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Linux introduction Class 02

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Introduction to Linux, part 2 or 3.

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Linux introduction Class 02

  1. 1. ACE Course CT01558 Linux Introduction Linux Boot & Installation
  2. 2.  Booting Linux  Distribution Selection  Considerations on Installation  Installation Options  Basic administration Linux#2 - Installation 2 Agenda 8/22/2013
  3. 3. Linux#2 - Installation 3 System Initialization BIOS Boot loader Kernel & device drivers init services Login 8/22/2013 Running Linux System
  4. 4. Linux#2 - Installation 4 BIOS Initialization  Power On Self Test recognizes hardware, CPU, memory, bootable configuration from CMOS  Bootable devices:  CD ROM or Floppy  Drive [IDE, SCSI, SATA, RAID, SSD, SD, microSD, …]  Network  USB devices 8/22/2013
  5. 5. Linux#2 - Installation 5 The Boot Loader  Last step in BIOS  Loads first partition of bootable device  It can present a menu of OS choices  Can also let you choose “Other OS”  Linux boot loaders:  LILO (Linux Loader) – older, static  GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader) dynamic  Syslinux [for CDs and USBs] 8/22/2013
  6. 6. Linux#2 - Installation 6 Kernel Initialization  Kernel loads based on parameters passed  All logging goes to /var/log/dmesg  Detects hardware  Loads initrd (if necessary)  Mounts root  Loads /lib/x.x.x/modules  Passes control to /sbin/init 8/22/2013
  7. 7. Linux#2 - Installation 7 init (Initialization)  Init loads scripts from /etc/rc.d  rc.sysinit is the master script at boot time  Loads networking, drivers, encryption, and provides [OK] or [FAIL] feedback  Based on parameter or /etc/inittab default, it will execute scripts in rc.x (x=runlevel)  All boot scripts live in init.d, can be configured via chkconfig  Last script is rc.local 8/22/2013
  8. 8. Linux#2 - Installation 8 UNIX File System tmp bin usr var etc dev bin lib / local spool Somewhere for local additions Libraries, some utilities and config. files Spool files for batch utilities Admin utilities config. files Special device files Somewhere everyone can use Utilities System programs The top-level “root” directoryPartial view lib System libraries 8/22/2013
  9. 9.  Pre-compiled kernels  The one downloaded in your distribution  The one you receive with system updates  Custom kernels  The ones you BUILD:  More security  Better performance  Hardware support or Virtualization 8/22/2013Linux#2 - Installation 9 Kernel Features
  10. 10. 8/22/2013Linux#2 - Installation 10 Kernel Compiler Features
  11. 11. Linux#2 - Installation 11 Linux Distributions Kernel GNU X Other Linux Operating System Red Hat Mint Ubuntu Others + + + + Installation tools, configuration tools, SUPPORT, etc. 8/22/2013
  12. 12.  Mobile Linux http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embedded_Linux  Game console Linux http://openpandora.org  Embedded Linux http://elinux.org  Automobile consoles & Google TV  Older hardware  Printers & Network equipment 8/22/2013Linux#2 - Installation 12 Non Distribution Linux
  13. 13. Linux#2 - Installation 13 Linux Installation  PRE  Hardware Device Configuration  Software Features  Deployment Considerations  Actual Installation  POST  Updating, security patches!  Accounts, groups, services  Maintenance 8/22/2013
  14. 14. Installing Linux: Hardware Fedora 13 hardware requirements 8/22/2013Linux#2 - Installation 14
  15. 15. Sample pre-installation checklist 8/22/2013Linux#2 - Installation 15
  16. 16.  USB media  DVD media  FTP server  HTTP Web server  NFS server  SMB server  Packages on hard disk 16 Installing Linux: Installation Methods 8/22/2013Linux#2 - Installation
  17. 17. Linux#2 - Installation 17 Server Design Issues  Example: Server requirements are very diverse  Internet or intranet?  Which services are required?  Does it require user accounts?  Heavy or light usage?  No generic solution  Each server needs to be carefully designed 8/22/2013
  18. 18. Linux#2 - Installation 18 H/W Compatibility & Resources  Supports a wide variety of CPUs & Architectures  Linux Hardware ‘How To’ at The Linux Documentation Project: www.tldp.org  Know your RAM & Disk requirements  Server, Desktop, Custom http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO 8/22/2013
  19. 19. Linux#2 - Installation 19 Laptops  Tricky installations  Custom bus, Video and/or Sound chipsets  Older laptops may be difficult to install  Boot from CD, floppy or network  URL: www.linux-laptop.net 8/22/2013
  20. 20.  USB  http://www.pendrivelinux.com/  Virtual Machines  Virtual Box http://www.virtualbox.com  Vmware Player http://www.vmware.com  CLOUD  Amazon Web Services, Azure, … 8/22/2013Linux#2 - Installation 20 USB & Virtual Installs
  21. 21. Linux#2 - Installation 21 Block Devices & Filesystem Schemes  /dev  Char & Block devices  Partitions: /dev/hda1… /dev/sda1…  Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) www.pathname.com/fhs  / /etc /dev /lib/ /bin /boot /sbin  /usr /home /tmp /var /mnt /proc 8/22/2013
  22. 22. Linux#2 - Installation 22 Removable Media  Mounting means making a foreign filesystem look like part of the main tree.  Before accessing, media must be mounted  Before removing, media must be unmounted  By default, non-root users may only mount certain devices (cd, dvd, floppy, usb, etc)  Mountpoints are usually under /media can also be defined in /etc/fstab 8/22/2013
  23. 23. Linux#2 - Installation 23 Mounting CDs / DVDs  Automatically mounted in Gnome/KDE  Otherwise, must be manually mounted  CD/DVD Reader  mount /media/cdrom  CD/DVD Writer  mount /media/cdrecorder  eject command unmounts & ejects the disk 8/22/2013
  24. 24. Linux#2 - Installation 24 Mounting USB Media  Detected by the kernel as SCSI devices: /dev/sdaX or /dev/sdbX or similar  Type: tail /var/log/messages to find out  Automatically mounted in Gnome/KDE  Icon created in Computer window  Mounted under /media/Device ID 8/22/2013
  25. 25. Linux#2 - Installation 25 GUI User Mount Tool  Run from “Applications”, “System Tools”, “Disk Management.”  Allows you to mount or dismount drives or partitions. 8/22/2013
  26. 26. Linux#2 - Installation 26 Disk Partition Layout M B R Primary Extended Logical 8/22/2013
  27. 27. Linux#2 - Installation 27 Partitioning Hard Drives  GUI or text tools available during install  Auto or Manual modes  /boot partition  Dual boot systems  Swap partition (2x RAM)  Create LVM or RAIDs 8/22/2013
  28. 28. Linux#2 - Installation 28 Virtual Consoles  Linux starts with 6 default virtual consoles  Alt-F1 to Alt-F6 (or CTRL <- ->)  Can have up to 63 consoles  Controlled from /etc/inittab 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1 … 6:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6 8/22/2013
  29. 29. Linux#2 - Installation 29 System Shutdown and Reboot  To reboot:  shutdown –r  reboot  init 6  To halt:  shutdown –s  halt  init 0  You must be administrator! 8/22/2013
  30. 30. Linux#2 - Installation 30 Controlling Services  service ‘servicename’ function  Function: start / stop / restart / status  kill PID  nice level process  GUI: “System Tools”, “System Monitor” 8/22/2013
  31. 31. Linux#2 - Installation 31 Monitoring & Process Control  top – displays top processes  uptime + ps = w  ps ax – list of all running processes  nice PID priority – changes priority level  Default priority is 10, it can be changed  from -20 (highest priority) to 19 (lowest)  kill –signal PID  killall process 8/22/2013
  32. 32. Linux#2 - Installation 32 Hands-on Lab-1 Exploring Linux Services  From command line type:  top (press h, q after reading screens)  w [integrated who / uptime]  whoami  ps ax [list all active processes]  pstree 8/22/2013
  33. 33. Linux#2 - Installation 33 Hands-on Lab-2  From command line type:  su -  service http start  service http status  Or “ps ax | grep httpd”  killall httpd 8/22/2013
  34. 34. Linux#2 - Installation 34 Hands-on Lab-3  From command line type:  mount  To view default mounts: ‘more /etc/fstab’  df –h  du –sh /var 8/22/2013
  35. 35. Questions???
  36. 36.  Booting Linux  Distribution Selection  Considerations on Installation  Installation Options  Basic administration Linux#2 - Installation 36 Summary 8/22/2013

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