4 7.7 159.7 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 648 900 97.2 170 1,908.4 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 55.4 27 4.6 0.1 93.9 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ Source: Global Water Market 2008. Notes: 1. Opex is the Operation Expenditure. 2. Capex is the Capital Expenditure. 45
  • 65. Table III.8 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Municipal Water and Wastewater Capital Expenditure Forecast (Million US$) (‫ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ Water Capital Expenditure Wastewater Capital Expenditure ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ‬ 2008 2012 2016 2008 2012 2016Bahrain 201.3 285.2 344.3 15.8 30.8 78.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 520.5 720.2 1,110.2 128.3 276.3 744.6 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 257.0 232.9 228.7 11.3 9.8 18.8 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 84.8 150.8 329.7 29.9 41.1 67.0 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 272.7 404.0 494.9 70.3 97.7 138.4 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 28.8 40.4 54.8 22.5 32.0 45.9 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 226.0 334.2 422.2 20.6 43.6 127.8 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 15.0 17.9 24.2 9.2 11.2 18.9 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 177.9 267.5 354.5 67.2 103.5 173.5 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 990.4 1,861.8 3,115.3 183.4 578.8 1,559.9 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 25.5 28.1 31.9 2.0 2.3 2.7 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 49.0 62.8 83.9 8.0 10.0 13.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 1,062.7 1,698.1 1,974.2 191.5 309.7 504.6 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 27.9 38.7 73.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ Source: Global Water Market 2008. 46
  • 66. Table III.9 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Water Market in the ESCWA Region ‫ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Wastewater Total Treatment UFW Average Water Wastewater Capacitya/ Unaccounted Tariffa/, 1 Coveragea/ Coveragea/ (million for Waterb/ ($) (percentage) (percentage) m3/yr) (percentage) ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﺔ‬Bahrain 0.07 100% 75% 50 23.5 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 0.06 70% 55% 3,780 34 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 0.00 60% 20% 108 … ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan … 84% 44% 43 45 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait … 86% 65% 132 5 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ 25% -Lebanon … 82% 35% 85 65%2 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 1.37 80% 16% 11 35 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 1.00 89% 35% 42 34 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 1.21 78% 65% 585 45-50% 3 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia … 26% 2% 250 … ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 0.04 86% 30% 19 35 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 0.07 60% 38% 199 25 - 40%4 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 0.22 93% 60% 19 13 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen … 32% 5% 17 26.4 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ Sources: a/ Global Water Market 2008. b/ Water Market Middle East 2010. Notes: 1. Price of 1 m3/ month for the first 15 m3. Price as of June 2007. 2. Depending on Municipality. 3. Estimation. 4. Depending on Governorate. 47
  • 67. Freshwater Quality ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ Monitoring water quality is used to define the ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺭﺼﺩ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬condition of a water body in order to understand its ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻫﻨﺔ ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺤﻠﻭل ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﻪ. ﻭﺘﺸﻤل‬status quo and recommend better solutions for its ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻭﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬  ‫ﻴ‬improvement. Water quality indicators are based on ‫ﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﻗﻲ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻭﻓﻕ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ‬the physical, chemical and biological measurements .‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬of a defined water body, period and amount ofsamples. Water quality monitoring programmes are ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺘﺯﺍل ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﺭﺼﺩ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬still insufficiently developed in ESCWA member ‫ﻭﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ .‫ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬countries. Those programmes on water quality ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻬﻡ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬changes allow a better understanding of the causes ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴل. ﻭﺘﺘﺄ ﹼﺭ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺜ‬of change in the short and long terms. In addition, .‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻤﺩﺓ، ﺇﺫ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺴﻤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬water quality is affected by the use of fertilizers.The region relies heavily on chemical fertilizers. In 111 ‫ل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻟﻸﺴﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 2002، ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬2002, the regional average use of fertilizers 92 ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻏﺭﺍﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﻬﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ، ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻤﻌﺩل ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻗﺩﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬amounted to 111 kilograms per hectare, compared .(9)‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻏﺭﺍﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﻬﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬to a world average of 92 kilograms per hectare.9 Generally, water quality indices and ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻭﺠﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ، ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬environmental standards are adopted from the ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻓﻕ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬World Health Organization (WHO) or according to .‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﻼﺀﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻀﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬other international standards without modifications ‫ﻭﻴﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻊ‬to suit national conditions. The WHO Regional ،‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Centre for Environmental Health Activitiesdisseminates water quality, namely drinking water ‫ﻤﺎ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺏ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬and wastewater reuse standards for the eastern ‫ﻥ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ‬ ‫ﻁ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺅ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺴ‬Mediterranean region. Moreover, the United ‫ﺔ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺭﺼﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Nations Global Environment Monitoring System ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Water Programme (GEMS) provides environmental .‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬water quality data and information used in waterassessments and capacity-building initiatives acrossthe world. The variables collected to monitor water ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻟﺭﺼﺩ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬quality are several including calcium, chloride, ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺯﻴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻭﺘﺎﺴﻴﻭﻡ‬fluoride, magnesium, potassium, sodium and sulfate ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻷﻟﻤﻨﻴﻭﻡ‬in addition to metals namely aluminum, arsenic, ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﻨﻴﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻭﺭﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺩﻤﻴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻭﻤﻴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻭﻤﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬boron, cadmium, chromium, total chromium, ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺼﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻐﻨﻴﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴﻜﻴل‬copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel,selenium and zinc. On the microbiological level, ‫ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺭﺍﺜﻴﻡ، ﻓﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻨﻴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﻨﻙ. ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤ‬faecal and total coliform are the most widely ‫ﺔ ﻨﻅﺭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺼﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺌﻁﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬monitored due to their effect on humans. As for ‫ﺃﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺫﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻡ ﺭﺼﺩ‬ nutrients, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, total nitrogen ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺭﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻭﺴﻔﻭﺭ‬and total phosphorus are important to check. ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ. ﻭﻴﻨﺼﺢ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺭﺼﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), total organic ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ، ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬carbon and chemical oxygen demand, as well as ،‫ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ، ﻭﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺌﺏ‬total alkalinity (CaCO3), dissolved oxygen, 9 UNESCWA Statistical Abstract of the ESCWA Region 2005. 48
  • 68. electrical conductance, pH, temperature and ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺼﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ‬suspended solids at 105°C and 180°C are highly 180‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ 501 ﻭ‬required to be monitored. .‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ For instance, Bahrain monitored the quality ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل، ﺭﺼﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬of water from 2003 till 2005 (table III.10). Egypt ‫(. ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﺼﺩﺭ‬III.10 ‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 3002 ﻭ5002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬and Palestine are two ESCWA countries that ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬publish water quality data. Tables III.11 and III.12 ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ ﻨﻭﻋ‬III.12‫ ﻭ‬III.11 ‫ﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻻﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ. ﻭﻴﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬show the water quality in Cairo and Alexandriafrom 2004 till 2007 in Egypt, and that of the West ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 4002 ﻭ7002 ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ‬Bank, Ramallah and Al-Bireh in 2004, 2006 and ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬2007. .2007‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻋﻭﺍﻡ 4002 ﻭ6002 ﻭ‬ Data presented in tables III.13, III.14 and ‫ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬III.15‫ ﻭ‬III.14‫ ﻭ‬III.13 ‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬III.15 on water quality parameters in the countries ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋ‬‫ﻴ‬of the GCC provide a general overview. However, ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻨﻅﺭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ. ﻭﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬it is difficult to present an analysis of water quality ‫ﺔ ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﻭ ﹼﺭ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻜﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻓ‬given that the temporal and spatial information is ‫ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓ‬ ‫ﻴ‬not available, which renders it impossible toestablish comparisons across sites, background sites ‫ﺩﺓ. ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 8002، ﺃﺼﺩﺭ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻤﺤ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺯﻤﻨ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬and polluted sites throughout time. The 2005 water ‫ﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 5002 ﻟﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺭ‬data was published in 2008 for the first time by the .‫ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﻱ ﻋﻥ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬Gulf Cooperation Council in a regular waterstatistics report for the GCC countries. Discharge of organic water pollutants in the ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺼﺩ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ESCWA countries was monitored based on the .‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻤﺅﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻥ‬World Development Indicator throughout the years. ‫ﺜﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻠ‬III.17‫ ﻭ‬III.16 ‫ﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻻﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺒ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Tables III.16 and III.17 show the concentration of ‫ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 0002 ﻭ3002 ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 0002 ﻭ4002 ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ‬these pollutants between 2000 and 2003 on onehand, and between 2000 and 2004 on the other. .‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ 49
  • 69. Table III.10 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators for Groundwater Quality in Bahrain ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ 2003 2004 2005Annual Average Flow (000 m3/s) 26,299 29,188 21,699 (‫ﻤﻌﺩ ل ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ )000 ﻡ3 /ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬(mg O2/I) 301 301 301 (O2/I ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ‬Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ‬(mg O2/I) 502 502 502 (O2/I ‫)ﻤﻠﻐﻡ‬Dissolved Oxygen (DO)(mg O2/I) 0.1 0.1 0.1 (O2/I ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺏ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ‬Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (mg/l) 1,296 1,260 1,260 (‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺒﺔ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Conductivity Level of Ground Water(µmhos/cm) 1,966 1,960 1,960 (‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻠﻴﺔ )ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﻬﻭﺱ/ﺴﻡ‬Total Phosphorus (mg P/l ) <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 (P/l ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻭﺭ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ‬Total Nitrogen of Ground Water in ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬Site 1 (mg N/l) <203 <203 <203 (N/l ‫)ﻤﻠﻐﻡ‬Concentration of Faecal Coliform of ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻟﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺌﻁﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Ground Water (Colonies/100 ml) 0 0 0 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬Number of Deaths from Water borne- ‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﻓﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﺽ ﻤﻨﻘﻭل‬Diseases (No./1000) 9 5 4 ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺒﺎﻵﻻﻑ‬ Source: Central Informatics Organization. Bahrain. Reply to ESCWA Questionnaire on Environment, 2005. Notes: 1. <30. 2. <50. 3. <20. 50
  • 70. Table III.11 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators for Surface Water Quality in Egypt ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007Name of Site 1 Cairo 1 ‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺭﻗﻡ‬Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of Surface Water ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ‬in Site 1 ( mg O2/I) 6 7 4 4 ‫( ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬BOD)Dissolved oxygen (DO) of Surface Water in Site 1(mg O2/I) 3 3 7 7 ‫( ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬DO) ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺏ‬Chemical oxygen demand (COD) of Surface Water in ‫( ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬COD) ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ‬Site 1 ( mg O2/I) 10 15 14 16 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬Total dissolved solids (TDS) of Surface Water in Site ‫( ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬TDS) ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺒﺔ‬1 ( mg/l) 307 254 229 231 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬Name of Site 2 Alexandria 2 ‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺭﻗﻡ‬Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of Surface Water ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬in Site 2 ( mg O2/I) 5 5 3 3 (BOD) ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬Dissolved oxygen (DO) of Surface Water in Site 2(mg O2/I) 3 3 5 6 ‫( ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬DO) ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ‬Chemical oxygen demand (COD) of Surface Water in ‫( ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬COD) ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬Site 2 ( mg O2/I) 14 20 20 15 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬Total dissolved solids (TDS) of Surface Water in Site ‫( ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬TDS) ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬2 ( mg/l) 329 225 204 188 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬ Source: Egypt Statistical Yearbook 2008. Note: Samples are taken from the Nile River in these locations. 51
  • 71. Table III.12 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Water Quality Indicators in Palestine ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ 2004 2006 2007Concentration of Nitrate of Ground Waterin Site 1 (mg/l) ... 34b/, 2 25c/, 2 ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬Concentration of Faecal Coliform of ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻟﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺌﻁﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Ground Water in Site 1 (Colonies/100 ml) ... 43b/, 2 ... ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬Total dissolved solids (TDS) of Ground (TDS) ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺒﺔ‬Water in Site 1 (mg/l) 377a/, 1 … … ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬Conductivity level of Ground Water in Site1 (micromhos per centimetre (µmhos/cm) 745a/, 3 1,044b/, 2 ... ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬Concentration of Bicarbonate ofGroundwater in Site 1 (mg/l) ... 232.7b/, 2 198.7c/, 2 1 ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺎﺭﺒﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬Concentration of Nitrate of Surface Waterin Site 1 (mg/l) ... 39b/, 2 ... ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬Concentration of Faecal Coliform of ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻟﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺌﻁﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Surface Water Site 1 (Colonies/100 ml) ... 43b/, 2 ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬Conductivity level of Surface Water in Site1 (micromhos per centimetre (µmhos/cm) ... 997b/, 2 ... ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬Concentration of Sulfates of Groundwaterin Site 1 (mg/l) ... 32.6b/, 2 43.6c/, 2 1 ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬Concentration of Free Chlorine ofGroundwater in Site 1 (mg/l) ... 169.3b/, 2 166.7c/, 2 1 ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬Conductivity level of Ground Water in Site2 (micromhos per centimetre (µmhos/cm) 2,153a/, 6 524b/, 5 427.9c/, 5 ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬Total dissolved solids (TDS) of Ground ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Water in Site 2 (mg/l) 1,387a/, 4 ... ... 2 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬Concentration of Nitrate of Ground Waterin Site 2 (mg/l) ... 18b/, 5 16c/, 5 ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬Concentration of Faecal Coliform of ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻟﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺌﻁﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Ground Water in Site 2 (Colonies/100 ml) ... 12b/, 5 5c/, 5 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬Concentration of Nitrate of Surface Waterin Site 2 (mg/l) ... 31b/, 5 103c/, 5 ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬Concentration of Faecal Coliform of ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻟﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺌﻁﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Surface Water Site 2 (Colonies/100 ml) ... 12b/, 5 5c/, 5 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬Conductivity level of Surface Water in Site2 (micromhos per centimetre (µmhos/cm) ... 692b/, 5 1,018c/, 5 ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬ Sources: a/ PCBS reply to questionnaire – July 2005. b/ PCBS Water Tables for the Palestinian Territory 2006. c/ PCBS Water Statistics in the Palestinian Territory 2007. Notes: 1. Site 1 = West Bank, figure for TDS in wells. 2. Site 1 = West bank. 3. Site 1 = West Bank, figure for conductivity level in water wells. 4. Site 2 = Gaza Strip, TDS in wells. 5. Site 2 = Ramallah and Al-Bireh. 6. Site 2 = Gaza Strip, conductivity in water wells. 52
  • 72. ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل 31.‪Table III‬‬ ‫‪Water Quality Indicators in the Gulf Countries: Bahrain and Kuwait‬‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ: ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫‪Pollutant‬‬ ‫‪Average‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺙ‬‫‪Bahrain‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬‫)‪Magnesium (mg/l) (Mg‬‬ ‫15‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺴﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Calcium (mg/l) (Ca‬‬ ‫311‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Total Dissolved Solids TDS (mg/l‬‬ ‫977,1‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺒﺔ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Sodium (mg/l) (Na‬‬ ‫444‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Chlorides (mg/l‬‬ ‫608‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)4‪Sulfates (mg/l) (SO‬‬ ‫542‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Aluminum (mg/l) (Al‬‬ ‫201.0‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻤﻨﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Iron (mg/l) (Fe‬‬ ‫250.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Copper (mg/l) (Cu‬‬ ‫230.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Manganese (mg/l) (Mn‬‬ ‫500.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺠﻨﻴﺯ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Zinc (mg/l) (Zn‬‬ ‫600.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺼﻴﻥ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫‪Kuwait‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬‫)‪Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l) (TDS‬‬ ‫852‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺒﺔ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫‪pH unit‬‬ ‫74.7‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺱ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ‬‫)‪Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) (ppm‬‬ ‫221‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ )ﺠﺯﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ(‬‫)‪Magnesium (mg/l) (Mg‬‬ ‫82.9‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺴﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Calcium (mg/l) (Ca‬‬ ‫66.33‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Sodium (mg/l) (Na‬‬ ‫42.74‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Potassium (mg/l) (K‬‬ ‫55.1‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺘﺎﺴﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)4‪Ammonia (mg/l) (NH‬‬ ‫70.0‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴﺎ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Aluminum mg/l (Al‬‬ ‫49.01‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻤﻨﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Iron (mg/l) (Fe‬‬ ‫58.94‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Copper (mg/l) (Cu‬‬ ‫76.46‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Zinc (mg/l) (Zn‬‬ ‫25.61‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺼﻴﻥ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Manganese (mg/l) (Mn‬‬ ‫48.3‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺠﻨﻴﺯ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Arsenic (mg/l‬‬ ‫71.2‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺭﻨﻴﺦ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Cadmium (mg/l) (Cd‬‬ ‫73.1‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺩﻤﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Mercury (mg/l) (Hg‬‬ ‫5.0<‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Selenium (mg/l‬‬ ‫70.6‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﻨﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Lead (mg/l) (Pb‬‬ ‫13.1‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺼﺎﺹ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Fluoride (mg/l‬‬ ‫81.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻭﺭﺍﻴﺩ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬ ‫.8002 ,‪Source: Water Statistical Book for the GCC‬‬ ‫35‬
  • 73. ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل 41.‪Table III‬‬ ‫‪Water Quality Indicators in the Gulf Countries: Oman and Qatar‬‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ: ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫‪Pollutant‬‬ ‫‪Average‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺙ‬‫‪Oman‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬‫)3‪Calcium Carbonate (ppm) (CaCO‬‬ ‫005-001‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ )ﺠﺯﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ(‬‫)++‪Calcium (mg/l) (Ca‬‬ ‫002-57‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Chlorides (mg/l‬‬ ‫006-002‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)4‪Sulfates (mg/l) (SO‬‬ ‫004-002‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)-3‪Nitrate (mg/l) (NO‬‬ ‫54-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺭﺍﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (mg/l‬‬ ‫005,1-005‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺒﺔ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Free Chlorine (mg/l) (Cl‬‬ ‫5.0-2.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)++‪Iron mg/l (Fe‬‬ ‫1-1.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)++‪Copper (mg/l) (Cu‬‬ ‫5.1-50.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Manganese (mg/l) (Mn‬‬ ‫5.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺠﻨﻴﺯ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Cadmium (mg/l) (Cd‬‬ ‫300.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺩﻤﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Lead (mg/l) (Pb‬‬ ‫10.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺼﺎﺹ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫‪Qatar‬‬ ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬‫)‪Aluminum (mg/l) (Al‬‬ ‫2.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻤﻨﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫‪pH unit‬‬ ‫5.8-5.6‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺱ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ‬‫)‪Magnesium (mg/l) (Mg‬‬ ‫05-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺴﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Arsenic (mg/l‬‬ ‫10.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺭﻨﻴﺦ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Copper (mg/l) (Cu‬‬ ‫50.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Cadmium (mg/l) (Cd‬‬ ‫300.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺩﻤﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Iron (mg/l) (Fe‬‬ ‫3.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Lead (mg/l) (Pb‬‬ ‫10.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺼﺎﺹ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Manganese (mg/l) (Mn‬‬ ‫4.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺠﻨﻴﺯ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)(mg/l‬‬ ‫002-57‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺒﺔ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Selenium (mg/l‬‬ ‫10.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﻨﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Cyanide (mg/l‬‬ ‫70.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻨﻴﺩ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Free Chlorine (mg/l) (Cl‬‬ ‫1-80.0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭ)ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)‪Chlorides (mg/l‬‬ ‫53-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)4‪Sulfates (mg/l) (SO‬‬ ‫01-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)-3‪Nitrate (mg/l) (NO‬‬ ‫1.0-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺭﺍﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ(‬‫)-2‪Nitrite (mg/l) (NO‬‬ ‫3-0‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺭﻴﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﻴﺘﺭ(‬ ‫.8002 ,‪Source: Water Statistical Book for the GCC‬‬ ‫45‬
  • 74. Table III.15 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Water Quality Indicators in the Gulf Countries: Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ: ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Pollutant Average ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺙ‬Saudi Arabia ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬pH unit 7.8-8.2 ‫ﺍﻷﺱ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ‬Electrical Conductance (mhos/cm) 380-450 (‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴل ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌﻲ )ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﻬﻭﺱ/ﺴﻡ‬Magnesium (mg/l) (Mg) 0-0.005 (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺴﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Sodium (mg/l) (Na) 23-46 (‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ)ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Chlorides (mg/l) 43-50 (‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Sulfates (mg/l) (SO4) 80-90 (‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Nitrate (mg/l) (NO3-) 0-1.1 (‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺭﺍﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬ *United Arab Emirates * ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬pH unit 8.3 ‫ﺍﻷﺱ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ‬Calcium Carbonate (ppm) 110.56 (‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ )ﺠﺯﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬Magnesium (mg/l) (Mg) - (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺴﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Sodium (mg/l) (Na) 13 (‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ)ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Chlorides (mg/l) 18.3 (‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Bicarbonate (mg/l) (HCO3) 52.5 (‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻜﺎﺭﺒﻭﻨﺎﺕ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Aluminum (mg/l) (Al) 30 (‫ﺍﻷﻟﻤﻨﻴﻭﻡ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Lead (mg/l) (Pb) 0.5 (‫ﺍﻟﺭﺼﺎﺹ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Iron (mg/l) (Fe) 0.02 (‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (mg/l) 120 (‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺒﺔ )ﻤﻠﻐﻡ/ﻟﺘﺭ‬ Source: Water Statistical Book for the GCC, 2008. * Samples taken from Abu Dhabi, desalination plant. 55
  • 75. Table III.16 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Discharge of Organic Water Pollutants (Total and from Different Sectors) (‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ )ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤل ﻭﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ Egypt Jordan Kuwait Lebanon ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ 2000a/ 2003b/ 2000a/ 2003b/ 2004c/ 2000a/ 2003b/ 2000a/ 2003b/Discharge of OrganicWater Pollutants (000 ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬kg/d) 203.6 186.1 16.1 23.5 25.3 11.4 11.9 14.9 14.9 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬Discharge of OrganicWater Pollutants from ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Primary Metals Ind. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬(%) 12 10.8 4 5.1 2.7 2 2.1 1 0.9 (%) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Discharge of Organic ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬Water Pollutants from ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬Paper and Pulp Ind. (%) 8 8.2 16 12.7 6.5 16 16.6 15 15.6 (%)Discharge of Organic ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Water Pollutants from ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬Chemicals Ind.(%) 8 9 14 10.8 15.5 11 11.1 3 4 (%) ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬Discharge of Organic ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Water Pollutants from ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬Food and Beverages ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬Ind.(%) 50 50.7 51 53.4 21.8 49 50.2 61 60.7 (%) ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﺒﺎﺕ‬Discharge of Organic ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Water Pollutants from ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬Stone, Ceramics, and ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺯﻑ‬Glass Ind. (%) … 0.3 … 0.4 11.6 … 0.4 0 0.5 (%) ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ‬Discharge of Organic ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Water Pollutants from ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬Textiles Ind. (%) 19 17.7 7 10.8 16.9 12 11.6 10 10.2 (%) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Discharge of Organic ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬Water Pollutants from ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻭﺠﺎﺕ‬Wood Ind (%) 0 0.6 3 3.3 2.4 3 2.8 5 4.6 (%) ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒﻴﺔ‬Discharge of Organic ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Water Pollutants from ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬Other Ind. (%) 3 2.8 3 3.4 22.7 6 5.2 3 3.4 (%) ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ Sources: a/ World Development Indicator. The World Bank, 2004. b/ World Development Indicator. The World Bank, 2007. c/ World Development Indicator. The World Bank, 2008. 56
  • 76. Table III.16 ‫( ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬continued) Syrian Arab Oman Sudan Republic Yemen ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ a/ b/ b/ a/ b/ a/ 2000 2003 2003 2000 2003 2000 2004c/Discharge of Organic WaterPollutants (kg/d) 5.8 5.8 38.6 15.1 15.1 7.8 15.4 ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬Discharge of Organic WaterPollutants from Primary ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬Metals Industry (%) 6 7.3 0.7 4 4.1 0 … (%) ‫ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬Discharge of Organic Water ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬Pollutants from Paper and ‫ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﻴﻨﺔ‬Pulp Industry (%) 13 13.3 2.5 2 1.5 9 7.7 (%) ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬Discharge of Organic WaterPollutants from Chemicals ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬Industry (%) 7 10.1 3.1 8 3.9 13 6.8 (%) ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬Discharge of Organic Water ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬Pollutants from Food and ‫ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬Beverages Industry (%) 50 54.3 88.6 70 69.8 71 74.6 (%) ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﺒﺎﺕ‬Discharge of Organic WaterPollutants from Stone, ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬Ceramics, and Glass ‫ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺯﻑ‬Industry (%) 20 0.9 0.4 1 0.9 0 0.4 (%) ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ‬Discharge of Organic WaterPollutants from Textiles ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬Industry (%) 14 8.3 3.2 19 19.4 5 7.6 (%) ‫ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻭﺠﺎﺕ‬Discharge of Organic Water ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬Pollutants from Wood ‫ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻭﺠﺎﺕ‬Industry (%) 0 2.4 0.6 0 0.2 1 0.9 (%) ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒﻴﺔ‬Discharge of Organic WaterPollutants from Other ‫ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬Industry (%) 6 3.4 1.1 … 0.2 1 2 (%) ‫ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ Sources: a/ World Development Indicator. The World Bank, 2004. b/ World Development Indicator. The World Bank, 2007. c/ World Development Indicator. The World Bank, 2008. 57
  • 77. CHAPTER IV. INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC ACCOUNTING WATER ACCOUNTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION EXPENDITURE ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ- ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ Statistical Highlights1. Two out of the 14 ESCWA countries compiled pilot water accounts tables: Jordan for 2007, and Bahrain for 20052. Egypt published water balance at the country level from 2002 till 20073. The environmental expenditure in Jordan increased by 60.8 per cent from 2000 till 20074. 3.7 per cent of the public expenditure in Jordan was allocated for environment expenditures5. The environmental expenditure in Lebanon decreased by 74.8 per cent between 2001 and 20046. The total cost of environmental degradation in Lebanon for the year of 2000 was estimated at US$ 565 thousands7. The oil spill created by the July 2006 hostilities in Lebanon was estimated between 12,000 tons and 15,000 tons of heavy crude oil and residual products8. The economic impact of the July 2006 hostilities on the Lebanese environment was estimated between 411.3 million US$ and 418.9 million US$ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ 2005 ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 7002 ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻴﻀﻌﺎﻥ ﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺭﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ -1 2007 ‫ﺃﺼﺩﺭﺕ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ 2002 ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ -2 2007‫ل ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 8.06 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 0002 ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ -3 ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ 7.3 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ -4 2004‫ل ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﻀﺎ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 8.47 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 1002 ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻴﺴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ -5 ‫ﻤﺠﻤل ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0002 ﻗﺩﺭﺕ ﺒﻤﺒﻠﻎ 565 ﺃﻟﻑ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ -612 000 ‫ﻭﺯ/ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ 6002 ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻜﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻨﺴﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺜﺭ ﺤﺭﺏ ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ -7 ‫ﻭ000 51 ﻁﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﹼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻭﺯ/ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ 5002 ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ 3.114 ﻭ9.814 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺭ ﺤﺭﺏ ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ -8 58
  • 78. Overview of Integrated Environmental ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ Economic Accounting in the ESCWA Region ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Recognizing the increasing importance of ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﺩﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻷﻫﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ integrating environmental issues into development ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌ ﹼﺩﺓ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ and the need to account for the complex ‫ﺭﺕ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ، ﻁ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ interactions between all sectors of the economy and ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 3991، ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ the environment, the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) developed in 1993, as a satellite ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻜﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ to the 1993 System of National Accounts, the ‫3991. ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻫﻭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ Integrated Environmental and Economic ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺃﺜﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ Accounting (SEEA) system which measures the ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻲ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ contribution of the environment to the economy and .‫ﻤﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ the impact of the economy on the environment, as it provides an information system for strategic planning and policy analysis to identify more sustainable paths of development. The SEEA supplements the SNA by ‫ل ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻜ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ separately identifying expenditures related to ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ‬ environmental issues and by incorporating ‫ﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻤﺞ ﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ environmental assets and changes therein in the .(10)‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ supply, use and asset accounts of the SNA.10 At the ‘Beyond GDP’ conference held in ‫ﻭﺨﻼل ﻤﺅﺘﻤﺭ "ﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ" ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ November 2007, the EU concluded that in the long ‫ﻋﻘﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ/ﻨﻭﻓﻤﺒﺭ 7002، ﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ‬ term, integrated environmental and economic ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺸ ﹼل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ "ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ accounting is likely to be the "strongest tool" for .(11)‫ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﻭﻯ" ﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﻓﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ supporting the promotion of well-being and progress.11 The Statistics Division at the United Nations ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻨ ﹼﺫﺕ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻔ‬ Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺘﻴﻥ 8002-9002 ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎ ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ (ESCWA) implemented in 2008-2009 a project to ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ assist member countries in enhancing their national ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺩﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﻏل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ capacities in environment statistics indicators and accounts in order to integrate environmental ‫ﻡ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ، ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ concerns into economic development, thus ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ً ‫ﻴ‬ supporting progress towards achieving sustainable ‫ﻤﺎ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺔ، ﻭﻻ ﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ development and related international agreed ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ، ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻼﺘﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ development goals in coordination with regional ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﻴﺒﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ-ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﻲ‬ and international agencies in particular the UNSD, .‫)ﻤﻴﺩﺴﺘﺎﺕ( ﻭﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ECLAC, MEDSTAT and UNEP. ESCWA published the “Framework for ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 9002، ﺃﺼﺩﺭﺕ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﻋﻤل‬ environmental economic accounting in the ESCWA ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ)21(، ﻭﻋﺭﻀﺕ‬ region”12 in 2009 proposing the SEEA to ESCWA 10 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), and United Nations Environment Programme, 2000.Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting: An Operational Manual, Handbook of National Accounting, Series F, No. 78,New York. 11 Consult http://www.beyond-gdp.eu/ for information. 12 UNESCWA. Framework for environmental economic accounting in the ESCWA region. 2009 59
  • 79. countries with some adaptation to take into account ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬priorities and specificities of the region. In ‫ﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺃﻭﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬particular, water resources, energy, soil, as well as ‫ﻭﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﻋ ﹸﺒﺭﺕ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ‬land and ecosystems sub-accounts were considered ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻤ‬important for sustainable development in the .‫ﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻏﻨ‬ ‫ﻴ‬energy-rich, water-scarce region. The proposed SEEA addresses, in the context ‫ﻭﻴﻐ ﹼﻲ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻁ‬of environmental accounting, scarce water ،‫ﺔ، ﻨﺩﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬resources, land degradation and exploitation of oil ‫ﻭﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ، ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ، ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﻥ‬and gas resources, which are considered as main .‫ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻴﻕ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ‬ constraints in achieving sustainable development. Given the unavailability of data to build a ‫ﻭﻨﻅﺭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﻭ ﹼﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻹﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺸﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬comprehensive SEEA in ESCWA member ،‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬countries, priorities identified by countries ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﻁﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺤﺩﺩﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺒﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻓﻕ‬pertained to physical flow accounts, assets accounts ،(‫ﺔ، ﻭﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺼﻭل )ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺯﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬(physical stocks), monetary accounts and .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ، ﻭﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬environmental protection expenditures. The principle of the System of Integrated ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬Environmental and Economic Accounting for ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬Water (SEEAW) consists of accounting for the ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ: ﻤﺠﻤل ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺩﺨﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬hydrological and economic information: all the ‫ﺓ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺒﺜﻘﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ. ﻭﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬water that has entered the environment and the ‫ﻤﺨﺯﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﻤﻠﺨﺹ ﻟﻜﺎﻤل‬water that has emerged from the economy. Whetherthe water is used for supply or consumption, water ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ. ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬accounts tables, prepared on the national level, ‫)ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬summarize the complete water process. The ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ، ﻭﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺴﻁﺤ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ( ﻭﻭﻓﻕ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ )ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺠﻭﻓ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬indicators can be divided by Industries (ISIC .(...‫ﻭﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﺤ ﹼﺓ‬ ‫ﻼ‬classification) and by water source (groundwater,surface water, desalinated water…). In the ESCWA region, two out of the 14 ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﺃﺼﺩﺭ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺭﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ESCWA countries compiled pilot studies water ‫ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬accounts: Bahrain for 2005 and Jordan for 2007. ‫ﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫7002. ﻭﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ ﻋ‬Other member countries such as Palestine, Oman, IV.3‫ ﻭ‬IV.2‫ ﻭ‬IV.1 ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒل. ﻭﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬and Egypt are preparing their pilot water accountsfor the upcoming year. The water accounts are .‫ ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‬IV.5‫ ﻭ‬IV.4‫ﻭ‬presented in tables IV.1, IV.2, IV.3, IV.4 and IV.5. Water balance, on the other hand, consists of ‫ﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ، ﻓﻬﻭ ﺤﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺩ ﹼﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻤ‬evaluating inflows and outflows of water in the ‫ﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﻨﻪ، ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴﺭﺼﺩ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺒﻠﺩ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬country. It tracks water that has been produced and .‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬consumed by the different sectors. Among ESCWA countries, the Egyptian ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬government has been preparing and publishing .(IV.6 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 2002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬yearly water balances since 2002 (table IV.6). 60
  • 80. Table IV.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Pilot SEEAW Physical Water Use Table, Jordan, 2007 (Mcm) (‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻱ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬ Industries by ISIC Categories ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺏ ﺃﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ – ﺍﻷﻴﺯﻴﻙ‬ Rest of the ISIC 2-33, world 38, 39, 41- Total Households ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ Total ISIC 1 43, 45-99 ISIC 36 ISIC 37 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ i Total abstraction (i.a+i.b) 506 49 294 0 849 0 849 (‫1- ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ )1-ﺃ+1-ﺏ‬ i.a Abstraction for own use 506 49 0 0 555 0 555 ‫1-ﺃ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻲ‬ i.b Abstraction for distribution 0 0 294 0 294 0 294 ‫1-ﺏ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﻟﻠﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ i.b.1 From water From the environment resources: 506 49 294 0 849 0 849 :‫1-ﺏ-1 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫1-ﺏ-1-ﺃﻟﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ i.b.1.I Surface water 261 4 80 0 345 0 345 i.b.1.II Groundwater 245 45 214 0 504 0 504 ‫1-ﺏ-1-ﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬ i.b.1.III Soil water 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ‫1-ﺏ-1-ﺠﻴﻡ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ i.b.2 From other sources 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ‫1-ﺏ-2 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ i.b.2.I Collection of ‫1-ﺏ-2-ﺃﻟﻑ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ precipitation 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻁﻠﺔ‬ i.b.2.II Abstraction ‫1-ﺏ-2-ﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﻤﻥ‬ from the sea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ii Use of water received from ‫2- ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻠﻘﺎﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬Within the economy other economic units (ii.a+ii.b) 91 0 0 113 204 147 351 ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ (i+ii) ii.a of which: Reused water 91 0 0 0 0 91 ‫2-ﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ‬ ii.b of which: Wastewater to ‫2-ﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﻑ‬ sewerage 0 0 0 113 0 0 0 ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ Total use of water 597 49 294 113 1,053 147 1,200 ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ Source: Experiences in Water Statistics and Accounts (Mahmoud Alkhawalde, Department of Statistics, Jordan). 2009. World Water Forum 2009. Istanbul, Turkey. Session6.4.2. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/workshops/wwf2009/lod.htm. 61
  • 81. Table IV.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Pilot SEEAW Physical Supply, Jordan, 2007 (Mcm) (‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻱ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬ Industries by ISIC Categories ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺏ ﺃﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ – ﺍﻷﻴﺯﻴﻙ‬ Househ Rest of the ISIC 2-33, 38, olds world Total ISIC 1 ISIC 36 ISIC 37 39, 41-43, 45-99 Total Industry ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫1- ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ Within the economy i. Supply of water to other economic units (i.a+i.b) 0 147 91 23 261 90 351 (‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ: )1-ﺃ+1-ﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ of which: i.a Reused water 0 0 ‫1-ﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ i.b Wastewater to ‫1-ﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﻑ‬ sewerage 0 0 0 23 23 90 113 ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ii. Total returns (ii.a+ii.b) 60 140 6 5 211 0 211 (‫2- ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩﺍﺕ )2-ﺃ+2-ﺏ‬ To the environment ii.a To water resources 60 140 6 5 211 0 211 ‫2-ﺃ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫2-ﺃ-1 ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ii.a.1 Surface water 5 10 6 5 26 0 26 ii.a.2 Groundwater 50 10 0 0 60 0 60 ‫2-ﺃ-2 ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬ ii.a.3 Soil water 5 120 0 0 125 0 125 ‫2-ﺃ-3 ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ii.b To other sources ‫2-ﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ (e.g. sea water) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (‫)ﻤﺜل ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬Total supply of water (i+ii) 60 562 (2+1) ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Consumption -562 ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ Source: Experiences in Water Statistics and Accounts (Mahmoud Alkhawalde, Department of Statistics, Jordan). 2009. World Water Forum 2009. Istanbul, Turkey. Session6.4.2. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/workshops/wwf2009/lod.htm. 62
  • 82. Table IV.3 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Matrix of Flows within the Economy in Jordan, 2007 (Mcm) (‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺘﺩﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ، ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ، 7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬ To use Others Total Households Total supply ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ From supply ISIC 1 ISIC 36 ISIC 37 ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ‬ ISIC 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ISIC 1 ISIC 36 0 0 0 0 0 147 147 ISIC 36 ISIC 37 91 0 0 0 91 0 91 ISIC 37 Others 0 0 23 0 23 0 23 ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ Total 91 0 23 0 114 147 261 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ Households 0 0 90 0 90 0 90 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ‬ Total use 91 0 113 0 204 147 351 ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ Source: Experiences in Water Statistics and Accounts (Mahmoud Alkhawalde, Department of Statistics, Jordan). 2009.World Water Forum 2009. Istanbul, Turkey. Session 6.4.2. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/workshops/wwf2009/lod.htm. Table IV.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Mean Annual Water Consumption for All Uses in Bahrain (1985-2005) (Mcm) (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ، ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ، 5891-5002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬ Groundwater Desalinated water Treated water Grand total Use % ‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ Κ ‫ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻲ‬ X ‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ‬ 1000 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ L/D domestic use Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Population per capita Domestic Domestic Domestic Domestic Industrial Industrial Industrial Industrial Mean Total Total Total 1000 Year 1985 383 573 44 100 5 149 41.0 0.4 1.9 43 0 85 100 7 192 44 52 4 1986 391 596 42 109 5 157 47.4 0.5 2.2 50 0 90 109 8 207 43 53 4 1987 400 617 53 117 6 176 42.2 0.4 2.0 44 0 95 118 8 220 43 53 3 1988 408 634 52 108 6 166 47.0 0.5 2.2 49 2 99 110 8 217 46 51 4 1989 417 656 58 114 6 178 46.4 0.5 2.2 49 2 105 117 8 230 46 51 3 1990 426 658 55 123 6 184 51.7 0.5 2.4 54 4 107 128 8 243 44 53 3 1991 436 631 51 121 5 178 53.5 0.6 2.5 56 6 105 128 8 241 44 53 3 1992 454 636 50 136 6 192 59.1 0.6 2.8 62 8 109 144 8 262 42 55 3 1993 472 648 60 139 6 205 55.7 0.6 2.6 58 8 116 148 9 273 43 54 3 1994 491 617 58 151 6 215 57.1 0.6 2.7 60 11 115 163 9 287 40 57 3 1995 511 574 62 159 7 227 50.1 0.5 2.4 53 12 112 171 9 292 38 59 3 1996 532 564 57 169 7 233 56.7 0.6 2.7 59 13 114 183 10 307 37 60 3 1997 554 552 61 178 7 247 55.2 0.6 2.6 58 13 116 192 10 318 37 60 3 1998 577 544 62 181 8 250 57.3 0.6 2.7 60 12 119 193 10 322 37 60 3 1999 600 532 62 170 6 239 58.5 0.6 2.8 61 14 121 185 9 315 38 59 3 2000 625 556 53 160 6 219 77.6 0.8 3.7 81 15 130 175 10 315 41 56 3 2001 651 570 52 137 5 195 86.0 0.9 4.1 90 15 138 154 9 301 46 51 3 2002 677 559 54 142 5 201 87.3 0.9 4.1 91 16 141 158 9 309 46 51 3 2003 705 567 54 136 5 195 94.1 1.0 4.4 99 19 149 156 9 314 47 50 3 2004 734 575 55 130 5 190 100.9 1.1 4.8 106 19 156 156 10 322 49 48 3 2005 764 572 57 128 5 190 104.6 1.1 4.9 110 21 161 158 10 329 49 48 3 Source: Bahrain Country Paper. Ministry of Electricity and Water. 2008. 63
  • 83. Table IV.5 ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ Pilot SEEAW Physical Use, Bahrain, 2005 (Mcm) (‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻱ، ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ، 5002 )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬ Industries by ISIC categories Rest of ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺏ ﺃﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ – ﺍﻷﻴﺯﻴﻙ‬ the ISIC world ISIC ISIC 5-33, ISIC ISIC ISIC ISIC 38,39, Total Households ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ Total 1-3 41-43 35 36 37 55 45-99 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ i. Total abstraction (i.a+i.b) 128 5 0 160 0 0 0 293 7 300 (‫1- ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ )1-ﺃ+1-ﺏ‬ i.a Abstraction for own use 128 5 1 134 7 141 ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫1-ﺃ‬ i.b Abstraction for distribution 0 159 159 159 ‫1-ﺏ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﻟﻠﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬ i.b.1 From water resources: 128 5 0 50 0 0 0 183 7 0 190 :‫1-ﺏ-1 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬From the environment ‫1-ﺏ-1-ﺃﻟﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ i.b.1.I Surface water 0 0 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ i.b.1.II Groundwater 128 5 50 0 183 7 190 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫1-ﺏ-1-ﺒﺎﺀ‬ i.b.1.III Soil water 0 0 ‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫1-ﺏ-1-ﺠﻴﻡ‬ i.b.2 From other sources 0 0 0 110 0 0 0 110 0 0 110 ‫1-ﺏ-2 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫1-ﺏ-2-ﺃﻟﻑ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ i.b.2.I Collection of ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ precipitation 0 0 ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻁﻠﺔ‬ ‫1-ﺏ-2-ﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬ i.b.2.II Abstraction ‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ from the sea 110 110 110 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ii. Use of water received from other economic units ‫2- ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻠﻘﺎﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬ (ii.a+ii.b+ii.c) 21 4 0 0 0 0 0 25 126 151 ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬Within the economy ‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ of which: ii.a Reused water 21 21 21 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫2-ﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﻑ‬ ‫2-ﺏ‬ ii.b Wastewater to sewerage ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ii.c Distributed water 0 4 4 126 130 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ‬ ‫2-ﺝ‬ Total use of water (i+ii) 149 9 0 160 0 0 0 318 133 0 451 (2+1) ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ 64
  • 84. Source: Bahrain Country Paper. Ministry of Electricity and Water. 2008. 65
  • 85. Table IV.6 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Egypt Water Balance 2002-2007 (Billion cubic metres) (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ 2002-7002 )ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬ 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007Water Resources ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬Share of Nile Water 55.5 55.5 55.5 55.5 55.5 ‫ﺤﺼﺔ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻨﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻴل‬Groundwater on Valley and ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺍﺩﻱ‬Delta 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻟﺘﺎ‬Recycling of agricultural ‫ﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﻑ‬water 4.4 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ‬Recycling of sewage water 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 ‫ﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬Rains and Floods 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭل‬Desalination of sea water 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬Total 68.26 68.76 69.16 69.56 69.96 ‫ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬Uses of Water ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬Agriculture 57.8 58.1 58.5 59 59.3 ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬Waste evaporation from Nile ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻗﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺒﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻴل‬and Canals 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬Provincial 5.4 5.6 5.8 6.1 6.5 ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬Industry 1.1 1.1 1.15 1.15 1.15 ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬River Navigation 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺭﻴﺔ‬Total 66.6 67.1 67.8 68.6 69.3 ‫ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ Source: Annual Statistical Yearbook 2008, Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation. Egypt. 66
  • 86. Overview of Environmental Expenditure in the ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ESCWA Region Environmental expenditure is part of the ‫ﻴﺸ ﹼل ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺠﺯﺀﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻜل‬ ّ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ public expenditure of any country. The constant ‫ﺯﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﻋ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ struggle to protect the environment has been the ‫ﻨﺤﻭ ﺭﺼﺩ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ‬ boost for monitoring and managing environmental .‫ﻭﻀﻊ ﺤﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ expenditure in every country so as to halt environmental degradation. In the European Union, along the main lines ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ، ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ of action for the development of a green national ‫ﺔ ﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﻋﻤل ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ، ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ accounting framework, 20 EU countries plus ،‫02 ﺒﻠﺩﺍ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺭﻭﺝ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ Switzerland and Norway have a programme of ‫ﺘﻤﻠﻙ ﺴ ﹼﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ. ﻭﺘﺭ ﹼﺯﺕ ﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ environmental accounting, six of which have a legal basis for the accounts. Efforts by the EU were ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ focused, in the short term, on the compilation of ‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﻫﺫﻩ‬ environmental protection expenditures and air .(13)‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ emission modules of the accounts.13 Despite the importance of environmental ‫ﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ، ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺩﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻫﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ expenditure, its accountability has not been ‫ﺔ ﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ introduced yet into the ESCWA countries’ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ. ﻭﻻ ﺘﺯﺍل ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل‬ governments’ yearly public expenditure plan. In .‫ﺔ، ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ESCWA countries, reports as well as the actual ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻤﺞ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ expenditure on environmental issues are scarce. Only two out of the 14 ESCWA countries account .‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨ ﹼﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ for the environmental expenditure in the public environmental plan. Public Environmental Expenditure in Jordan ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Public environmental expenditures in Jordan, ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 8002، ﺘﻡ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬  based on UNSEEA 2003 (particularly the ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ Environmental Protection Expenditure Account, ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺼﺩﺭﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ EPEA) and compatible with the Classification of ‫ﻤﺎ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ(، ﻭﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ‬ ‫3002 )ﻻ ﺴ‬‫ﻴ‬ Environmental Protection Activities and Expenditure CEPA, were presented as a research .(14)‫ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ thesis in 2008.14 The results of the study showed that, in ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻨﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻭﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ aggregate terms, public environmental expenditures ‫ﻤﻥ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻰ 022 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0002 ﺇﻟﻰ‬ have increased from about JD 220 million in 2000 ‫ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻰ 603 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬ to about JD 306 million in 2007 in constant prices (2000=100). Total public expenditure on the ‫)0002=001(. ﻭﺸﻜﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ 7.3 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬ environment (PEE) as a percentage of GDP was 3.7 ‫(. ﻭﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺤﺼﺘﻬﺎ‬IV.7 ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ per cent in 2007 (table IV.7). Expressed as a .‫1.8 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ percentage of total governmental expenditures, the public environmental expenditures amounted to 8.1 per cent. 13 Eurostat 2008. Revised European Strategy for Environmental Accounting. CPS 2008/68/7/EN – 18/09/2008. 14 K. Alshatarat. 2008. Comparing Public Environmental Expenditures with Environmental Priorities-Jordan. UNESCO-IHEInstitute for Water Education. 67
  • 87. Most of the public environmental ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺨﺯﻴﻨﺔ( ﻫﻲ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬expenditure stems from budgetary sources ‫ﻨﺕ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻰ 07 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ، ﺇﺫ ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤ‬(treasury), typically at a 70 per cent average of total ‫ﺓ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﺩ‬PEE over the period (2000-2007) and at a 30 per ‫0002 ﻭ7002. ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬cent average of total PEE over the same periodfrom off-budgetary sources like foreign loans, ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻨﻴﺔ، ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ‬grants and other sources. .‫ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ Environmental expenditure programmes 6 ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ 3 ﻤﻥ ﺃﺼل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺴﺕ ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬were reflected in 3 out of 6 activities linked to the ‫ﻡ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ 7 ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﻤﺅ ﹼﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺸ‬progress indicators of Goal 7. The largest ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻔﻴﺔ. ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ، ﺃﻨﻔﻕ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﺒﻠﻎ‬percentage of money was spent on the water sector ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻠﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺇﻟﻰ‬(65 per cent) in 2007 including 51 per cent onproviding improved drinking water sources to the ‫ﺼﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ 15 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬ ‫56 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺨ‬ ‫ﹸﺼ‬population and 8 per cent on improved sanitation ‫ﻨﺔ ﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺏ ﻭ8 ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻤﺤ‬ ‫ﺴ‬facilities, which indicates that this is the upmost ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻫﻲ‬  ّpriority of the Jordanian government (table IV.8). ‫ﺔ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﻯ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Expenditures on waste management reached 7 per ‫(. ﻭﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ 7 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬IV.8cent and on pollution abatement 9 per cent in 2007. ‫ﺕ 9 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002. ﻭﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻠ‬ ‫ﻭ‬The environmental expenditures in other domainssuch as biodiversity, forests and research and ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ، ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺘﻨ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹼ‬development did not exceed 2 per cent each (table ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ، ﻨﺴﺒﺔ 2 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬IV.8). .(IV.8 ‫ﻟﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ّPublic Environmental Expenditure in Lebanon ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Lebanon has been monitoring public ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ، ﹸﺭﺼﺩ ﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻺﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ‬ ‫ﺘ‬environmental expenditures since 2001. In its ‫ﻋﺎﻡ 1002. ﻭﺘﻀﻡ ﺍﻹﺼﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ)51( ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺭﺼﺩ ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ publications,15 Lebanon has also accounted for the ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺔ. ﻭﻴﺒ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻡ ﻋﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬cost of environmental degradation of several ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺠﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻨ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬IV.9 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬important environmental problems. Table IV.9shows the environmental expenditure of the ‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 1002 ﻭ5002، ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬Lebanese government from 2001 till 2005, as well .2005‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻴﻥ 0002 ﻭ‬as the cost of environmental degradation of waterfor the years 2000 and 2005. 15 Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) progress report 2004 to 2007. 68
  • 88. Table IV.7 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Environmental Expenditure at Constant Prices in Jordan (2000=100), (2000-2007) ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Economic ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ‬ indicators of environmental ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ expenditure 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ‬ GDP at Constant Prices (Million ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬ JD) 5,989.10 6,181.3 6587.1 6,841.3 7,522.8 7,845.2 8,083.8 8,230.7 (‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ‬ Total Governmental Expenditure ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ (MJD) 2,529.00 2,636.6 2,695.7 3,075 3,352.4 3,497.2 3,698.7 3,794.7 (‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ‬ Environmental Expenditure ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬ (MJD) 219.9 249 230.4 226.8 232.8 245.9 283.4 306.1 (‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ % of GDP 3.7 4 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.5 3.7 ‫ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ % of Total Governmental ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ Expenditure 8.7 9.4 8.5 7.4 6.9 7 7.7 8.1 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ Source: Data for GDP and General government expenditure by Department of Statistics. PEERs data obtained from thecurrent MSc thesis research. 69
  • 89. Table IV.8 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Environmental Expenditure by Sector in Jordan ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Environmental :‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ expenditure (000 JD) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 (‫)ﺃﻟﻑ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ‬ i. Waste management 6,333.9 7,462.8 8,426.8 9,618.4 15,646.3 17,838.3 17,644.2 17,539.3 ‫1- ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ % of Total ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ Expenditure 4 4 5 6 9 10 8 7 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ 2. Expenditures on Protection of ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻭﻉ‬ -2 biodiversity and ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﺭ‬ landscapes 2,454.7 2,830.9 3,281.4 4,201.3 4,850.3 4,639.7 4,068.6 3,585.5 ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻸﺭﺽ‬ % of Total ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ Expenditure 1.6 1.6 2 2.7 2.9 2.6 1.9 1.4 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ‬ -3 3. PAC Expenditure 8,073.4 6,636.7 6,626.9 8,380.3 7,604.9 6,937.8 17,850.1 23,362.7 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ % of Total ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ Expenditure 5 4 4 5 5 4 8 9 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ 4. Water Sector 91,617.6 86,227.3 106,391.9 106,176.1 91,429.5 119,486.8 142,213.4 165,516 ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ -4 % of Total ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ Expenditure 59 48 66 67 55 67 67 65 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ 4.1. Water ‫4-1 ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ‬ supply 94,650.3 93,613.7 73,733.6 104,994.5 112,264.1 91,663.7 73,001.7 78,554 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ % of Total ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ Expenditure 59 59 44 59 53 36 41 51 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ 4.2. Wastewater ‫4-2 ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ management 11,741.6 12,562.4 17,695.8 14,852.3 29,949.3 73,852.3 13,225.6 13,063.6 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ % of Total ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ Expenditure 7 8 11 8 14 29 7 8 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ 5. Expenditures on ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ 5 Housing & Urban ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭﻱ )ﺃﻟﻑ‬ Development 12,538 15,979 14,348 10,974 11,504 13,335 19,061 29,820 (‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ‬ % of Total ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ Expenditure 8 9 9 7 7 7 9 12 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ 6. Research and ‫ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ -6 development 2,273.5 2,634.4 3,629.9 2,257.9 3,260.6 2,275 2,430.5 4,563 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ % of Total ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ Expenditure 1.5 1.5 2.3 1.4 2 1.3 1.1 1.8 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ -7 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ 7. Environnemental ‫ﻤﺼﻨﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ Protection n.e.c- 29,638.3 56,323.3 16,666.3 15,374.3 30,206.5 11,903.7 5,648.9 5,179 ‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬ % of Total ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ Expenditure 19.2 31.4 10.4 9.7 18.2 6.7 2.7 2 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ 8. Forestry Expenditure (000 ‫8- ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺒﺎﺕ )ﺃﻟﻑ‬ JD) 1,414.6 1,452.1 1,459.2 1,414.3 1,459.7 1,480.2 2,605.5 3,473.2 (‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ‬ % of Total ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ Expenditure 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.4 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ Total expenditure ‫ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ by sector (000 JD) 154,344.0 179,546.5 160,830.4 158,396.6 165,961.8 178,256.5 211,522.2 253,038.7 (‫)ﺃﻟﻑ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ‬ (Mn JD) 154.3 179.5 160.8 158.4 166.0 178.3 211.5 253.0 (‫)ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ 65.6 69.4 69.6 68.4 66.8 67.6 71.9 53.1 (‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ‬ Total expenditure ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ (Mn JD) 219.9 249.0 230.4 226.8 232.8 245.9 283.4 306.1 (‫)ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ‬ Sources: Physical data obtained from forest & Range lands Directorate, Public Environmental Expenditures (PEE) dataobtained from the current MSc thesis research, Physical data obtained from RSCN. PEER data obtained from the current MSc thesisresearch, Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDC), data obtained from analyzing the annual reports, Data for GDP andGeneral government expenditure by Department of Statistics. 70
  • 90. Table IV.9 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators For Lebanon ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ 2000 2001 20022/ 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Cost of Environmental Degradation ‫ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ (thousand US Dollars) 565,000a/ ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ Cost of Environmental Degradation of Air ‫ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ (thousand US Dollars) 170,000a/ ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ Cost of Environmental Degradation of Water ‫ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ (thousand US Dollars) 175,000a/ ... ... ... ... 175,000 ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ Cost of Environmental Degradation of Soil and Wildlife ‫ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ (thousand US Dollars) 100,000a/ ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ Cost of Environmental Degradation of Coastal Areas and Cultural Heritage ‫ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ (thousand US Dollars) 110,000a/ ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﻭﺍﻁﺊ‬ Cost of Environmental Cost of Environmental Degradation from ‫ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ waste (thousand US ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ Dollars) 10,000a/ ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ Environmental ‫ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ expenditure on water management ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ (thousand US ‫)ﺃﻟﻑ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ Dollars)1 … 48,592b/ 27,509c/ 35,336d/ 10,287e/ … 40,262f/ … 1 (‫ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‬ Environmental expenditure on ‫ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ wastewater management ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ (thousand US ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻤﺔ )ﺃﻟﻑ‬ Dollars)1 ... 29,955b/ 85,163c/ 16,483d/ 9,758e/ ... 27,447e/ ... 1 (‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‬ Environmental ‫ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ expenditure on waste management ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ (thousand US ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ )ﺃﻟﻑ‬ Dollars)1 ... 2,580b/ 30,257c/ 1,761d/ 367e/ ... 196e/ ... 1 (‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‬ Sources: a/ Cost of Environmental Degradation, The case of Lebanon and Tunisia. World Bank Environmental Department,2004. b/ Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) Progress Report 2002. c/ Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) Progress Report 2003. d/ Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) Progress Report 2004. e/ Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) Progress Report 2005. f/ Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) Progress Report 2007. Notes: 1. These figures include the Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) approved contracts only, otherpublic and/or private contracts are not accounted for in these figures for lack of information. 2. The high figures for 2002 in comparison with other years are related to international funding in these sectors duringthis specific year. 71
  • 91. Overview of Lebanon Oil Spill ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻨﺴﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ In July 2006, Israel targeted oil reservoirs ‫ﻭﺯ/ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ 6002، ﺍﺴﺘﻬﺩﻓﺕ ﺇﺴﺭﺍﺌﻴل ﺨﺯﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ at the Jiyeh storage tanks as part of the on-going ‫ﺔ، ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺸ ﹼﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ war at that time on Lebanon. .‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Box IV.1 Summary of the Oil Spill, Lebanon* * ‫- ﻤﻠ ﹼﺹ ﺍﻨﺴﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ، ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬IV.1 ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ Date of the spilling 13-15 July 2006 Storage tank capacity (tons) 44,000 2006 ‫ﻭﺯ/ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ‬ ‫31-51 ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻻﻨﺴﻜﺎﺏ‬ Amount of oil spilled (tons) 12,000-15,000 44.000 (‫ﺍﻥ )ﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺨ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ First clean-up operation August 06 15 000-12 000 (‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻜﺏ )ﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤ‬‫ﻴ‬ Heavy crude oil and 2006 ‫ﺁﺏ/ﺃﻏﺴﻁﺱ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻑ‬ ‫ل ﻋﻤﻠ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ Type of oil spilled residual products ‫ﻨﻔﻁ ﺨﺎﻡ ﺜﻘﻴل ﻭﻤﺨﹼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻜﺏ‬ Estimated affected area (sq. km) 1.5 1.5 (‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄ ﹼﺭﺓ )ﻜﻡ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ Medical Waste (tons) 200-250 250-200 (‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﺔ )ﻁﻥ‬ Water quality and water ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ facilities (million US$) 131.4 131.4 (‫)ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ _____________ * World Bank, Republic of Lebanon Economic Assessment of Environmental Degradation due to July 2006 Hostilities, 2007. The oil spill impacted the Lebanese ‫ﻭﺃﻟﺤﻘﺕ ﺁﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻨﺴﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭﺍ ﺒﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ، ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ seawater, marine life and biodiversity, palm ‫ﺔ ﺠﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ، ﻭﻤﺤﻤ‬ ‫ﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ islands reserve and the economic status of the ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻁﺊ. ﻭﻨﻅﺭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ near-to-shore population. Since Lebanon is not ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺨﻁﻁ ﻁﻭﺍﺭﺉ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻀﺎﻉ ﻤﻤﺎﺜﻠﺔ، ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ‬ equipped with emergency plans for such cases, ‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺎﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻲ. ﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ the help of the international organizations as well as the community was a must. The World Bank ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺴﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ estimated the economic assessment of the .IV.10 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ environmental degradation related directly to the oil spill, as summarized in table IV.10. Table IV.10 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Economic Impact of the July 2006 Hostilities on the Environment in Lebanon ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺘﻤﻭﺯ/ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ 6002 ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Amount Impact on the Palm Island (million US Dollars) 1.7- 2.2 (‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ Impact on Fishing (million US Dollars) 3.2-6.5 (‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﺴﻤﺎﻙ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ Rubble and Demolition waste (Mcm) 5.75 (‫ﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﻨﻘﺎﺽ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‬ Medical Waste Generated (tons) 200-250 (‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻟﺩﺓ )ﻁﻥ‬ Water quality and water facilities (million US Dollars) 131.4 (‫ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ Forest Fire impact (million US Dollars) 6.4-10.2 Impact on Protected Areas (thousand US Dollars) 150 (‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ Impact on the National Reforestation Plan (thousand US Dollars) 401 (‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺭﻴﺞ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ Agriculture loss (million US Dollars) 268.02 (‫ﺍﻟﺨﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ )ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ Source: World Bank, Republic of Lebanon, Economic Assessment of Environmental Degradation due to July 2006Hostilities, 2007. 72
  • 92. CHAPTER V. WASTE MANAGEMENT ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ- ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ Statistical Highlights1. Major data gaps exist as to waste generation, collection and treatment in ESCWA countries. Waste statistics are only collected regularly in Kuwait, Palestine and Yemen2. Municipal waste quantity in Kuwait increased from 853 thousand tons in 2000 to 1,001 thousand tons in 20073. Hazardous waste generation was 71 thousand tons in Jordan in 2005, 29.7 thousand tons in Palestine in 2006 and 30.1 thousand tons in Saudi Arabia in 20044. The majority of solid waste is landfilled in ESCWA countries5. In 2005, Iraq had 237 landfills, Jordan 21 landfills, Palestine 164 landfills and Yemen 19 landfills ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ. ﻭﻻ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺜﻐﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴ‬ ‫ﺜ‬  ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ -1 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻨﺘﻅﻡ ﺴﻭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ 2007 ‫ﺔ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻤﻥ 358 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0002 ﺇﻟﻰ 100 1 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ -22006 ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ 17 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 ﻭ7.92 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ -3 2004 ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ1.03 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﺭ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ -4‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002، ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻁﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ 732 ﻤﻭﻗﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭ12 ﻤﻭﻗﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭ461 ﻤﻭﻗﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ -5 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭ91 ﻤﻭﻗﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ 73
  • 93. Overview of Waste Management in the ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ESCWA Region Waste generation and management form ‫ﺔ. ﻭﻻ ﺘﺯﺍل‬ ‫ﻴﻁﺭﺡ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬an environmental issue. In view of the ‫ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﻁﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ‬population growth and the increase in waste .‫ﺘﺸﻬﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻤﻭ ﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬generation, waste management programmes inESCWA countries are still under-developed. The majority of ESCWA countries uses ‫ﻭﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻁﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬landfills or open dumps for waste disposal. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺸﻭﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﹼﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺯﺍل ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻠ‬Recycling, composting and reuse of solid waste ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺴﻤﺩﺓ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﻋﻤﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬are very scarce in the region. However, recycling ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ، ﻤﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬could be a very important solution to control the ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ. ﻭﻻ ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻼ ﺠﺫﺭﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬  ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬amount of waste disposal. Not only wastevolumes in landfills will be minimized, but also ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻁﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﺤﺴﺏ، ﺒل ﺘﺸﻤل‬the economic benefit of reusing solid waste is ‫ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺸﻜل ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺤﺎﻓﺯﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬important in creating an incentive for developing ‫ﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺩ، ﺇﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬such projects, if not on the national level, on the .‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻲ‬personal and communal levels. Data collection on waste is very limited in ‫ﻭﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺍ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬the ESCWA countries, unlike the European ‫ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻼﻑ ﺍﻹﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻨﺸﺊ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬Union where a data center on waste was ‫ﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﹼﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬established and countries are mandated to ‫(. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬V.1 ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ )ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬provide information (box V.1). Not untilrecently, ESCWA member countries began to ‫ﺔ ﻤﺅ ﹼﺭﺍ. ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬collect data for municipal waste. Since not all the ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻴﻐ ﹼﻲ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ، ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭ ﹼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻁ‬population within the country is covered by the ،‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺘﻐ ﹼﻲ ﺴﻭﻯ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ )ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻁ‬waste collection system, available data is limited ‫ﺎ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﹼﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ، ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ...(. ﺃ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻤ‬to large and urban cities and does not cover but ‫ﺎ ﻴﻌﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻨً، ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻼ ﻴﺘﺒﻊ ﻨﻤﻁﺎ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﹰ ﻴﺎ ﻤ‬ ‫ﹰ‬few sectors (municipal, industrial, .‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬construction…) instead of all the wastegenerating sectors. The classification of wastedata in the ESCWA countries is very random,which hinders the comparison and analysisamong all countries. Most of the municipal solid waste is ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬disposed of in open dumps. Municipal waste ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺸﻭﻓﺔ. ﻭﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺒ‬data is available in several countries (table V.1); ‫(، ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬V.1 ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ however data for 2007 is only available for .‫ﻤﺘﻭ ﹼﺭﺓ ﺴﻭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓ‬Kuwait and Yemen. Total solid waste data is available for ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ، ﺘﻐ ﹼﻲ‬ ‫ﻁ‬Kuwait for instance, where it covers the ‫ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺼﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﺴﻤﺎﻙ‬construction, municipal and agriculture, forestry .(V.2 ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺩﺓ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ 0002 ﻭ7002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬and fishing sectors for the years of 2000 till 2007(table V.2). Hazardous waste is monitored in Jordan ‫ﻭﺘﺨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺭﺼﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬and Palestine. In Egypt, about seven hundred ‫ل ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺯﻫﺎﺀ 000 7 ﻁﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺴ‬  ‫ﺠ‬thousand tons of hazardous waste were 74
  • 94. generated in 2007. In Palestine for example, ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002. ﻭﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻤﺜ ﹰ، ﺴﺠﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻼ‬hazardous waste quantity varied greatly ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﺘﺒﺎﻴﻨﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﹰ، ﻓﺎﺭﺘﻔﻌﺕ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬throughout the years, from 11 thousand tons in ‫000 11 ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 ﺇﻟﻰ 000 03 ﻁﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002، ﺜﻡ‬2005, to 30 thousand tons in 2006 and 4.5thousand tons in 2007 (table V.3). .(V.3 ‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﻀﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ 005 4 ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Landfill sites are reported in Egypt, Iraq, ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺼﺩﺕ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻁﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭ‬Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Yemen, .(V.4 ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻥ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬  ‫ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬throughout the years depending on the country ‫ﺩ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤ‬  ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻻ‬(table V.4). However, the types of the waste .‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﹼﺹ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻠ‬disposed of in these landfills are not defined. It is worth mentioning that Lebanese ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻁﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﺘﺸﻤل‬ landfill sites comprise sea dumping sites, which ‫ﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬enclose a significant amount of solid waste and .‫ﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻜل ﻤﻭﺴﻡ ﻟﻬﻁﻭل ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬‫ﺏ ﻜﺎﺭﺜﺔ ﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺒ‬cause an environmental catastrophe with eachraining season. Box V.1 Eurostat and the Data Centre ‫ﺔ‬ ‫- ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒ‬V.1 ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ on Waste* * ‫ﻭﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ Eurostat is the lead organization for three environmental data centers: on natural resources, on ‫ﻭﻴﺸ ﹼل ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨ ﹼﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ products (supporting the integrated product policy) ،‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ: ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ and on waste. .‫ﻭﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ )ﺩﻋﻡ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ( ﻭﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ The main objectives of the Data Centre on Waste are to: :‫ﺔ ﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ • Provide robust data, indicators and other ‫ﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ • relevant information for the assessment of policy effectiveness; ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩﺓ؛‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻓﻌﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ • Manage data, perform quality assurance, and ‫ﺔ ﻭﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ، ﻭﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ • coordinate data and information managed by ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺩﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ )ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬ other bodies (Directorate General for the ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Environment, Eurostat, Joint Research Centre, European Environment Agency, other EU ‫ﻭﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻜﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ institutions and international organizations ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ such as OECD and UN); ‫ﺔ ﻤﺜل ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ • Be the central entry point for data reporting ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ(؛‬ under the Community legislation on waste; ‫ﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ • • Be the reference point for answering specific ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ؛‬ policy questions related to (statistical) information on waste and the associated ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻤﺴﺎﺌل ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ • environmental impacts; ‫ﺔ‬‫ﺔ( ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻵﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ )ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ • Develop and coordinate the necessary ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ؛‬ methodologies to produce statistical data, information and indicators on the ‫ﺔ ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ • environmental impacts of waste generation and ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻵﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ management taking a life cycle perspective, in ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ، ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ‬ cooperation with Go4 partners. .‫ﺔ، ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ________________ * http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/ waste/introduction, accessed on September 2009. 75
  • 95. Municipal waste composition is only ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺭﺼﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ reported in Palestine through the UNSD/UNEP ‫ﺘﻪ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﻋ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ Questionnaire on Environment for 2008. In .2008 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ 2006, organic material waste was 86.4 per cent, ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002 ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ 4.68 ﻓﻲ‬ inorganic material waste 10.9 per cent and paper and paperboard 2.7 per cent (table V.5). As for ‫ﺔ 9.01 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ Qatar, some of the waste indicators were .(V.5 ‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻭﻯ 7.2 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ reported for the year of 2004 (table V.6). ‫ﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻁﺭ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﺠﺭﻯ ﺭﺼﺩ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .(V.6 ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 4002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Changing the public behavior towards ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺭﺍ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ the environment is considered an essential ‫ ﻤﺜﺎﻻ‬V.2 ‫ﺔ. ﻭﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ component in the regional environmental ‫ﻨﺎﺠﺤﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻲ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻤ ﹼل ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ strategies. A good example on the engagement ‫ﺔ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ of civil society is presented in box V.2. ‫ﺓ، ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ Moreover, an important mechanism consists in using economic instruments in order to achieve .(16)‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ the desired changes, including pricing, charges, taxes and financial incentives.16 Box V.2. Communal Solidarity for Waste ‫- ﺘﻀﺎﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻲ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬V.2 ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ Management in South Lebanon* * ‫ﻓﻲ ﺠﻨﻭﺏ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ In 1996, a lady from the village of Arabsalim, South Lebanon, decided to find a solution for the ‫ﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻠﺩﺓ ﻋﺭﺒﺼﺎﻟﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6991، ﻗﺭﺭﺕ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ solid waste problem that invaded her town due to the lack of waste collection. With personal and ‫ﺠﻨﻭﺏ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺤل ﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺠﺘﺎﺤﺕ‬ communal efforts, she was able, along with 11 ladies ‫ﺒﻠﺩﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ. ﻭﺒﻔﻀل ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ from the same town, to teach citizens about waste ‫ﺔ، ﺘﻤ ﹼﻨﺕ ﺒﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ 11 ﺴﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ sorting. These ladies managed in 1997 to get ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﺒﻔﻜﺭﺓ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ. ﻭﺘﻤﻜﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ financial aid from the UNDP to improve their idea and make waste collection and management ‫ﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7991 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻤﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ a sustainable solution for the village. They sorted the ‫ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬ solid waste from the village and sold it to glass, metal ‫ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤل ﺩﺍﺌﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺓ. ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺤل‬ and plastic manufactures for recycling. Due to their ‫ﻴﻘﻀﻲ ﺒﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺓ ﻭﺒﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ impressive efforts, the Italian embassy in Lebanon decided to offer them a storing building for the waste .‫ﻤﺼ ﹼﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻙ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ collection and sorting, and help them create ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﺩﻋﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻴﻁﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ a collection system consisting of a private driver that ‫ﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺯﻥ ﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﺭﺯﻫﺎ، ﻭﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ picks up the waste directly to the storing building for ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺴﺎﺌﻕ ﺨﺼﻭﺼﻲ ﺠﻤﻊ‬ processing. They formed an NGO called “Nida’ El-Ared” (Call of the Earth). Nowadays, this practice ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻨﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺯﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ. ﻭﺃﻁﻠﻘﺕ‬ has spread to other areas lacking a waste collection ."‫ﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﺴﻡ "ﻨﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﻤﻨ ﹼﻤﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺤﻜﻭﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻅ‬ programme, in order to improve the community’s ‫ﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﻔﺘﻘﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻋ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ life. Working on a communal level for better waste ‫ﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ management programmes can improve the lifestyle of the communities, despite the lack of incentives from ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻲ ﻹﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ the government. ‫ﺔ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺭﻏﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ______________ .‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ * ‘101 Stories to tell’, UNDP Lebanon, 2009. 16 M.M. Sakkar, “Potential use of economic instruments in waste management in the Arab countries”, vol. 39, No. 2 (2004),pp. 445-454. 76
  • 96. Table V.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Municipal Waste Generated (Thousand tons) (‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ‬ 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Bahrain 232a/, 1 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ Egypt 14,500b/ 14,500c/2 ... ... ... 15,500b/ ... ... ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ Iraq ... ... ... ... ... 5,446d/, 3 ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ Jordan ... 1,460e/ ... ... ... 1,875f/ 1,839f/ ... ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Kuwait 853g/ 1,036g/ 1,060g/ 976h/ 840h/ 837h/ 987g/ 1,001i/ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ Lebanon ... 1,440 ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Oman ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﻤﺎﻥ‬‫ﻋ‬ Palestine ... … ... 860j/ 984j/ 996j/ 1,039j/ ... ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ Qatar 266a/, 1 ... ... ... 370k/, 4 ... ... ... ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Saudi Arabia ... ... ... ... 10,400l/, 5 ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ Sudan ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic ... 5,480e/ ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ United Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 1,531a/, 6 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ Yemen 1,267j/, 7 822j/, 7 1,310j/, 7 1,105j/, 7 1,167j/, 7 1,273j/, 7 1,382j/, 7 1,447j/, 7 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ Sources: a/ GCC countries and their role in environment protection and preserving natural resources, 2004. b/ Environment Statistical Report 2007, CAPMAS, August 2009. c/ Capmas Egypt Environment Questionnaire 2005. d/ Iraq Central Organization for Statistics and Information Technology (COSIT) Environment Questionnaire 2006. e/ Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), from http://www.metap-solidwaste.org/,accessed on 20 June 2009. f/ Results of the Study Liquid and Solid Wastes - Hazardous Wastes Department of Statistics Jordan. g/ Kuwait Annual Statistical Abstract 2007. h/ Kuwait Ministry of Planning. i/ Kuwait Monthly Bulletin December 2008. j/ UNSD/UNEP questionnaire on environment statistics 2008. k/ Annual Statistical Abstract 25th Issue September 2005 (State of Qatar). l/ The Eighth Development Plan, Ministry of Economy and Planning, 2005-2009. Notes: 1. Municipal waste is only domestic waste. 2. range given in Egypt Environment Questionnaire is: 14-15 million tons. Activity: Purification discharges. 3. Data include waste, demolitions and scrab collected by Municipalities except in governorates of Irbil and Dhook. 4. The period 16/3/2004 to 15/3/2005. From Umm Al-Afai Landfill. 5. Estimate by Source. 6. Municipal waste is only domestic waste. Except Al-Ain Municipality, Umm al-Qaiwain Municipality and FujairaMunicipality. 7. Waste generated from big cities and not rural areas and includes Household, commercial and other activities. 77
  • 97. Table V.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Total Waste Generation (Thousand tons) (‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻟﺩﺓ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ‬ 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Bahrain 3721 … … … … … 2,0362 … ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ Egypt 177,250 a/ 67,250 3 … … … 183,000 a/ … … ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ Iraq … … … … … 5,4464 … … ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ Jordan … 3,3245 2,0676 4147 1,5458 … 2,3109 … ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Kuwait 4,897 10 5,297 10 6,080 10 5,043 10 5,417 10 5,771 10 5,478 10 5,48610 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ Lebanon … 1,600 a/ … … … … … … ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Oman ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ Palestine 5 11 1,366 12 … 1,881 1 3,052 1 1,007 12 20,230 b/ 511 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ Qatar 1,113 c/ … … … 4,370 d/, 13 … … … ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Saudi Arabia 6,475c/ … … … 13,1001 … … … ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ Sudan ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic … 5,4804 … … … … … … ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ United Arab ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 5,31114 … … … … … … … ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ Yemen 1,2674 8224 1,3104 1,1054 1,1674 1,2734 1,3824 1,4474 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ Sources: a/ Environment Statistical Report 2007, CAPMAS, August 2009. b/ UNSD/UNEP questionnaire on environment statistics 2008. c/ GCC countries and their role in environment protection and preserving natural resources, 2004. d/ Annual Statistical Abstract 25th Issue September 2005 (State of Qatar). Notes: 1. Waste generated from Industrial Activities and Municipal Waste only. Calculated by ESCWA. 2. Waste generated from Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing, Manufacturing Industries and Construction only.Calculated by ESCWA. 3. Waste generated from Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing, Mining and Quarrying, Construction, Industrial Activities,Other Activities and Municipal Waste only. Calculated by ESCWA. 4. Waste generated from Municipal Waste only. Calculated by ESCWA. 5. Waste Generated from Mining and Quarrying, Manufacturing Industries, Construction and Municipal waste only.Calculated by ESCWA. 6. Waste generated from Mining and Quarrying, Manufacturing Industries and Construction only. Calculated byESCWA. 7. Waste generated from Construction, Industrial Activities and other Activities only. Calculated by ESCWA. 8. Waste generated from Construction and Other Activities only. Calculated by ESCWA. 9. Waste generated from Manufacturing Industries, Industrial Activities and Municipal waste only. Calculated byESCWA. 10. Waste generated from Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing, Construction and Municipal waste only. Calculated byESCWA. 11. Waste generated from Other Activities only. Calculated by ESCWA. 12. Waste generated from Other Activities and Municipal waste only. Calculated by ESCWA. 13. Covers the period from 16/3/2004 to 15/3/2005. From Umm Al-Afai Landfill. 14. Waste generated from Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing, Construction, Industrial Activities, Other Activities andMunicipal Waste only. 78
  • 98. Table V.3 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Hazardous Waste ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ‬ Hazardous Waste Generated (tons) Hazardous Waste Managed (tons) (‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺎ )ﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ (‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﺭﻑ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺎ )ﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ 2005 2006 2007 2005 2006 2007Bahrain 38,202a/ 38,740a/ 35,008a/ ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt ... ... 692,000b/ ... ... ... ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 71,404a/ … ... 48,624a/ ... ... ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 10,997a/ 29,687a/ 4,548a/ 10,997a/ 29,687a/ 4,548a/ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 30,100c/, * ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ Sources: a/ UNSD/UNEP questionnaire on environment statistics 2008. b/ Egypt State of the Environment Report 2008, June 2009. c/ The Eighth Development Plan, Ministry of Economy and Planning, 2005-2009. Note: * Estimated by Source. Data refer to the year of 2004. 79
  • 99. Table V.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Landfills ‫ﻁﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ Annual Annual Annual Annual inputs to inputs to inputs to inputs to Number Landfill Number Landfill Number Landfill Number Landfill of sites of sites of sites of sites Landfill (Thousand Landfill (Thousand Landfill (Thousand Landfill (Thousand sites tons) sites tons) sites tons) sites tons) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻁﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻁﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻁﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻁﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ (‫)ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ (‫)ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ (‫)ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ (‫)ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ‬ 2001 2001 2003 2003 2005 2005 2006 2006 Bahrain ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ Egypt ... ... ... ... ... ... 55a/ 88,770a/, 1 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ Iraq ... ... ... ... 237b/, 2 ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ Jordan 26c/ 1,643c/ 22c/ 1,686c/ 21c 1,788c/ ... ... ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Kuwait ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ Lebanon 2d/ 600d/ ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Oman ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ Palestine 137c/ 1,350c/ 194c/ ... 164c/ ... ... ... ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ Qatar ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ Saudi ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Arabia ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ Sudan ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ Syrian ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ United ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ Yemen 14e/ 822e/ 19f/ 1,105e/ 19f/ 1,273f/ 19f/ 1,382f/ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ Sources: a/ Egypt Correspondence with ESCWA, 2008. b/ Iraq Central Organization for Statistics and Information Technology (COSIT) Environment Questionnaire 2006. c/ UNSD/UNEP questionnaire on environment statistics 2008. d/ Lebanon Central Administration of Statistics Environment Questionnaire 2006. e/ Yemen CSO Environment Questionnaire 2005. f/ UNSD Millennium Development Goals, database, 2008. Notes: 1. ESCWA calculation. 2. Data include landfill sites compliant and non-compliant to environmental standards in all governorates except Irbiland Dhook. 80
  • 100. Table V.5 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators for Palestine ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ 2003 2004 2005 2006Waste Generation by Mining andquarrying (ISIC 05-09) ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺠﺭ‬(Thousand tons) 402a/ 743a/ ... 6,575a/ (ISIC 05-09)Waste Generation by Construction(ISIC 41-43) (Thousand tons) 61a/ 101a/ ... 648a/ (ISIC 41-43) ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬Waste Generation by Industrialactivities (Thousand tons) 504b/ 1,026b/ ... ... ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬Waste Generation by Other activities ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬(ISIC 36-39, 45-99) (Thousand tons) 54a/ 198a/ 11a/ 262a/ (ISIC 36-39, 45-99)Total waste generation(Thousand tons) 1,390a/ 2,027a/ ... 20,230a/ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻟﺩﺓ‬Composition of Municipal Waste:Textiles (per cent) 0a/ 0b/ 0a/ ... ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ: ﺃﻨﺴﺠﺔ‬Composition of Municipal Waste:Plastics (per cent) 0.4b/ 0b/ 0.4a/ ... ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ: ﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻙ‬Composition of Municipal Waste:Glass (per cent) 0a/ 0b/ 0a/ ... ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ: ﺯﺠﺎﺝ‬Composition of Municipal Waste:Paper, paperboard ( per cent) 0.1a/ 2.6b/ 1.8a/ 2.7a/ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ: ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ، ﻭﺭﻕ ﻤﻘﻭﻯ‬Composition of Municipal Waste:Metals (per cent) 0a/ 0b/ 0a/ ... ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ: ﻤﻌﺩﻥ‬Composition of Municipal Waste:Organic material (per cent) 88a/ 84.1b/ 81.3a/ 86.4a/ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ: ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬Composition of Municipal Waste:Organic material of which food and ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ: ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬garden waste (per cent) 85.5a/ 82.6a/ 81.3a/ ... ‫ﺃﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺍﺌﻕ‬Composition of Municipal Waste:Other inorganic material (per cent) 11.5a/ 13.3b/ 16.5a/ 10.9a/ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ: ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬ Sources: a/ UNSD/UNEP questionnaire on Environment Statistics 2008. b/ PCBS reply to questionnaire - July 2005. 81
  • 101. Table V.6 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators for Qatar ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻘﻁﺭ‬ 2004Waste Generation by Construction (ISIC 41-43) (Thousand tons) 3,544a/, 1 (ISIC 41-43) ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬Waste Generation by Other activities (ISIC 36-39, 45-99) ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬(Thousand tons) 5a/, 1 (ISIC 36-39, 45-99)Total waste generation (Thousand tons) 4,370a/, 1 ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻟﺩﺓ‬Composition of Municipal Waste: Plastics (per cent) 0.5 ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ: ﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻙ‬Composition of Municipal Waste: Paper, paperboard (per cent) 0.1 ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ: ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ، ﻭﺭﻕ ﻤﻘﻭﻯ‬Municipal waste generated (Thousand tons) 370a/, 1 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ‬ Source: a/ Annual Statistical Abstract 25th Issue September 2005 (State of Qatar). Note: 1. The period 16/3/2004 to 15/3/2005. From Umm Al-Afai Landfill. 82
  • 102. CHAPTER VI. ENERGY CONSUMPTION ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ- ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ Statistical Highlights1. Oil consumption in 2007 amounted to 250,519 thousand tons of oil equivalent (TOE) with an average of 1,063 TOE per capita and ranged between 111 kg of oil equivalent in the Sudan and 5,332 kg of oil equivalent in Qatar2. Natural gas consumption in 2007 was estimated at 209,725 thousand TOE with an average of 8.9 TOE per capita and ranged between 150 kg of oil equivalent in Iraq and 79 TOE in Saudi Arabia3. Electricity consumption per capita was 99 kWh in the Sudan, 17,057 kWh in the United Arab Emirates with an average of 2,058 kWh in the ESCWA region in 20074. Energy consumption per capita in 2007 varied between 120 kg of oil equivalent in the Sudan and 27,339 kg of oil equivalent in Qatar, with an average of 1,952 kg of oil equivalent in the ESCWA region5. In 2007, the average energy intensity in ESCWA was 243 kg of oil equivalent per $1,000 PPP with a decrease of 4 per cent from 2005 ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ل 360 1 ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ 915 052 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﺒﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ -1 ‫111 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭ233 5 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺭ‬‫ل 9.8 ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻰ 527 902 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﺒﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ -2 ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ 051 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭ97 ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬17 057 ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ 99 ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻭﺍﻁ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ -3 2007 ‫ل 850 2 ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻭﺍﻁ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻭﺍﻁ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﺒﻴﻥ 021 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭ933 72 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ‬ -4 ‫ل 259 1 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺭ، ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ل ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﺇﻟﻰ 342 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻟﻜل 000 1 ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ -5 2005 ‫ل ﺘﺭﺍﺠﻌﺎ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 4 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎﺜل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃ ﹼﻪ ﺴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺠ‬ 82
  • 103. Overview of the Energy Sector in the ESCWA ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬Region Energy production and consumption are very ‫ﺎﻥ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻬﺎ ﻫﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺼﺭﺍﻥ ﻤﻬ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤ‬important in the ESCWA countries known to have ‫ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ. ﻏﻴﺭ‬ample oil and natural gas resources. On the other ‫ﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎ ﻴﺅ‬ ‫ﹰ ﺩ‬hand, the use of oil and natural gas around the globe .‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺨﻁﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﺅ ﹼﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺜ‬is increasing, leading to severe problems affectingthe climate change. The ESCWA region is known to have the ‫ﻭﺘﻀﻡ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ‬  (17)largest share of proven oil and natural gas reserves ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅ ﹼﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ )05 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ( . ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻜ‬of the world (50 per cent)17. However, the ‫ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻫﻭ‬sustainable production and consumption of oil and ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺇﻁﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ. ﻭﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬natural gas are required to ensure a longer lifespanof existing resources. Table VI.1 presents the oil ‫ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ‬VI.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬and natural gas reserves in the different ESCWA ،‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 7002، ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻥ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻜل ﺒﻠﺩ‬countries in 2007, each country’s production, as ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ. ﻭﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬well as the estimate of the reserve life-time. The ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ 4 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭ47 ﺴﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺭﺍﻕ، ﻓﺭﻀﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬lifespan of oil reserves ranged between 4 years in .2007 ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺕ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ Bahrain, and 74 years in Iraq taking into accountthat the yearly production quantity remains thesame as in 2007. As for natural gas, the lifespan of the ‫ﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ، ﻓﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻋﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤ‬reserves varied between 8 years in Bahrain, 428 and ‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ 8 ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭ824 ﻭ765 ﺴﻨﺔ ﻟﻘﻁﺭ‬567 years in Qatar and Iraq respectively (table ‫(. ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬VI.1 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ VI.1). However, the Iraqi production was halted by ،2003 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻗﻲ ﺘﻭ ﹼﻑ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻗ‬the war on Iraq in 2003 and has not reached its1989 levels (box VI.1). .(VI.1 ‫ﻻﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 9891 )ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻘﻲ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ In 2007, oil consumption in the ESCWA ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002، ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬countries varied between 1,793 thousand TOE in 289‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﻴﻥ 397 1 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭ‬Bahrain and 102,289 thousand TOE in Saudi ‫ﺎ‬ ‫201 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ. ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤ‬Arabia. As for the ESCWA region, oil consumptionwas estimated at 250,519 thousand TOE in 2007 519 ‫ﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﻗ‬ ‫ﺩ‬compared to 236,449 thousand TOE in 2006. 236 449 ‫052 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬ .2006 ‫ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ The highest per capita oil consumption in the ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺴﺠﻠﺕ ﻗﻁﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ESCWA region was reported in Qatar, the United ‫ﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬Arab Emirates and Kuwait at 5,332, 4,832 and ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ 233 5 ﻭ238 4 ﻭ996 4 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ‬4,699 kg of oil equivalent in 2007. On the other ‫ﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ 7002. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ، ﺴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬hand, the lowest per capita oil consumption was inthe Sudan, Yemen and Egypt at 111, 314 and 429 111 ‫ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﺃﺩﻨﻰ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺒﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ‬kg of oil equivalent respectively. As for the ‫ﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ413 ﻭ924 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ. ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ESCWA region, the average consumption per ‫ل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ 360 1 ﻜﻐﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬capita was 1,063 kg of oil equivalent in 2007 ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﻤﻘﺎﺒل 620 1 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ‬ 17 UNESCWA, Statistical Abstract of the ESCWA Region 2009. 83
  • 104. compared to 1,026 kg of oil equivalent in 2006 .(VI.2 ‫ﻋﺎﻡ 6002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬(table VI.2). Natural gas consumption in the ESCWA ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬region in 2007, ranged between 2,398 and 67,000 ‫ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 7002 ﺒﻴﻥ 893 2 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬thousand TOE in Jordan and Saudi Arabia ‫ﻭ000 76 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬respectively, while the total consumption in the ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ESCWA region was 209,725 thousand TOE. .‫527 902 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ‬ The highest per capita natural gas ‫ﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬consumption in 2007 was 79,702 kg of oil 79 702 ‫ل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 ﺒﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬equivalent in Saudi Arabia while the lowest 150 ‫ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺴﺠل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﻭﻫﻭ‬consumption was 150 kg of oil equivalent in Iraq. ‫ل ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ. ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬The ESCWA region average increased from 9,169kg of oil equivalent in 2006 to 9,367 kg of oil ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻥ 961 9 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002 ﺇﻟﻰ‬equivalent in 2007 (table VI.3). .(VI.3 ‫763 9 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ * Box VI.1. Iraq and Energy Reserves* ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬VI.1 ‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬ Iraqi natural gas production has risen since 2003, ‫ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ and returned to levels reached during the mid-1990’s. However, its 2006 dry natural gas production is still far ‫3002، ﻟﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺃﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ. ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬  below its peak level reached in 1989. ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002 ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﻯ‬ .1989 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺴﺠﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ The Ministry of Oil reported that approximately 60 per cent of associated natural gas production is flared due ‫ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻨﺕ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺃﻥ ﺯﻫﺎﺀ 06 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ‬  to a lack of sufficient infrastructure to utilize it for ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻴﺸﺘﻌل ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ consumption and export. Significant volumes of gas are also re-injected to enhance oil recovery efforts. In ‫ﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯﻩ ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ. ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ addition, flaring of natural gas has meant lost Liquefied ‫ﺎﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﻟﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ petroleum gas (LPG) output of an estimated 4,000 tons ‫ﺏ ﺍﺸﺘﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ. ﻭﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ، ﻴﺴ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ per day, while at the same time LPG shortages require ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺨﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﻗﺩﺭﻫﺎ 000 4 ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ imports of 1,200 tons per day. ‫ل‬ ‫ل، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻁﹼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ .‫ﺍﺴﺘﻴﺭﺍﺩ 002 1 ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬ To reduce flaring, the state-owned South Gas Company signed an agreement with Shell in September 2008 to implement a 25-year project to capture flared gas ‫ﻭﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺸﺘﻌﺎل، ﻭ ﹼﻌﺕ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ and provide it for domestic use, with any surplus sent to ‫ﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺸل ﻓﻲ ﺃﻴﻠﻭل/ﺴﺒﺘﻤﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ an LNG project for export. ‫8002 ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ 52 ﺴﻨﺔ ﻻﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ___________________ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻌل ﻭﺇﺘﺎﺤﺘﻪ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ، ﻤﻊ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺃﻱ‬ * www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/Iraq/NaturalGas.html, accessed .‫ﻓﺎﺌﺽ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ‬ on September 2009. Electricity consumption increased in the ‫ﻭﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻥ‬ESCWA region from 437,431 Gwh in 2006 to 484 695 ‫134 734 ﺠﻴﻐﺎﻭﺍﻁ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002 ﺇﻟﻰ‬484,695 Gwh in 2007. The highest consumption ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﻐﺎﻭﺍﻁ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002. ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬was found in Saudi Arabia at 169,373 Gwh whilethe lowest consumption was in Palestine at 3,836 ‫ل ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﻫﻭ 373 961 ﺠﻴﻐﺎﻭﺍﻁ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬Gwh in 2007. The per capita electricity 3 836 ‫ل ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺴﺠﻠﺕ ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬consumption somehow increased between 2006 and ‫ﺠﻴﻐﺎﻭﺍﻁ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002. ﻭﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ‬2007 in the ESCWA region from 1,967 kWh to ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻥ 769 1 ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻭﺍﻁ‬2,058 kWh with the lowest consumption being ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002 ﺇﻟﻰ 850 2 ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻭﺍﻁ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬reported in the Sudan at 99 kWh per capita in 2007(table VI.4). 99 ‫ل ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ‫ل ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﺩﻨﻰ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫7002، ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ .(VI.4 ‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻭﺍﻁ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ 84
  • 105. Energy consumption includes all the ‫ﻭﻴﺸﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ abovementioned indicators with the addition of ،‫ﺫﻜﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ some environment-friendly energy sources, namely ‫ﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻟﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ hydro power and wind power that exist yet scarcely .‫ﺘﺯﺍل ﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ in the ESCWA region. Energy consumption in the ESCWA region ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ is following an increasing trend, such is the ‫ﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﺍ ﺘﺼﺎﻋﺩﻴﺎ. ﻓﻘﺩ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ world. Total energy consumption in the ESCWA ‫ﻤﻥ 5.534 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 ﺇﻟﻰ‬ region increased from 435.5 million TOE in 2005 to ‫1.554 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ 455.1 million TOE in 2007. As well, the average per capita consumption in the ESCWA region ‫ل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻥ 98.1 ﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ increased from 1.89 TOE in 2005 to 1.95 TOE in ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 ﺇﻟﻰ 59.1 ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ‬ 2007. The lowest energy consumption was ،‫ل ﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ل ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﺩﻨﻰ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ 7002. ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ observed at 120 kg of oil equivalent in the Sudan in .(VI.5 ‫ﻭﻫﻭ 021 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 7002 )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ 2007 (table VI.5). Primary energy consumption in the countries ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ of the GCC was estimated in million TOE at 290 290 ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺒﻠﻎ‬ for the year of 2006 and 311.7 in 2007. Similarly, ‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002 ﻭ7.113 ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ commercial energy used per $1,000 of GDP18 was relatively high in those countries, reaching 400 kg 1 000 ‫ﺔ ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ‬ ‫7002. ﻜﻤﺎ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ of oil equivalent per $1,000 PPP in 2005 in ‫ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ)81( ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ Bahrain. In 2006, the region’s overall average ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ، ﻟﻴﺒﻠﻎ 004 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻟﻜل 000 1 ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‬ energy efficiency amounted to 243 kg of oil ‫ﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 5002 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ. ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﻤﺎﺜل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ equivalent per $1,000 PPP, with a decrease of 4 per ‫ل ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ 6002، ﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ cent since 2005. The rise in energy efficiency was mainly observed in Kuwait and Lebanon (table ‫342 ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ ﻟﻜل 000 1 ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﻤﺎﺜل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ‬ VI.6). ‫ﺔ، ﻤﺴﺠﻼ ﺘﺭﺍﺠﻌﺎ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 4 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺌ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ،‫ل ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002. ﻭﺴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ .(VI.6 ‫ﺨﺼﻭﺼﹰ، ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺎ‬ 18 Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1,000 GDP (PPP) is commercial energy use measured in units of oil equivalent per$1,000 of GDP converted from national currencies using purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factors. 85
  • 106. Table VI.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Oil and Natural Gas Proven Reserve, Production and Lifespan, 2007 2007 ،‫ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻜﺩ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ Oil Natural Gas ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ Reserve Reserve Reserve/ (Billion Production Reserve/ (million Production Production cubic (Billion cubic Production barrels) (000 b/d) (years) metre) metre) (years) ‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ )ﺃﻟﻑ‬ /‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫)ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ )ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ‬ /‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬ (‫)ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺒﺭﻤﻴل‬ (‫ﺒﺭﻤﻴل/ﻴﻭﻡ‬ (‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ )ﺴﻨﺔ‬ (‫ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬ (‫ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‬ (‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ )ﺴﻨﺔ‬Bahrain 125a/ 83a/ 4 90b/ 11.50b/ 8 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 4,100b/ 1,162a/ 10 2,060b/ 46.50b/ 44 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 115,000b/ 4,234 74 3,170b/ 1.46f/ 567 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Kuwait 101,500b/ 5,090c/ 55 1,780b/ 12.60b/ 141 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Oman 5,600b/ 1,364d/ 11 690b/ 24.10b/ 29 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Qatar 27,400b/ 2,004c/ 37 25,600b/ 59.80b/ 428 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Saudi Arabia 264,200b/ 19,067c/ 38 7,170b/ 75.90b/ 94 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 6,600b/ 931 19 84a/ … … ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic 2,500b/ 759d/ 9 290b/ 5.30b/ 55 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 97,800b/ 5,419c/ 49 6,090b/ 49.20b/ 124 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 2,800b/ 656d/ 12 490b/ … … ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 627,625 40,769 47,514 286.36 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ Energy Information Administration, 2007. b/ BP Statistical Review 2008. c/ BP Statistical Review 2008 and OPEC Monthly Oil Market Report August 2008. d/ BP Statistical Review 2008 and Annual statistical bulletin 2007 OPEC. e/ Energy Information Administration, 2007 and Oil and Gas Journal. f/ Annual statistical bulletin 2007 OPEC. For life span, 5year average production was used (5.6). g/ OAPEC Annual Statistical Report 2008. Note: Reserve life is calculated by dividing the reserve over production. 86
  • 107. Table VI.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Total Oil Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region ‫ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Oil Consumption (000 TOE) Oil Consumption Per Capita (kg of oil equivalent) (‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ‬ (‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ )ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ‬ 2006 2007 2006 2007Bahrain 1,643 1,793 2,224 2,382 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 30,378 32,370 410 429 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 28,386 29,058 996 1,002 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 4,953 5,279 865 891 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 13,297 13,396 4,785 4,699 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 4,880 4,681 1,203 1,142 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 3,441 3,785 1,351 1,458 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Qatar 3,735 4,482 4,548 5,332 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 91,682 102,289 3,792 4,135 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 4,681 4,268 124 111 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 12,998 13,396 670 672 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 20,020 21,165 4,712 4,832 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 6,743 7,022 310 314 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 236,449 250,519 1,026 1,063 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: ESCWA calculation. 87
  • 108. Table VI.3 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Total Natural Gas Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region ‫ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Natural Gas Consumption (000 TOE) Natural Gas Consumption Per Capita (kg of oil equivalent) (‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ‬ (‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ )ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ‬ 2006 2007 2006f/ 2007f/Bahrain 12,060 12,264b/ 16,321 16,294 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 32,900a/ 34,500a/ 444 457 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 4,344 4,344b/ 152 150 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 2,106c/ 2,398b/ 368 405 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 11,300a/ 10,900a/ 4,067 3,823 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Oman 9,880d/ 10,088d/ 3,880 3,887 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Qatar 17,600a/ 17,700a/ 21,429 21,056 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 66,200a/ 67,000a/ 80,603 79,702 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudand/ - - ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 3,881e/ 6,132b/ 103 159 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 39,000a/ 44,400a/ 2,010 2,228 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ESCWA 199,270 209,725 9,169 9,367 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ BP Statistical Review 2009. b/ OAPEC Annual Statistical Report 2008. c/ Ministry of Energy and Mineral resources. Energy 2006 facts and figures, Jordan. d/ Energy Information Administration, 2007. e/ Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstract 2005, Syria. f/ ESCWA calculation. 88
  • 109. Table VI.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Total Electricity Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region ‫ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Electricity Consumption (Gwh) Electricity Consumption Per Capita (kWh) (‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ )ﺝ.ﻭ.ﺱ‬ (‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ )ﻙ.ﻭ.ﺱ‬ 2006 2007 2006f/ 2007f/Bahrain 9,102a/ 10,689a/ 12,558 14,202 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 92,828a/ 98,812a/ 1,252 1,309 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 15,743a/ 15,895a/ 552 548 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 9,593b/ 10,840a/ 1,674 1,830 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 41,602a/ 42,585a/ 14,972 14,936 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 8,125a/ 10,590c/ 2,004 2,583 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 10,469d/ 11,189a/ 4,112 4,312 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Palestine 938a/ 3,590a/ 241 894 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬Qatar 11,340 12,145 13,807 14,447 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 163,151a/ 169,373a/ 6,749 6,848 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 3,458e/ 3,836a/ 92 99 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 25,051a/ 26,204a/ 1,291 1,315 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 58,821a/ 74,717a/ 13,845 17,057 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 3,210 4,094a/ 148 183 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 453,431 484,695 1,967 2,058 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Sources: a/ Arab Union of Producers, Transporters and Distributor of Electricity, Statistical Bulletin 2007, Issue 16. b/ Jordan Statistical Abstract 2006. c/ CAS Statistical Yearbook 2007. d/ Oman Statistical Yearbook 2007. e/ Sudan Statistical Yearbook 2006. f/ ESCWA calculation. 89
  • 110. Table VI.5 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Total Energy Consumption and Per Capita Consumption in the ESCWA Region ‫ﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Energy Consumption (000 TOE) Energy Consumption Per Capita (kg of oil equivalent) (‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ‬ (‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ )ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ‬ 2006 2007 2006 2007Bahrain 13,703 14,007 18,545 18,610 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 67,285 70,946 907 940 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq 34 227 34 811 1,201 1,201 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 7,072 5,549 1,234 937 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 24,897 24,696 8,960 8,662 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 5,054 4,828 1,246 1,178 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 13,321 13,873 5,231 5,346 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Qatar 25,977 27,339 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬Saudi Arabia 21,335 22,982 6,535 6,897 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 157,982 170,589 133 120 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian Arab Republic 5,017 4,626 1,018 1,023 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United Arab Emirates 19,753 20,395 13,892 14,968 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 59,020 65,565 310 314 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA 435,517 455,115 1,889 1,952 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: ESCWA calculation. 90
  • 111. Table VI.6 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Energy Use (Kg oil equivalent) Per $1,000 GDP (Constant 2005 PPP)1 1 (‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ )ﻜﻐﻡ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻨﻔﻁ( ﻟﻜل ﺃﻟﻑ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ )ﻤﻤﺎﺜل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬ % of Change ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬  2005 2006 2005-2006 Bahrain 400 … - ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ Egypt 184 176 -4.3 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ Jordan 298 287 -3.7 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Kuwait 255 215 -15.7 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ Lebanon 145 124 -14.5 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Oman 274 281 2.6 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ Qatar 285 … … ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ Saudi Arabia 286 289 1 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ Sudan 280 257 -8.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ Syrian Arab Republic 243 238 -2.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ United Arab Emirates 228 214 -6.1 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ Yemen 150 149 -0.7 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ ESCWA Total 252 223 -26.42 ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: MDG Database 2009 Notes: 1. Energy Use is the 28th indicator, of target 7A of Goal 7 of the Millennium Development on EnsuringEnvironmental Sustainability. 2.The percentage of change excludes Bahrain, Iraq, Palestine and Qatar. 91
  • 112. CHAPTER VII. AIR POLLUTION ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ- ﺘﻠﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ Statistical Highlights1. Carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 1,030 million tons in 2005 in the ESCWA region with an increase of 14 per cent since 20002. ESCWA average per capita CO2 emissions reached 4.5 tons in 2004, compared to a worldwide average of 4 tons per capita3. The consumption of Ozone depleting substances (ODS) in the ESCWA region decreased by 58 per cent from 2002 to 2006 ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺢ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﻠﺔ ﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ 030 1 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 ﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ -1 2000 ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ 41 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺎﻡ‬‫ل‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 5.4 ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 4002، ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ -2 ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ 4 ﻁﻥ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 85 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺩﺓ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ‬ -3 2006‫2002 ﻭ‬ 92
  • 113. Overview of Air Pollution in the ESCWA Region ‫ﺙ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻠ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ The ESCWA region is endowed with energy ،2007 ‫ﺘﻤﻠﻙ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﺤﺴﺏ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ resources, representing approximately 50 per cent ‫05 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻭ72 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ of the world’s oil resources and 27 per cent of ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ. ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ‬  natural gas resources in 2007. In some areas, ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻻ ﻴﺯﺍﻟﻭﻥ ﻴﻔﺘﻘﺭﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ however, the population still has no access to electricity, and relies on non-commercial fuels to .(19)‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﺩ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ meet energy needs.19 Energy consumption is driven mainly by ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ accelerated economic growth and extreme climatic ‫ﺔ )ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻗﺴﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ conditions (high temperatures and aridity), which ‫ﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻴﺘﻁﹼﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎ ﻤﻜﺜﻔﺎ ﻟﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻔﺎﻑ(، ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ requires intensive use of air conditioning and ‫ﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻭﻋﻤﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ energy-rich processes for desalination. As a result, ‫ﻤﺎ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ. ﻭﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ، ﺘﺴﺠل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ، ﻭﻻ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ and mainly in the Gulf region, the highest per capita commercial energy consumption in the world is ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ، ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻟﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ observed accompanied by a rise in greenhouse gas ‫، ﻓﻲ ﻅل ﻤﺎ ﻴﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ (GHG) emissions. .‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ Climate Change: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ: ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻭﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions ‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ According to the IPCC Fourth Assessment ‫ﻭﻓﻕ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ Report, “Climate Change 2007”, the effect of ‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻟﻌﺎﻡ 7002، ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ climate change in Asia will have tremendous effects ‫ﻓﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ ﺁﺜﺎﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻤﻁ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ on the lifestyle of its inhabitants over the 21st ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ. ﻓﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻏﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ ﺒﻤﻨﺎﺨﻬﺎ‬ century. West Asia, known for its arid and semi- arid climate, will experience expansion in the ‫ﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ ﻭﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ، ﺃﻥ ﺘﺸﻬﺩ ﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹰ‬ deserts’ area and severe water stress settings. The ‫ﺔ ﻭﺸﺤﺎ ﺤﺎﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ. ﻭﺴﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻔﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺭﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ aridity of the region will increase over the next 100 ‫ﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻴﺅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻋﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﻠﺔ، ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺩ‬ years, driving the bareness of the ground surface to ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺤﻠﺔ ﻭﺘﺒ ﹼﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺴﺘﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ increase and causing the soil moisture to evaporate. ‫ل ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻏﺭﺒﻲ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ ﺒﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ On the other hand, temperatures in West Asia, will 2 ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0202)02(، ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫60.1 ﻭ55.1 ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺌﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ increase of about 1.06 to 1.55 degrees Celsius in ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0502 ﻭﺒﻴﻥ 7.2 ﻭ3.6 ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ7.3 ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺌﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ 2020,20 between 2 and 3.7 degrees Celsius in 2050 (21) and between 2.7 and 6.3 degrees Celsius in 2080.21 ‫ل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 0802 . ﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﺘﺴ‬ ‫ﻤﺌﻭ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ Moreover, an increase in heavy rainfall days and ‫ﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﻬﻁﻭل ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﺃ‬‫ﻴ‬ annual precipitation as well as a decrease in .‫ل ﻫﻁﻭل ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﺎﻗﺼﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ summer precipitation will be recorded. 19 ESCWA, Statistical abstract of the ESCWA region, Issue 26 (2007), which is available at:www.escwa.org.lb/divisions/scu/statabs26/index.asp. 20 The numbers presented are based on projections. The lowest values are estimated to be the lowest future emissionstrajectory while the highest values are based on the highest future emission trajectory. 21 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007 – Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability,Contribution of the Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report, United Kingdom, 2007. 93
  • 114. The climate change conditions will affect ‫ﺔ )ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻹﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻴﺅ ﹼﺭ ﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ natural ecosystems (i.e. natural ecosystems and ‫ﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ(، ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻹﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ biodiversity), water resources (shortage in ‫ﺩﺓ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ )ﻋﺠﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ renewable water resources and increase in water ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ(، ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ )ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ demand), agricultural production and food security ‫ﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ )ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ(، ﻭﺼ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ (due to an increase in the temperature), human health (diseases’ expansion) and human dimensions ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﺍﺽ(، ﻭﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ )ﻤﺜل ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ (i.e. population growth, migration and urban .(22)(‫ﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺠﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ development).22 Greenhouse gases’ emissions play a ‫ﻱ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺅ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ very important role in climate change. CO2 ‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ. ﻭﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻥ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ ﹰ‬ emissions and Ozone depleting substances (ODS) ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻤل‬ such as Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻭﻤﺭﻜﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻠﺠﻥ‬ Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), are known to ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬  deteriorate the ozone layer with a direct effect on climate change. Since the Montreal Protocol, the ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ. ﻭﻤﻨﺫ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻤﻭﻨﺘﺭﻴﺎل، ﺘﺤ ﹼﻕ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺤﺩ‬  ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ phase out of CFCs has been almost completed ‫ﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻻﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬ while the use of HCFCs is being reduced.23 On the ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﺭﻜﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬  other hand, CO2 emissions account for more than ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻠﺠﻥ)32(. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ، ﺘﺸ ﹼل ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ half of the GHG emissions. The highest emissions ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺒﺎﺱ‬ are observed in developed countries, and have led ،‫ﻤﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ. ﻭﺘﺸﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ to an increase of 30 per cent of CO2 emissions ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺴﻬﻤﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ‬ worldwide in 2005 compared to the 1990 average.24 ‫ل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 5002 ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 03 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .(24)1990 On the ESCWA region level, CO2 emissions ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ، ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ have been increasing in comparison with the 1990 ‫ﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ 0991. ﻭﻴﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ data. As shown in table VII.1 and figure VII.1, the ‫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬VII.1 ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬VII.1  14 ESCWA countries have witnessed an increase in ‫ﺸﻬﺩﺕ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ‬ the CO2 emissions from 1990 till 2006. CO2 emissions vary greatly between ESCWA members ‫0991 ﻭ6002. ﻟﻜﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ due to the differences as to the area, population and ‫ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﻜل ﺒﻠﺩ ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﺴﻜﺎﻨﻪ ﻭﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻩ. ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ (25) economy of each country. Therefore, three ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ، ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺘﻀﻡ‬  categories can be distinguished25, The first one ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ includes countries with CO2 emissions varying ‫ﺼﻔﺭ ﻭ000 05 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ‬ between zero and 50,000 thousand tons per year; ‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ 000 05 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻭ000 001 ﺃﻟﻑ‬ the second one comprises countries with CO2 emissions ranging between 50,000 thousand and ‫ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺨ ﹼﻰ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ 100,000 thousand tons per year; and the third ‫ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬VII.2 ‫ﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫000 001 ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ. ﻭﻴﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ category covers countries with CO2 emissions ‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ exceeding 100,000 thousand tons per year. Figure .‫ﺔ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ VII.2 shows the CO2 emissions in the ESCWA region compared to the CO2 emissions in the world 22 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007 – Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability,Contribution of the Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report, United Kingdom, 2007. 23 The United Nations, The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008, New York, 2008. 24 The United Nations, The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008, New York, 2008. 25 This category division is only created by ESCWA to simplify the figures due to the large range in values. It can not in anyway be considered as a classification from the IPCC or the UNFCCC. 94
  • 115. throughout the years. Emissions of carbon dioxide, which ‫ﻭﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 0002، ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬ represents the main greenhouse gas, have increased ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻫﻭ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ in the ESCWA region since 2000 by 23.5 per cent ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 5.32 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻟﺘﺒﻠﻎ 511 1 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬ to reach 1,115 million tons in 2006, as shown by the latest available data. The national average of 74 ‫ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002، ﻭﻓﻕ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ million tons per year increases to 151 million tons ‫ل ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ 47 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭ ﹼﺭﺓ. ﻭﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ when weighted by surface area given that the two ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ 151 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺎﺱ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬ largest countries in ESCWA, namely, Egypt and ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﺒﻠﺩﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬  ‫ﹰ‬ Saudi Arabia, emitted 167 and 382 million tons ‫ﺔ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ 761 ﻭ283 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ respectively in 2006. At the subregional level, CO2 ‫ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002. ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ emissions in the GCC have increased by 25 per cent since 2000 to reach 717 million tons per year. ‫ل ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ، ﻓﺎﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫52 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ 0002 ﻟﻴﺒﻠﻎ 717 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ It is also worth mentioning that the Nitrous ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﺒ‬  Oxide (N2O) is playing an important role in ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻻﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ. ﻭﻗﺒل ﺍﻹﻨﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻲ‬ depleting the ozone layer. Before the phase-out of ‫ﻻﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ، ﻜﺎﻥ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬ CFCs, N2O used to bond with CFC to produce ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻁ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻟﻴﺸ ﹼﻼ ﻨﻴﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ClONO2, which has a neutral effect on the ozone ‫ﻻ ﻴﺅ ﹼﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ. ﻭﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﺜﺭ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ layer. Although Nitrous Oxide has an impact on climate change and the depletion of the ozone layer, ‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ، ﻭﺤﺩﻩ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ only Kyoto Protocol regulates and monitors its ‫ﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﻴﻨﻅﻤﻬﺎ، ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺒﻌﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﺩ ﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻭﺘﻭ ﻴﺤ‬  ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ consumption quantities, knowing that the annual ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻷﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺒﻠﻎ 5.01 ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ ﻤﺘﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ‬ emission of N2O reached 10.5 million metric tons .(26)‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ during the 1990’s.26 26 Nitrous Oxide (N2O): The Dominant Ozone-Depleting Substance Emitted in the 21st Century. A.R. Ravinshankara, J. S.Daniel and R. W. Portmann. Science Magazine, Volume 326, 27 August 2009. 95
  • 116. Figure VII. 1 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ CO2 Emissions  in the ESCWA  Region  (0‐50,000  thousand  tons  per year) ‫اﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎت ﺛﺎﻧﻲ أآﺴﻴﺪ اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻹﺳﻜﻮا‬ 50,000 Qatar, 46,193 40,000000 tons/yr  ‫أﻟﻒ ﻃﻦ/ ﺳﻨﺔ‬ Oman, 41,378 30,000 Bahrain, 21,292 20,000 Yemen, 21,201 Jordan, 20,724 Lebanon, 15,330 10,000 Sudan, 10,813 0 Palestine, 2,985 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 CO2 Emissions  in the ESCWA  Region (50,000‐100,000  thousand  tons per year) ‫اﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎت ﺛﺎﻧﻲ أآﺴﻴﺪ اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻹﺳﻜﻮا‬ 100,000 Kuwait, 86,599 000 tons/yr ‫أﻟﻒ ﻃﻦ/ ﺳﻨﺔ‬ 80,000 Iraq, 92,572 60,000 Syria, 68,460 40,000 20,000 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 CO2 Emissions in the ESCWA Region (>100,000 thousand tons per year) ‫اﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎت ﺛﺎﻧﻲ أآﺴﻴﺪ اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻹﺳﻜﻮا‬ 420,000 Saudi  Arabia, 381,564 000 tons/yr  ‫أﻟﻒ ﻃﻦ/ ﺳﻨﺔ‬ 320,000 220,000 Egypt, 166,800 120,000 United Arab  Emirates, 139,553 20,000 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 96
  • 117. Per capita CO2 emissions in the ESCWA ‫ﻭﺒﻠﻎ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ region reached 4.7 tons per year in 2006, ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ 7.4 ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ 6002، ﺃﻱ‬ representing an increase of about 11 per cent since ،2002 ‫ل ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 11 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹼﻪ ﺴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺠ‬ 2002, compared to the world average of 4.3 tons27 (table VII.2; figure VII.3). The average of CO2 VII.2 ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ 3.4 ﻁﻥ)72( )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ emissions per capita in the GCC was 17 tons per ‫ﻁ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫(. ﻭﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﺘﻭ‬VII.3 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺴ‬ capita when weighted by surface area and 20 tons 17 ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ‬ per capita when weighted by total population of the ‫ﻁﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﺤﺘﺴﺎﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﻭ02 ﻁﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﺤﺘﺴﺎﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﹼﹰ‬ ‫ﹼﹰ‬ GCC. Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺴ ﹼﺎﻥ. ﻭﺘﺤل ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ّ ‫ﻜ‬ Emirates are among the top ten countries worldwide ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺼ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ with CO2 emissions exceeding 15 tons per capita. ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻔﻭﻕ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ These rates could decline as efforts are being made to upgrade energy production and consumption ‫ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ 51 ﻁﻨﺎ. ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺒﻔﻀل‬ ‫ﹰﹰ‬ efficiencies in the region and more oil companies ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺫﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻬﺎ‬ are adopting zero emission flaming technologies ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻭﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ and using natural gas in power and desalination ‫ﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺸﻌﺎل ﻻ ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ plants. .‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ Such cities as Sana’a, Damascus, Baghdad ،‫ﻭﻴﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ and Manama, among other major cities in the ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺼﻨﻌﺎﺀ ﻭﺩﻤﺸﻕ ﻭﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻤﺔ، ﻤﻥ ﺒﻠﻭﻍ ﺘﻠ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ESCWA region, suffer from air pollution levels that ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻬ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠ‬ ‫ﻴﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ sometimes exceed WHO guidelines.28 While few ‫ﺃﺼﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ)82(. ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ESCWA member countries monitor air pollution levels systematically, available data and reports ،‫ﺙ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﺎﻨﺘﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﺭﺼﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﻠ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ indicate that the main causes include industrial ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬  processes, inappropriate disposal of solid and ‫ﺔ ﻭﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ hazardous waste, vehicle emissions and the burning ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻁﺭﺓ ﺒﻁﺭﻕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ، ﻭﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ‬ of oil in electric power production. .‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﺨﻼل ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ The air quality in the different main cities of ،‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻯ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia differs ‫ﻤﺎ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ between countries. However, the one common ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ. ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ‬  factor between these countries is the high ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻷﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬ concentrations of Nitrogen Oxide, carbon dioxide VII.3 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻭﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺕ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ emissions, sulfur dioxide and so on (tables VII.3, VII.4, VII.5, VII.6), when compared to WHO air ‫ﺔ‬ ‫(، ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬ‬VII.6‫ ﻭ‬VII.5‫ ﻭ‬VII.4‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ quality guidelines (annex 2). ‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﻨﻭﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ .(2 ‫)ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻓﻕ‬ Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬ Since the Montreal Protocol, concerted ‫ﻯ ﺘﻀﺎﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﺫ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻤﻭﻨﺘﺭﻴﺎل، ﺃ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ efforts led to reductions in the consumption of .‫ﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ Ozone depleting substances (ODS) throughout the ‫ﻓﺎﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ‬ 27 World Development Indicator, World Bank, 2008. 28 Y. Meslmani, “Some trends related to air pollution in Damascus”, Management of Environmental Quality, vol. 15, No. 4(2004), pp. 353-363; and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), “State of environment in the Arab region: A progressreport” (UNEP/Regional Office for West Asia, 2003). 97
  • 118. world. From 2003 till 2007, the consumption of VII.7 ‫3002 ﻭ7002 ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 12 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ODS decreased in the ESCWA region by 21 per ‫ﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫(. ﺃ‬VII.5‫ ﻭ‬VII.4 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬cent (table VII.7; figures VII.4 and VII.5). In the ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ، ﻓﺎﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 9 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻥ‬GCC subregion, consumption declined by 9 percent, namely, from 2,932 to 2,666 metric tons. .‫239 2 ﺇﻟﻰ 666 2 ﻁﻥ ﻤﺘﺭﻱ‬ Moreover, CFC consumption in the ESCWA ‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬region decreased by 55 per cent between 2004 and 2004 ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ 55 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ‬2008 while the HCFC consumption was reduced by ‫ﻭ8002 ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺏ‬only 11 per cent for the same period (tables VII-8and VII-9). ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻠﺠﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ 11 ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ‬ .(VII.9‫ ﻭ‬VII.8 ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻻﻥ‬ Disaggregated data on selected indicators, ‫ﻠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺘﺘﻭ ﹼﺭ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻔ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻓ‬including halons, CFCs and ozone, is only provided ‫ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻟﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬by Lebanon, Qatar and Yemen (tables VII.10, VII.11‫ ﻭ‬VII.10 ‫ﺴﻭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺭ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ )ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬VII.11 and VII.12). .(VII.12‫ﻭ‬ Challenges in the region require tremendous ‫ﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺠﻬﻭﺩﺍ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻁﹼﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬efforts to decrease CO2 emissions and phase out ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻭﻭﻀﻊ ﺤﺩ ﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ‬  CFCs and HCFCs. However, a very important ‫ﻭﻤﺭﻜﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﻨﺒﻌﺎﺙ‬worldwide challenge will be raised in the ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻠﺠﻥ. ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺅﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻗ‬Copenhagen meeting, where the future plan for the ‫ﻜﻭﺒﻨﻬﺎﻏﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻭﺍﺠﻬﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ، ﻟﺩﻯ‬fight against climate change will be sketched. .‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺨ ﹼﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ 98
  • 119. Table VII.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) (Thousand tons per year)a/ a/ (‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ )ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ 2000/06 % change 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬  Bahrain 19,756 16,823 17,578 18,055 19,683 21,292 7.8 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ Egypt 141,317 140,092 140,004 153,399 173,481 166,800 18.0 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ Iraq 74,532 92,484 77,832 83,178 88,631 92,572 24.2 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ Jordan 15,506 16,885 17,490 19,235 21,333 20,724 33.7 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Kuwait 71,100 63,976 73,256 81,330 89,870 86,599 21.8 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ Lebanon 15,352 16,038 18,729 16,889 17,494 15,330 -0.1 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Oman 22,055 30,426 31,548 31,064 31,467 41,378 87.6 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ Palestine 799 1,170 1,283 2,211 2,754 2,985 273.6 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ Qatar 34,727 28,959 28,288 36,989 46,710 46,193 33.0 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Saudi Arabia 297,722 323,429 323,668 346,016 367,033 381,564 28.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ Sudan 5,533 8,118 8,998 10,373 11,000 10,813 95.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic 63,338 66,795 65,212 66,198 66,598 68,460 8.1 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ United Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 126,742 95,847 127,409 132,070 135,692 139,553 10.1 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ Yemen 14,626 16,284 17,138 19,140 20,174 21,201 45.0 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ b/ ESCWA b/ 903,105 917,326 948,433 1,016,147 1,091,920 1,115,464 23.5 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﻭل ﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ b/ GCCsb/ 572,102 559,460 601,747 645,524 690,455 716,579 25.3 ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ‬ Sources: a/ MDG Database, taken from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), accessed on November2009. b/ ESCWA Calculation. Note: Emission of Carbon Dioxide is the 28th indicator, of target 7A of Goal 7 of the Millennium Development on EnsuringEnvironmental Sustainability. 99
  • 120. Table VII.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Emissions of Carbon Dioxide Per Capita (Ton/capita) (‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ 2000/06 % change 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬  Bahrain 30.4 24.7 25.3 25.4 27.2 28.8 -5.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ Egypt 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.4 2.2 5.9 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ Iraq 3.0 3.5 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.2 9.2 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ Jordan 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.6 11.9 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Kuwait 31.9 26.2 28.9 31.1 33.3 31.2 -2.3 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ Lebanon 4.1 4.1 4.8 4.3 4.4 3.8 -7.1 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Oman 9.2 12.4 12.8 12.5 12.6 16.3 77.0 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ Palestine 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 202.4 ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‬ Qatar 56.3 42.2 38.9 48.4 58.7 56.2 -0.1 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ Saudi Arabia 14.3 14.8 14.4 15.0 15.5 15.8 10.3 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ Sudan 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 72.9 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ Syrian Arab Republic 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5 -8.0 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ United Arab Emirates 39.0 26.6 33.7 33.5 33.1 32.8 -15.8 ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ Yemen 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 21.3 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ ESCWA average 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.7 6.8 ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ GCCs average 20.1 ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺩﻭل ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ‬ Source: ESCWA calculations, Population based on the United Nations: World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revisionand the CO2 Emissions are based on the CO2 emissions figures from the MDG database. Note: Emission of Carbon Dioxide Per Capita is the 28th indicator, of target 7A of Goal 7 of the Millennium Developmenton Ensuring Environmental Sustainability. Table VII.3 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Egypt ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ‬ 1999 2005 2006 Name of Site Alexandria ‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ Annual Mean Concentration of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in Ambient Air in ‫( ﻓﻲ‬CO) ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻷﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ Urban City (ug/m3) 4,000 2,000 2,000 ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ Annual Mean Concentrations of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in Ambient Air in Urban ‫( ﻓﻲ‬SO2)‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺕ‬ City (ug/m3) 7,000 12,000 17,000 ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ Annual Mean Concentrations of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in Ambient Air ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬ in Urban City (ug/m3) 58,000 53,000 54,000 ‫( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬NO2) Name of Site Greater Cairo ‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ Annual Mean Concentration of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in Ambient Air in ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻷﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ Urban City (ug/m3) 8,000 5,000 4,000 (SO2) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ Annual Mean Concentrations of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in Ambient Air in Urban ‫( ﻓﻲ‬SO2)‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺕ‬ City (ug/m3) 65,000 46,000 44,000 ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ Annual Mean Concentrations of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in Ambient Air ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬ in Urban City (ug/m3) 58,000 51,000 56,000 ‫( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬NO2) Source: Egypt Annual Guide for Environmental Data and Indicators 2008. 100
  • 121. Table VII.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Jordan ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ 2003 2004 2005 2006Emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)(Million tons per year) 18.6a/ 19.43a/ 20.11a/ 20.77a/ ‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬Emissions of Non-Methane OrganicCompounds (NM-VOCs) (Thousand tons ‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻁﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬per year) 46.2b/ 48.5b/ 50.9a/ 53.3a/ (NM-VOCs) ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺜﺎﻥ‬Emissions of Methane (CH4) (Thousandtons per year) 2.3b/ 2.4b/ 2.5a/ 2.7a/ (CH4) ‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺜﺎﻥ‬Emissions of Nitrous Oxide (N2O)(Thousand tons per year) 0.3b/ 0.4b/ 0.3a/ 0.3a/ (N2O) ‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬Emissions of Carbon Dioxide per capita 28 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ: ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭ‬(tons/capita) 3.2 3.11c/ ... ... ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻴﺔ‬Emissions of Carbon Monoxide (CO) (tonsper year) 457,700a/ 483,300a/ 509,500a/ 537,400a/ ‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)(Thousand tons per year) 113.7b/ 118b/ 122.2a/ 127a/ (NOx) ‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻜﺎﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬Annual Mean Concentrations of Suspended ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﻸﻏﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻘﺔ‬Particulate Matter (< 10 µm) (SPM10) in ‫)ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ 01 ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ( ﻓﻲ‬Ambient Air in Urban City (ug/m3) 283b/, * ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ Sources: a/ Jordan Annual Environmental Statistics for 2006. b/ Department of Statistics (DOS) Jordan Reply to ESCWA Questionnaire on Environment 2006. c/ World Development Indicator, World Bank, 2008. Note: * Urban City is Amman, Station name is Marka. Table VII.5 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Kuwait ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ 2005 2006Name of Site Al-Mansouria ‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) (ppb) 2.374 0.077 ‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻜﺎﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬Annual Mean Concentrations of Sulfur ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬Dioxide (SO2) in Ambient Air in Urban City ‫( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬SO2)‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺕ‬(ppb) 2.481 0.02 ‫ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬Annual Mean Concentrations of NitrogenDioxide (NO2) in Ambient Air in Urban City ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬(ppb) 2.28 0.066 ‫( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬NO2)Emissions of Methane (CH4) (ppm) 9.899 1.831 (CH4) ‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺜﺎﻥ‬Emissions of Non-Methane Organic ‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻁﺎﻴﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ‬Compounds (NM-VOCs) (ppb) 8.888 0.658 (NM-VOCs) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺜﺎﻥ‬ Source: Annual Statistical Abstract 2007, Edition 44, State of Kuwait, 2008. 101
  • 122. Table VII.6 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Saudi Arabia ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ 1997 2003 Name of Site Riyadh ‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ Annual Mean Concentration of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in ‫( ﻓﻲ‬CO) ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻷﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ Ambient Air in Urban City (PPM) 0.75 0.64 ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ Annual Mean Concentrations of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in ‫( ﻓﻲ‬SO2)‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺕ‬ Ambient Air in Urban City (PPM) 0.012 0.011 ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ Annual Mean Concentrations of Suspended Particulate Matter (< 10 µm) (SPM10) in Ambient Air in Urban City ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﻸﻏﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻘﺔ )ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ‬ (ug/m3) 85 157 ‫01 ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ Name of Site Jeddah ‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ Annual Mean Concentration of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in ‫( ﻓﻲ‬CO) ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻷﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ Ambient Air in Urban City (PPM) 0.62 0.51 ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ Annual Mean Concentrations of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in ‫( ﻓﻲ‬SO2)‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺕ‬ Ambient Air in Urban City (PPM) 0.08 0.021 ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ Annual Mean Concentrations of Suspended Particulate Matter (< 10 µm) (SPM10) in Ambient Air in Urban City ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﻸﻏﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻘﺔ )ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ‬ (ug/m3) 100 129 ‫01 ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ Source: The Eighth Development Plan, Ministry of Economy and Planning, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2005-2009. Table VII.7 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Ozone-Depleting Substances Consumption in ODP metric tons1, 2 (‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬ 1, 2 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Bahrain 125.8 85.3 85.7 61.1 43.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬ Egypt 1,662.7 1,644.2 1,348.6 1,091.6 860.8 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ Iraq … … … 1,580.6 1,836.3 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ Jordan 228.6 196.9 201.2 150.3 119.5 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ Kuwait 450.6 485.8 373.9 393.1 427.9 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬ Lebanon 685.0 432.0 354.6 290.0 112.4 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ Oman 152.2 118.7 74.1 58.0 29.6 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬ Qatar 115.9 76.4 52.0 46.4 36.5 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Saudi Arabia 1,476.0 1,604.4 1,145.4 1,612.6 1,615.8 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ Sudan 218.9 205.5 187.1 121.8 71.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic 1,654.1 1,302.2 1,100.3 710.8 372.3 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ United Arab ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 612.0 645.3 659.8 541.1 512.8 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ Yemen 873.6 856.8 818.3 535.3 427.5 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ ESCWA 8,130 7,568 6,315 7,132 6,423 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ESCWA average 688.0 637.8 533.4 553.3 497.4 ‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Source: MDG Database 2009, accessed 6 November 2009. Notes: 1. Ozone-Depleting CFCs Consumption is the 28th indicator, of target 9 of Goal 7 of the Millennium Development onEnsuring Environmental Sustainability. 2. Country Data. 102
  • 123. Table VII.8 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ CFC Consumption (ODP metric tons) in the ESCWA region (‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬ Share of Share of World ESCWA Total total(%) (%) ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ % ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ change ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2007 2007 2007/2008Bahrain 65 59 32 15 12 0.4 0.1 -20 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 1,048 821 594 242 188 6.9 1.6 -22 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq … … 1,414 1,686 1,597 48.4 11.0 -5 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 58 60 22 24 6 0.7 - -75 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 233 153 107 68 33 2.0 0.4 -51 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 347 287 224 75 34 2.1 0.5 -55 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 99 54 26 10 9 0.3 0.1 -16 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Qatar 64 37 31 13 … 0.4 0.1 … ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬Saudi Arabia 1,150 879 850 658 … 18.9 4.3 … ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan 203 185 120 61 45 1.8 0.4 -27 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬Syrian Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic 928 870 541 282 166 8.1 1.8 -41 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬United Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 291 265 132 79 … 2.3 0.5 … ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 746 711 395 269 248 7.7 1.8 -8 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ *ESCWA* 5,232 4,379 4,489 3,481 2,336 100 22.7 -33 ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ *World* 65,795 44,174 37,156 15,346 … - 100 … ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬Share of ESCWA out of ‫ﺤﺼﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ World 8 10 12 23 … ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ Source: Ozone Secretariat website, the Data Access Center, accessed on 09 November 2009. Note: * ESCWA calculation. 103
  • 124. Table VII.9 ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ HCFC Consumption (ODP metric tons) in the ESCWA region (‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻠﺠﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬ Share of Share of ESCWA World Total total (%) ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ % ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ change ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2007 2007 2007/2008Bahrain 20 27 29 29 39 1.13 0.1 35.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭﻴﻥ‬Egypt 155 174 256 433 352 17.0 1.2 -18.7 ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬Iraq … … 96 109 107 4.3 0.3 -2.6 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬Jordan 18 28 47 56 59 2.2 - 5.9 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬Kuwait 253 221 286 360 376 14.1 1.0 4.3 ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬Lebanon 19 19 21 20 24 0.8 0.1 23.2 ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬Oman 20 20 32 20 25 0.8 0.1 26.7 ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬Qatar 13 15 15 24 … 0.9 0.1 … ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬Saudi ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Arabia 213 239 736 897 … 35.2 2.4 … ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬Sudan … … … 9 45 0.3 0.0 426.7 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ‬Syrian ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Republic 45 60 49 45 97 1.8 0.1 113.7 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬United ‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ Arab ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Emirates 327 370 397 426 … 16.7 1.1 … ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬Yemen 63 70 103 122 153 4.8 0.3 24.9 ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ESCWA* 1,145 1,242 2,065 2,549 1,276 100 6.8 -49.9 * ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬World* 30,692 30,758 31,898 37,217 42,204 - 100 13.4 * ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﺔ‬Share of ESCWA ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ out of ‫ﻤﻥ‬ World 3.7 4.0 6.5 6.8 3.0 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ Source: Ozone Secretariat website, the Data Access Center, accessed on 09 November 2009. Notes: * ESCWA Calculation. 104
  • 125. Table VII.10 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Lebanon ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬ 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008Consumption ofozone-depleting CFC- ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ‬11 (ODP tons) ‫ﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ -11 ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬(tons per year) ... ... ... ... ... 1.9a/ 1.17a/ 0.83a/ ‫ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Consumption ofozone-depleting CFC- ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ‬12 (ODP tons) ‫ﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ -21 ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬(tons per year) ... ... ... ... ... 216.8a/ 71.5a/ 32.34a/ ‫ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Consumption ofozone-depletingHalon-1211 (ODPtons) 1211- ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻟﻭﻥ‬(tons per year) ... ... ... ... ... - - - ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Consumption ofozone-depletingHalon-1301(ODPtons) 1301- ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻟﻭﻥ‬(tons per year) ... ... ... ... ... - - - ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Consumption ofozone-depleting ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ‬HCFC-22 (ODP tons) ‫ﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ -22 ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬(tons per year) ... ... ... ... ... 17.44a/ 18.76a/ 23.7a/ ‫ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Consumption ofMethyl Bromide(ODP tons)(tons per year) 212.4b/ 205.02b/ 154.29b/ 77.16b/ 43.2b/ 42.12a/ 19.5a/ - ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺜﻴل ﺒﺭﻭﻤﺎﻴﺩ‬Emissions of CarbonDioxide (CO2) ‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬(million tons per year) 16.54c/ 16.39c/ ... ... ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ‬Emissions of Carbon ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ: ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬Dioxide per capita ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭ 82 ﻤﻥ‬(tons/capita) 4.8c/ 4.7c/ 5.4 4.1d/ ... ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻴﺔ‬ Sources: a/ Progress of Implementation of CPs, National Ozone Unit, Lebanon. b/ Statistical Yearbook, 2007, Lebanon. c/ UNSD Millennium Development Goals. d/ World Development Indicator, World Bank, 2008. 105
  • 126. Table VII.11 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Qatar ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺭ‬ 2004 2005 2006 ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ ﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬Consumption of Ozone-Depleting CFC- ‫-11 ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬11 (ODP tons) (Tons per year) 18.9a/ 6.09a/ 4.35a/ (‫)ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ ﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬Consumption of Ozone-Depleting CFC- ‫-21 ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬12 (ODP tons) (Tons per year) 44.84a/ 30.91a/ 27.08a/ (‫)ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬Consumption of Ozone-Depleting ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻟﻭﻥ -1121 ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ‬Halon-1211 (ODP tons) (tons per year) 0a/ 0a/ 0a/ (‫ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬Consumption of Ozone-Depleting ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻟﻭﻥ -1031 ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ‬Halon-1301(ODP tons) (tons per year) 0a/ 0a/ 0a/ (‫ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ )ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ ﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬Consumption of Ozone-Depleting ‫-22 ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬HCFC-22 (ODP tons) (tons per year) 230.63a/ 272.22a/ 325.85a/ (‫)ﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬Emissions of Carbon Dioxide per capita ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ: ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭ82 ﻤﻥ‬(tons/capita) 69b/ ... ... (‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻴﺔ )ﻁﻥ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺩ‬ Sources: a/ Qatar Annual Abstract 2007. b/ World Development Indicator, World Bank, 2008. Table VII.12 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ Selected Indicators for Air Quality in Yemen ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ‬ 2004 2005 2006 2007Consumption of ozone-depleting CFC-11 11- ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ ﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬(ODP tons) (tons per year) 57.9a/ 58a/ 51.8a/ 50.9a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Consumption of ozone-depleting CFC-12 12- ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ ﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬(ODP tons) (tons per year) 672.8a/ 643.3a/ 330.4a/ 215.2a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Consumption of ozone-depleting Halon-1211 (ODP tons) (tons per year) 0.2a/ 0.1a/ 0.06a/ 0.09a/ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻟﻭﻥ -1121 ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Consumption of ozone-depleting Halon-1301(ODP tons) (tons per year) 0.4a/ 0a/ 0.1a/ 0.04a/ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻟﻭﻥ -1031 ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺏ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Consumption of ozone-depleting HCFC-22 22- ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ ﻭﻓﻠﻭﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬(ODP tons) (tons per year) 1,140a/ 1,264a/ 1,853a/ 2,211.8a/ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬Emissions of Carbon Dioxide per capita :‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬(tons/capita) 1.03b/ ... ... ... ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭ82 ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻴﺔ‬ Sources: a/ Yemen Statistical Yearbook 2007. b/ World Development Indicator, World Bank, 2008. 106
  • 127. Figure VII.2 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ Total ESCWA CO2 Emissions and Percentage of World Emissions ‫اﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ اﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎت ﺛﺎﻧﻲ أآﺴﻴﺪ اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻹﺳﻜﻮا واﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ اﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ESCWA Total % of World 1,200,000 4.0 1,100,000 1,000,000 3.5 000  tons/yr ‫أﻟﻒ ﻃﻦ/ ﺳﻨﺔ‬ 900,000 800,000 3.0 700,000 600,000 2.5 500,000 400,000 2.0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 ‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬Year  Note: Left axis represents the ESCWA CO2 Emissions and the right axis represents ESCWA’s percentage of CO2emissions out of the world. Figure VII.3 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ Emission of Carbon Dioxide per Capita in the ESCWA Region ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ‬ Emission of Carbon Dioxide per Capita in ESCWA region ‫ﻧﺼﻴﺐ اﻟﻔﺮد ﻣﻦ اﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎت ﺛﺎﻧﻲ أآﺴﻴﺪ اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻻﺳﻜﻮا‬ 2006 2003 2000 Qatar 56.2 UAE 32.8 Kuwait 31.2 Bahrain 28.8 Saudi Arabia 15.8 Oman 16.3 Average ESCWA 4.7 Country Lebanon 3.8 ‫اﻟﺒﻠﺪ‬ Syria 3.5 Jordan 3.6 Iraq 3.2 Egypt 2.2 Yemen 1.0 Sudan 0.3 Palestine 0.8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 000 tons/year ‫أﻟﻒ ﻃﻦ/ ﺳﻨﺔ‬ 107
  • 128. Figure VII.4 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ODS Consumption in ODP Metric Tons in the ESCWA Region (‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺩﺓ ﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻭﺍ )ﻁﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬ ODS consumption in ODP metric tons in ESCWA region (‫اﺳﺘﻬﻼك اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪة ﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ اﻷوزون )ﻃﻦ ﻗﺪرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﺳﺘﻨﻔﺎذ اﻻوزون‬ 2007 2004 2001 Saudi Arabia Egypt UAE ESCWA average Yemen Country ‫اﻟﺒﻠﺪ‬ Kuwait Syria Jordan Lebanon Sudan Bahrain Qatar Oman 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 ODP Metric tons ‫ﻃﻦ ﻗﺪرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﺳﺘﻨﻔﺎذ اﻻوزون‬ Figure VII.5 ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ Total ODS Consumption ‫اﺳﺘﻬﻼك اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﻔﺪة ﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ اﻷوزون‬ 25000 1200000 ESCWA Total Total World 1000000 20000 ‫ﻃﻦ ﻗﺪرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﺳﺘﻨﻔﺎذ اﻻوزون‬ 800000 ODP metric tons 15000 600000 10000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Year  ‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ Note: The left axis represents the ESCWA ODS Consumption and the right axis represents the total world ODSconsumption. 108