NATIONAL INFORMATICS CENTRE CHENNAI Welcome To The Lecturer on “Open Source” 14-Dec-2009
IntroductionWhat is Open Source?"Open source" makes the source code of software freelyavailable, so that anyone can download, use, modify, andredistribute their software.“Huge Community Support”
Open Source Criteria1. Free Redistribution2. Source Code3. Derived Works4. Integrity of The Authors Source Code5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor7. Distribution of License8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral
Freeware vs SharewareFreewareNo community and no development infrastructure.Forbids the user to alter the program, repackage it, or sell it. It might allowredistribution.Freeware can be downloaded for free.SharewareShareware is the distribution of software to another person for evaluation for alimited number of days.After trying it out, we have to pay the fee to gain full use of the software.
Open Source LicensesCopyright & LicenseCopyright - safeguards the ownership of an intellectual property.License - a document lets someone to use your intellectual property.Open Source Licenses GNU General Public License (GPL) Requires derivate works to also fall under the GPL. Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) Does not require derivate works to also fall under the BSD license
Linux Vs WindowsParticular Linux WindowsSoftware Cost Free /Low CostlyEasy Easy Easier More Reliable than Reliability Windows Required further improvementSofware Tools Less Numbers but freely More but CostHardware driver and user Interfaces Few Many More vulnerable to Security Very few attacks viruses/attacksOpen Source Yes NoSupport Less Compare to windows Better Support
Linux OriginLinux is a “free” Unix-type operating system originally created by“Linus Torvalds” with the assistance of developers around theworld.August 25 1991 “Linus” conceives the idea of Linux andannounces the project.
Introduction to LinuxLinux, also known as GNU/Linux, is a free, UNIX-like operatingsystem, developed originally for home PCs, but which now runs onevery hardware platform.Linux is an implementation of UNIX.Linux – Multiuser, Multitasking, Multiprocessing, Multithreading Operating Systems.
Why Linux?Linux, is a free, UNIX-like operating system.Works on any kind of Hardwares ( PC/Workstations/EmbeddedSystems/Mainframe ) .Comes with complete development environment includescompilers, toolkits, scripting Languages.Linux boxes are known for running months or even years at a timewithout crashing, freezing, or having to be rebooted - “stability”.Linux provides rich Graphical User Interface (GUI) Support.Strong Security Nature – iptables, file permissions, ownerships, ...
Linux ApplicationsServer Database Server – Using POSTGRESQLWeb Server Using ApacheMail Server (cyrus) / Proxy Server (squid) / Firewall.Desktop Office Software – OpenOffice, koffice Graphics Gimp / CAD Programmes (QCAD) Internet Browser – Mozilla, Konqueror Emulation / Virtual Terminal – SSH Development – C,C++, Perl , Python, and Compilers(gcc). Editor – Emacs, Vi / Vim
OPEN OFFICEOpenOffice.org, commonly known as OpenOffice, is open sourcesoftware application suite.An office application suite used mainly for documenting purposes like, Office documents (Writer), Excel sheets (calc), Drawings (Draw), Powerpoint Presentations (Impress), ...
OPENOFFICE...WriterA word processor similar to Microsoft Word and WordPerfect.It can export Portable Document Format (PDF) files with no additional soft-ware, and can function as a basic WYSIWYG editor for creating and editingweb pages.
OPENOFFICE...CalcA spreadsheet similar to Microsoft Excel and Lotus 1-2-3.Calc provides a number of features not present in Excel, including a systemwhich automatically defines series for graphing, based on the layout of theuser’s data.Calc can also export spreadsheets to the PDF format. (See ooWriter entry,above, for details of PDF).
OPENOFFICE...DrawA vector graphics editor and diagramming tool, similar to Microsoft Visioand comparable in features to early versions of CorelDRAW.It features versatile "connectors" between shapes, which are available in arange of line styles and facilitate building drawings such as flowcharts.Draw can also export its creations to the PDF format.
OPENOFFICE...ImpressA presentation program similar to Microsoft PowerPoint.It can export presentations to Adobe Flash (SWF) files, allowing them to beplayed on any computer with a Flash player installed.It also includes the ability to create PDF files, and the ability to readMicrosoft PowerPoints .ppt format.
INTERNET BROWSERSFirefox FireFox is a web browser created by Mozilla. Open source web browser.Opera Opera is a Web browser and Internet suite developed by the Opera Software company.wget wget is non-interactive, meaning that it can work in the background a command line browser
GRAPHICSGIMP GIMP - GNU Image Manipulation Program It is a freely distributed program for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition and image authoring Supports Major File Formats like (png, jpg, jpeg,gif …) *(similar to Photoshop)Scribus Scribus is a desktop publishing (DTP) application (Scribus is an Open Source program).
MISC. TOOLSK3B – Rich GUI support Creating data cds Creating audio cds DVD burning...Brasero Disc Burning Tool Brasero is yet another application to burn discs (gnome desktop)Vlc VLC media player is an open source, free software media player and multimedia framework. Reading most audio and video formats (MPEG-2, MPEG-4, DivX, MPEG-1, mp3, ogg, aac ...)
MISC. TOOLS...What is Terminal? which only displays text on the screen without pictures. It just an powerful interface. free and open source add-on package for Linux that allows many people to simultaneously use the same computer.
MISC. TOOLS...WINEWine is a free software application that aims to allow Unix-like computeroperating systems to execute programs written for Microsoft Windows.Wine is heavily reliant on its user community.Wine makes it possible to take advantage of all the Unix strong points(stability, flexibility, remote administration) while still using the Windowsapplications you depend on.
LINUX FILE STRUCTURE...root - The home directory for the root userhome - Contains the users home directoriesbin - Commands needed during bootup that might be needed by normal userssbin - Like bin but commands are not intended for normal users.proc - This filesystem is not on a disk. It is a virtual filesystem that exists in the kernels imagination which is memory.
LINUX FILE STRUCTURE...usr - Contains all commands, libraries, man pages, games and static files for normal Operation.lib - Unchanging data files/shared files for programs and subsystems.local - The place for locally installed software and other files.mnt - Mount points for temporary mounts by the system administrator.
LINUX FILE STRUCTURE...boot - Files used by the bootstrap loader, LILO. Kernel images are often kept here.var - This directory contains files of variable file storage. Files in /var are dynamic and are constantly being written to or changed..etc - Configuration files specific to the machine.dev - Contains device files required for interfacing with hardware. Devices in UNIX are either block or character devices.
Useful Linux CommandsHelp Commandscommand-name - - help Lists information about the command.info command-nameman command-nameExample:ls - - helpinfo lsman ls
Useful Linux Commands... Directory and file location commandscp source destination - Copies a file from source to destination.Examplecp /usr/test.txt /opt/mv source destination- Moves a file from source to destination also renames file source to destination.Examplemv /usr/test.txt /opt/rename.txtrm filename - Deletes (removes) a fileExamplerm test.txt
Useful Linux Commands... Directory and file location commands...ls - Lists the contents of a directoryExample - ls /optmkdir filename - Creates (makes) a directoryExample - mkdir test-dirrmdir filename - Deletes (removes) a directoryExample - rmdir test-dir
Useful Linux Commands... system administration commandsuseradd - Add a new userExample : useradd user-name-to-adduserdel - Deletes a userExample : userdel user-name-to-deletegroupadd - Add a new groupExample : groupadd group-name-to-addgroupdel - Deletes a groupExample : groupdel group-name-to-deletepasswd - Changes the passwordExample : passwd username
Useful Linux Commands... system administration commands...fdisk - Partition management utilityExample : fdisk -lsdf - Lists all mounted file systems and usageExample : dfExample : df partition/name - (for partition name see fdisk)mount - mountSystem Mount a disk to the mount SystemExample : mounttop - Views processor usageExample : top
Useful Linux Commands...cd – Change DirectoryChange the current working directory.Ex : 1. cd personal – change the directory into personal. 2. cd .. - Back one directory on the majority of all Unix shells. It is important that the space be between the cd and the ..
LINUX FILE STRUCTUREIn the Linux operating system, all file systems are contained within onedirectory hierarchy.The root directory is the top level directory, and all its subdirectoriesmake up the directory hierarchy.All directories are grouped under the root entry "/".