Wetland restoration, enhancement and creation


Published on

How to restore wetlands and protect the habitat of different species

Published in: Environment, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Wetland restoration, enhancement and creation

  1. 1. Wetland Restoration, Enhancement and Creation
  2. 2. Restoration  Focuses on Restoring habitat  Generally states a return to some previous state  According to Society for ecological restoration International (SERI)  “The recovery of ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed”  According to Carins 1988 “Full or partial placement of structural or functional characteristics that has been extinguished or diminished and the substitution of alternative qualities… with the proviso that they have more social, economic or ecological value than existed in the disturbed or displaced state”
  3. 3. Terminology Wetland repair terminology Restoratio n Enhanceme nt Creation Rehabilita tion reclamatio n Mitigation Increasing one or more of the functions performed by an existing wetland beyond currently or previously existed Converting a non- wetland to a wetland Conversion of wetland to another type of land such as agriculture or forestry Any development or conversion activity directly impacting wetlands must be balanced with the restoration, enha ncement or creation of wetland Treatment of the damage or the degradation which results in a gain in wetland function Return of a degraded wetland to a pre- existing condition or as close to that condition as possible
  4. 4. Design Principles • 9 design principles • For the restoration of wetlands incorporate ecological, economic and social considerations to ensure self- sustaining and resilient systems. 1. Self organizing and sustaining systems  Key to long term success independent of human management  Flexible, self-organizing units that adapt continually to their changing environments  Make them more resilient to threats  Focus on restoring natural functional process through the bioengineering of hydrological patterns, nutrient cycles, native flora and faunal communities and dynamic erosion and deposition processes could ensure such ecological integrity 2. Systems approach  Is one that adopts a holistic view, considering an ecosystem in its entirety rather than as separate individual component parts.  Synthesize the most appropriate elements and technologies from a wide diversity of fields.  Implementation contribute o a unique understanding of a system’s functional and structural aspects. 3. Restoring structure and function  Alterations to the structural and morphological characteristics of wetlands due to their conversion to other land uses may affect ecological functions.  Restoration techniques focus on re-engineering morphological site characteristics which help re- establishing wetland functional processes.  Implementation of simple, ecologically sound structural engineering approaches. 4. Employing renewable resources  To minimize or avoid long-term human maintenance cost a wetland must be designed to have as many renewable resources as possible.  This would support ecological integrity and make the restores system more resilient to disturbance and adaptable to changes 5. Reflecting local geography  A wetland rehabilitation project must be integrated in the context of the broader landscape and watershed within which it is located either through biotic or a- biotic exchanges  Restoration projects are necessarily localized. 6. Adaptive management  Ensures that adjustment could be made to overall restoration during any stage of its implementation according new information  Do not always follow the same path and many unanticipated events could necessitate changes  Monitoring is essential. 7. Balancing ecosystem and human needs  A fine balance between human needs and its environment.  Allowing regeneration of the ecosystem and the preservation of its ecological processes.  Increased demand for resource may place pressure on existing ecosystems and thus restoration project may incorporate indigenous resource-use strategies.  For success its hould be open to community ans stake holders, 8. Planning for disturbance  Restored system must be resilient enough to withstand and recover from natural and human induced stresses.  They should be able to endure natural catastrophic events. 9. Monitoring, evaluation and stewardship  Monitoring at each step is necessary during and after the project,  Evaluation criteria and performance expectations for restored ecosystem are generally spelled out during the initiation of a project.  Reference ecosystems are used for evaluation
  5. 5. Restoration and enhancement considerations • Selecting a site • Geographic analysis • Understanding degradation • Selecting a reference ecosystem • Planned enhancement • Stakeholder ecosystem • Implementation steps • Monitoring and evaluating 1. Selecting a site Ecological importance of site itself Expected environmental and social benefits from restoration both local and those beyond the immediate region Economic costs to be expended Availability of financial resources Long term economic benefits through increased tourism or habitat protection Specific local benefits to communities and stakeholders Anticipated technical difficulties in executing a project and possible solutions 2. Geographic analysis Studying a site’s geographic present and past include its topography, surface and ground water hydrology, soils, species composition, and other landscape features through field surveys Maps Inventories past histories. 3. Understanding degradation Inventorying conditions that had led to degradation- necessary part of initial planning process, including Older aerial photographs Topographic maps Planning documents Interviews with informants Site history 4. Selecting a reference ecosystem A reference ecosystem or multiple ecosystems should be identified and used as models through the restoration process and later for the evaluation and comparison purposes 5. Planned enhancements Plans are about How wetlands function How processes are enhanced or restored Focus areas may address Wetland hydrodynamics Soil conditions Vegetation and faunal habitat Outline actions to be implemeted 6. Stakeholder input Input and support from stakeholders directly or indirectly affected by a restoration and enhancement project. Awareness and publicizing the planned restoration project Provide incentives 7. Implementation steps Step by step plan must be device Future operation and maintenance plans must be outlined Explanation of strategies 8. Monitoring and evaluation Monitoring and evaluation plans both during and beyond the completion of the project Periodic assessment to evaluate the heath and condition of a restored ecosystem
  6. 6. Approaches to wetland restoration and enhancement • Active approach  Involve physical engineering efforts which may include alterations to topography, soil and hydrology of the site  Use of large earth equipments • Passive approach  Restoration enhancement through the removal of factors that reduce a wetland’s resilience and viability  Allows a wetland to regenerate naturally by removing any problematic factor and reducing the source of degradation
  7. 7. Approaches to wetland restoration and enhancement • Active approach • Landscape contouring • Topographic excavation • Breaching levees • Dam and weir removal • Rerouting roads and embankments • Increasing culvert size • Reconnecting natural creeks and inlets • Restoring the hydro-period • Plugging drainage ditches • Removing spillways • Bioengineering • Species introduction • Connecting wetland patches through corridor connections • Passive approach • Restricting human or livestock • Natural floral and faunal re- colonization • Eliminating water controls • Allowing natural flood events
  8. 8. Treatment wetlands • Two types 1. Artificial treatment wetlands 2. Water mining treatment Artificial treatment wetlands Constructed, artificial or treatment wetlands, which act as waste water treatment wetlands They act as natural filters which traps the SS, PM, litter and debris. Vegetation and microbes aid in uptake of N and P. By chemical processes remove toxic metals i.e lead, copper and mercury, thus water is filtered and decontaminated. Construction requires careful engineering, consideration of soil, hydrology, topography and surrounding land-use Contaminated mine water treatment Used to clean-up the consequences of past mining. Highly polluted water and contain many heavy metals and their by-products. Pollution and health impacts caused he ceasing of mining in tri-state mining state in southern Missouri. Suddenly the water started to discharge naturally in 1979 through open mine shafts, springs and artesian wells. In the start it was acidic but soon became alkaline. Concept of treatment wetland across. The completed system include: Passive treatment Monitoring and evaluation •10 distinct process units •Single initial oxidation pond( cell 1) •Parallel surface flow aerobic wetlands (cell 2N and 2S) •Vertical flow bio- reactors(cell 3N and 3S) •Re-aeration ponds(cell 4N and 4S) •Horizontal flow limestone beds (cell •5N and 5S) •Singling polishing pond-wetland(cell 6)