BITS: Introduction to linux, distributions and installation


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This slide is part of the BITS training session: "Introduction to linux for life sciences."


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BITS: Introduction to linux, distributions and installation

  1. 1. Dive into Linux <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Distributions </li></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul>BITS/VIB Bioinformatics Training – 3 oktober, 2011 – Joachim Jacob (archive: Luc Ducazu <>)
  2. 2. Who has used Linux?
  3. 3. What is Linux? <ul><li>In a strict sense, Linux is a freely distributable, Unix-like operating system kernel (Linux kernel) </li></ul><ul><li>In a broader sense, Linux is a freely distributable, Unix-like operating system that includes a kernel, system tools, applications and a complete development environment (GNU/Linux distribution) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Linus Thorvalds <ul><li>Student at the University of Helsinki, Finland in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Minix (Andrew Tanenbaum) </li></ul><ul><li>Started Linux as a simple UNIX-like OS on the Intel 80386 processor </li></ul><ul><li>Today Linus still decides what gets into the kernel and what not: Benevolent Dictator for Life . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why should I bother? <ul><li>Since Linux is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>free (as in beer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>open (as in science) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>user-friendly (depending on the definition) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>it gets a lot of attention in academic circles </li></ul><ul><li>Linux is the preferred software development platform for eg NCBI </li></ul><ul><li>Linux drives innovation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Linux Distributions <ul><li>A Linux Distribution ( Distro ) bundles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the OS kernel (Linux) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tools and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>software package manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>initialization & configuration scripts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commercial support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are many distributions (600+), but only a few that really matter </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  7. 7. 'Big' distributions <ul><li>Red Hat: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RHEL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fedora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CentOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Novell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>openSuSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8.
  9. 10. Mini-distros <ul><li>Live CD / DVDs: burn an .iso image to a CD and Linux starts from the CD without changing your system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery: SystemRescueCD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-informatics: bioknoppix biolinux </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Mini-distros <ul><li>A live CD / DVDs can also be written to a bootable USB stick using the Unetbootin </li></ul><ul><li>This tool is available for Linux and MS Windows </li></ul>
  11. 12. Distrowatch <ul><li>Exhaustive collection of information on (Linux) distributions: </li></ul><ul><li>Distro Popularity Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Ubuntu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Fedora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) Mint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) openSuSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5) Debian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(14) CentOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(24) RedHat </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Linux Installation <ul><li>Goal: desktop vs. server </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop: check whether your hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meets the system requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is supported </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obtain installation media on website of distro </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you have some free disk space. (See later about installing next to or in Windows) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Supported Hardware <ul><li>Do your home work </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware Compatibility List </li></ul><ul><li>Fedora 15 is in itself available as a live CD, this is a quick way to check what hardware is supported </li></ul>
  14. 15. Fedora 15 <ul><li>“ Bleeding Edge” distribution. Popular with Bioinformatics developers, latest, but potentially unstable. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 16. Fedora 15 <ul><li>“ Bleeding Edge” distribution. Popular with Bioinformatics developers, latest, but potentially unstable. </li></ul>
  16. 17. System requirements <ul><li>Minimum system requirements for Fedora 15: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pentium Pro @ 400MHz system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal 256 MB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended for a graphical desktop 640 MB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full graphical for graphical: 1152 MB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal 90 MB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended 10 GB </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Obtaining installation media <ul><li>The most comprehensive page to start from is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download CD or DVD iso-images using HTTP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download torrent files for bittorrent downloads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once the iso-images are downloaded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>burn the images on CD or DVD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>put the image on a USB stick ( UNetbootin ) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Windows <ul><li>If you want to install Linux next to MS Windows, there are a few alternatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual-boot : Windows and Linux on separate disk partitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run Linux in a virtual machine under MS Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run Windows as a virtual machine under Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Box </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>For this session, we will run linux as a virtual machine on Windows. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Windows/Linux dual boot <ul><li>With dual boot, upon start-up of your computer, you have the choice to start up linux OR windows </li></ul><ul><li>Windows occupies all disk space, you need to free up disk space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You should be aware that changing disk partitions is risky and can result in data loss – take a backup first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Windows, defragment the drive(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the Windows partition – a handy tool is gparted , which can be launched from a live CD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For a Windows/Linux dual-boot installation you should install Windows first </li></ul>
  20. 21. Virtual linux <ul><li>We will make use of VirtualBox, a software that can be installed on your computer and that allows you to install another OS in it. Alternatives: VMWare, KVM. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 22. For example, on my laptop
  22. 23. Installation walk-through
  23. 24. Installation walk-through
  24. 25. Installation walk-through
  25. 26. Installation walk-through
  26. 27. Installation walk-through
  27. 28. Installation walk-through
  28. 29. Installation walk-through
  29. 30. Installation walk-through !
  30. 31. Installation walk-through
  31. 32. Installation walk-through
  32. 33. Installation walk-through
  33. 34. Installation walk-through Search for the .iso file on the USB stick you received.
  34. 35. Installation walk-through
  35. 36. Installation walk-through
  36. 37. Installation walk-through
  37. 38. Installation walk-through
  38. 39. Installation walk-through
  39. 40. Installation walk-through
  40. 41. Installation walk-through
  41. 42. Installation walk-through
  42. 43. Installation walk-through
  43. 44. Installation walk-through
  44. 45. Installation walk-through Important! Please fill in: bitstraining as password
  45. 46. Installation walk-through
  46. 47. Installation walk-through
  47. 48. Installation walk-through
  48. 49. Installation walk-through
  49. 50. Installation walk-through
  50. 51. Installation walk-through
  51. 52. Installation walk-through
  52. 54. Uncouple the .iso file for installation <ul><li>PRESS SPACE </li></ul>
  53. 55. Uncouple the .iso file for installation <ul><li>PRESS SPACE </li></ul>
  54. 56. Start the virtual machine
  55. 58. Installation walk-through
  56. 59. Installation walk-through
  57. 60. Installation walk-through Fill in as password: b!t$
  58. 61. Installation walk-through
  59. 62. Installation walk-through
  60. 63. Installation walk-through
  61. 65. Installation walk-through
  62. 67. Linux <ul><li>Put the fun back into computing </li></ul>