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a lecture about Linux OS

a lecture about Linux OS



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    Linux Linux Presentation Transcript

    • Linux
    • Key Notes  Introduction to Open Source.  What is Linux.  Linux Distros.  Which is Suitable for Me.  Linux Installation Process.  How to Use Linux.  Installing Useful Software.  Linux Shells (Advanced).
    • Open Source  Is a development methodology.  Means that people can share their programs source code with every one for free.  This type of software is available under terms of licenses such as GPL, LGPL, AGPL, ISC, MIT.  Each license puts some rules for the method of using their code.  Most famous one is the GPL license used with Linux.
    • Open Source & Linux  Unix was the Major used OS in most universities.  Unix started asking students to pay money for the usage and development of the system.  A professor developed Minix in order to replace Unix, which was used by Linus Torvalds.  Linus started to develop the Linux Kernel.  In the same time Ritchard Stallman started to develop GNU and constructed Free Software Foundation.
    • What is Linux?  Linux is a free open source operating system kernel built by a student to replace UNIX.  Linux is the system kernel where GNU is the tools that system use to operate.  It was developed in early 1990s but still developed until now.  Is the first choice for enterprise world and geeks.  Linux can run on many platforms(i386, x86/64, PPC, Amiga, SPARC, PS3, Super computers).
    • GNU/Linux Architecture  Linux has a monolithic kernel.  GNU/Linux uses the structure of layered model. Process File Networking Kernel Peripherals control System Unix Shells Unix Tools X Server (X window system)
    • Linux Window Managers.  Window managers is a graphical software used to ease the use of the system.  Linux has many window managers (KDE, Gnome, xpde, xfce, fluxbox, twm, NextStep,....).
    • Screen shots for WMs 
    • Linux Distros.  As Linux is open source so any one can develop his own version.  Linux distros varies in DWM, Applications provided with each.  Market imposed on us some distros as standard (Redhat, Debian, Slackware).  Most of current distros are based on Debian(Ubuntu) or Redhat (Fedora).
    • Fedora Desktop
    • Ubuntu Desktop
    • Which is Suitable for Me?  Redhat is good for enterprise work.  Debian is good for professional end-users.  Fedora is good for personal use and developing  Opensuse is good for training usage  Mandriva is very good for non technical user.  Slackware is intended for Advanced professional users.  Ubuntu is suitable for ALL !!!
    • Why Ubuntu?  Ubuntu is a free Linux distros  Ubuntu is based on Debian which is reliable and stable.  Ubuntu is the distribution with the biggest software repositories.  Ubuntu has a good hardware support for most available companies.  Ubuntu have a lot of variants (Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Edubuntu, Goubuntu, MIDI Ubuntu).
    • Ubuntu is Widely Used
    • Installing Ubuntu  Ubuntu comes on a live CD.  Live CD means that you can use the system from CD with out installing (boot only).  The system installation is as easy as installing a program (Only double click on icon).  The installation process is very fast and easy (faster and easier than installing windows).  Let's see how ???!!
    • First Welcome Screen
    • Choose your Language.
    • Choose your Location
    • Choose Keyboard Layout
    • Prepare Disk Space
    • Who are you?
    • Import Windows® Settings
    • Booting After Installition
    • Login Screen
    • Using Linux  Linux desktop is very easy to use like windows.  There are some important elements on desktop  Computer Disks: Places → Computer.  Home Directory : Places → Home Folder.  Configurations : System → Preferences.  Administration : System → Administration.  All Programs : Applications → Choose Category.  Note that all this menus are found under Gnome only KDE is different.
    • Using Linux (File System)  Linux uses EXT2, EXT3 file systems and a swap partition to use as virtual memory.  Linux can mount FAT16/32 , NTFS , HFS Drives where windows can't mount EXT drive.  Under File system there are some Directories:  /bin: contains UNIX tools and executable Shell tools  /boot: file needed to boot the system.  /etc: system configuration files.  /lib : system and applications libraries.  /media: mounted drives.
    • Installing Useful Software  Most of applications available for Linux are free and open source so it's easy to get.  Linux has repositories for programs (search & get).  Each Linux distribution has a software called package manager.  The two most famous packages formats are: .deb for Debian based system , .rpm for Redhat based systems.
    • How to Install Applications?  From Application menu go to Add/Remove.....  In the windows opened write program name or description in the search field.  choose your preferred programs.  Click “Apply” and wait for download and instillation.  Now the program is installed and ready to use.  To install application from shell.  sudo apt-get install packageName  Then wait for download and installation.
    • Windows Emulation  WINE is a windows emulator which is able to run windows software under Linux.  Wine can be downloaded via Add/Remove..  WINE can emulate windows (2.0, 3.0, 95, 98, NT, 2000, XP, Server 2003, Vista, Server 2008)  Wine Doors is a program that downloads some libraries for WINE to be compatible with most windows Apps.  Wine needs (MFC , VC++ runtime, VB runtime, IE6 libs, DX9c libs, .....).
    • Programming on Linux.  Linux has dozens of programming languages.  GNU Compilers Collection has compilers for:  Ada, C/C++, Fortran and Java.  The Linux kernel is compiled using GCC.  Perl, Python are installed on most distros.  Sun's JDK, JVM can be installed on Linux.  A lot of IDEs are available for Linux(Eclipse, Netbeans, Mono, KDevelop, Omnis Studio)
    • Installing Java & Netbeans  To install Sun Java write this commands:  sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre  sudo apt-get install sun-java6-bin  sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jdk  sudo apt-get install sun-java6-plugin  To install Netbeans download the Linux file then:  Double click the Icon and continue the setup.  ./netbeans6.x --javahome:JavaDirectoryPath
    • Installing MySQL & Oracle  MySQL server must be installed using package manager:  sudo apt-get install mysql-server-5.0  Query browser and other tools can be downloaded via Add/Remove from Applications menu.  Download the Oracle deb package from Oracle website then:  Double click on the icon.  Click on install package button and wait for setup to finish.  Go to /etc/init.d then write “chmod +x oracle-xe”  Then start script as root “sudo ./oracle-xe”
    • Linux Shells (UNIX shells)  Linux uses shells to interact with user in CLI mode (good for servers and administrators).  Shells can be accessed by GUI users via terminals.  Linux shell is similar to UNIX shell but with some additional commands.  Most popular Linux shell is Bash.  Bash supports scripts with a wide range of commands.
    • Linux Shell Commands  cp file1 file2 → copy file1 to file2  rm fileName → deletes the file.  mv file1 file2 → rename file1 or moves it to another location.  cd directoryName → change directory.  less fileName → view file content  clear → clear screen  man command → view command Manual.  find fileName → search for file.
    • Linux Shell Commands 2  ls → list files in current directory.  ps -u UserName → view all running process for userName.  kill PID → kill process with a specific ID.  su → change to root mode.  sudo “command” → execute command in root mode.  chmod +x “file” → change file mode to executable.  ./ → execute script or file.  ifconfig → view your network interface configurations.  history → view history of command you entered.  reboot → restart system , halt → shutdown the system
    • Shell Configurations  The shell configurations file of the Bash shell is found under /home/UseName/.bashrc .  We can use this file to define new environment variables to the shell by adding the following line at the end of the file:  PATH=$PATH:/xx/yy/zz;  export PATH  .bash_history → contains your command history.  .bash_logout → execute command when leaving shell.
    • Bye Bye Keep Using