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  1. 1. OPEN SOURCELatar belakang.Definisi : Open Source/Sumber Terbuka(OSS) ialah ‘software computer’ yang boleh didapati dalambentuk kod sumber: sumber dan yang lain-lain hak tertentu yang biasanya dikhaskan untuk pemegang‘copyright’ yang diperuntukkan dibawah lesen perisian yang membenarkan pengguna untuk mengkaji,mengubah, menambahbaik dan kadang-kadang juga mengedarkan perisian. Perbezaan antara perisian bebas dengan perisian berlesen ialah perisian bebas boleh didaparisecara percuma berbanding dengan perisian berlesen dimana harus didapati daripada pemegang hakcipta menerima beberapa lesen yang dianggap terlalu ketat dan ada lesen perisian bebas yang tidakditerima pakai. Maksud lain bagi Open source: 1. Free Redistribution The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a componentof an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The licenseshall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale. 2. Source Code The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well ascompiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be awell-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction costpreferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. The source code must be the preferred formin which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed.Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed. 3. Derived Works The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software. 4. Integrity of the Authors Source Code The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying
  2. 2. the program at build time. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built frommodified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a different name orversion number from the original software 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or GroupsThe license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons. 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor. The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific fieldof endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, orfrom being used for genetic research. 7. Distribution of License The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program isredistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties. 8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product The rights attached to the program must not depend on the programs being part of aparticular software distribution. If the program is extracted from that distribution and used ordistributed within the terms of the programs license, all parties to whom the program isredistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with theoriginal software distribution. 9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along withthe licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programsdistributed on the same medium must be open-source software. 10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style ofinterface
  3. 3. Sejarah• Pergerakan perisian percuma telah dilancarkan pada tahun 1983• .Pada tahun 1998, sekumpulan individu yang menyokong bahawa istilah perisian bebas harus digantikan dengan perisian sumber terbuka (OSS) sebagai ungkapan yang kurang kabur dan lebih selesa untuk dunia korporat• Pemaju perisian mungkin mahu menerbitkan perisian mereka dengan lesen sumber terbuka, jadi sesiapa juga boleh membangunkan perisian sendiri samaada membangunkan perisian yang sama atau memahami fungsi atau cara untuk membangunkan perisian baru• Perisian sumber terbuka secara amnya membenarkan sesiapa sahaja untuk membuat pengubahsuaian perisian, pelabuhan sistem operasi baru, seni bina pemproses dan berkongsi dengan orang lain
  4. 4. Reference Free and open source software Copyleft · Events and Awards · Free software · Free Software Definition · Gratis versus libre ·List of free and General open source software packages · List of project directories/Comparison of hosting facilities ·Open-source software Operating AROS · BSD · Darwin · eCos · FreeDOS · GNU · Haiku · Inferno · Linux · Mach · MINIX · OpenSolaris · Plan system 9 · ReactOS · Symbian families Developme Eclipse · Free nt Pascal · GCC · Gambas · Java · LLVM · Lua · NetBeans · Open64 · Perl · PHP · Python · ROSE · Ruby · Tcl History GNU · Haiku · Linux · Mozilla (Application Suite · Firefox · Thunderbird) Apache Software Foundation · Blender Foundation · Eclipse Foundation · FreeBSD Foundation · freedesktop.org ·Free Software Foundation (Europe · India · Latin America) · FSMI · GNOMEOrganizations Foundation · GNU Project · Google Code · KDE e.V. ·Linux Foundation · Mozilla Foundation · Open Source Geospatial Foundation · Open Source Initiative ·Software Freedom Conservancy · SourceForge · Symbian Foundation · The Document Foundation · Xiph.Org Foundation ·XMPP Standards Foundation · X.Org Foundation Apache · Artistic · BSD · GNU GPL · GNU LGPL · ISC · MIT · MPL · Ms-PL/RL · zlib · Public domain/CC0 · FSF Licences approved licenses Licence Open Source Definition · The Free Software Definition · Debian Free Software Guidelines standards Binary blob · Canonicals contributor agreement · Digital rights management · Graphics hardware Challenges compatibility ·License proliferation · Mozilla software rebranding · Proprietary software · SCO-Linux controversies · Security · Software patents ·Hardware restrictions · Trusted Computing · Viral license Alternative terms · Community · Linux distribution · Forking · Movement · Microsoft Open Specification Other topics Promise · Revolution OS ·Comparison with closed source
  5. 5. Jenis-jenis Open Source • MIT or X Consortium License • BSD Classic License • Artistic License • General Public License • Mozilla Public LicenseExamples • Linux (see http://www.linux.org/): a computer operating system and kernel originating as a UNIX system and existing in many versions. • GNOME (see http://www.gnome.org/): a desktop development environment providing tools for developing desktop applications (as well as its own basic desktop applications) and available for Linux and other UNIX systems. • KDE (see http://www.kde.org/): another desktop development environment. • Apache (see http://www.apache.org/): a web server program (for supplying pages in response to requests) used in most web server computers and available for Windows as well as Linux and other UNIX systems. • Firefox (see http://www.mozilla.org/firefox/): a web client program (for viewing and hearing web pages) available for Windows and Mac as well as Linux and other UNIX systems.
  6. 6. • Dovecot (see http://www.dovecot.org/): an email server program (for sending and receiving email) supporting POP3 and IMAP and available for Linux and other UNIX systems.• Postfix (see http://www.postfix.org): an email server program (for sending and receiving email) supporting SMTP and available for Linux and other UNIX systems.• SquirrelMail (see http://squirrelmail.org/): an email application (for reading and writing email through a web client program) supporting IMAP and SMTP and available for Windows and Mac as well as Linux and other UNIX systems.• Thunderbird (see http://www.mozilla.org/thunderbird/): an email client program (for reading and writing email) supporting POP3, IMAP and SMTP and available for Windows and Mac as well as Linux and other UNIX systems.• OpenOffice (see http://www.openoffice.org/): an office application set (for word processing, spreadsheet manipulation, picture drawing and data base access) compatible with all other major office application sets such as Office and available for Windows and Mac as well as Linux and other UNIX systems.• KOffice: (see http://www.koffice.org/): another office application set.• Asterisk: (see http://www.asterisk.org/): a Private Branch eXchange (PBX) providing features such as interactive voice response, conference bridging and call queuing (as well as analogue, digital and VoIP telephony), supporting H.323, SIP and IAX2 (and other VoIP protocols), and available for Mac as well as Linux and other UNIX systems.• FreeSWITCH (see http://www.freeswitch.org/): a VoIP development environment providing tools for developing applications like phones and switches, supporting H.323, SIP and IAX2 (and other VoIP protocols), and available for Windows and Mac as well as Linux and other UNIX systems.• GnuGK (see http://www.gnugk.org/): a VoIP gatekeeper (for some H.323 deployments) available for Windows and Mac as well as Linux and other UNIX systems.
  7. 7. Kesimpulan Open Source merupakan satu software dimana setiap komputer memerlukannya untukmenjalankan atau memulakan sesuatu program. Ia mempunyai pelbagai jenis seperti yangberlesen atau tidak. Antara yang berlesen seperti Windows dan yang tidak berlesen pula sepertiLinux.

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