Introduction To Opensource And GNU/Linux


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I deliver this to my students to help then start understanding what Linux is and how with opensource it is changing the IT industry.

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  • Introduction To Opensource And GNU/Linux

    1. 1. Introduction To GNU/Linux S.Eiffert Linux Computing Essentials
    2. 2. Welcome to Linux <ul><li>Linux is a clone of UNIX. </li></ul><ul><li>It was created by Linus Torvalds in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>The PC existed but it was commonly running the Microsoft operating systems and used the Intel chip which did not support commonly unix. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOS was available but didn’t meet his needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because Linus had used minix at Uni </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miniux was a small very basic UNIX-like system which was compatible with the Intel platform, being used in the universities for teaching. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And wanted same features at home but could not afford the cost of proprietary hardware on which to run a UNIX system. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So he started to create one based on the minux sourcecode – with many contributions from other people over the internet. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1991 – Linus Torvalds created the linux kernel. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is unix <ul><li>unix is an operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are many different types of unix. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But they all came from a common background. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Internet was built on UNIX. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP is a native UNIX protocol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today 80% of the worlds Internet Web servers are using Linux. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>unix has commonly been used for the past 30 years . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was created in 1969 - long before Microsoft existed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was the 1st worldwide commercial operating system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unix has always commonly been used on mainframes. </li></ul><ul><li>Today as “linux” it is also commonly being used on PC’s as servers & desktops </li></ul>
    4. 4. Imagine a game box that could run “every game” !! <ul><li>Unix became the dominate OS because of the following factors. </li></ul><ul><li>It was able to be run by various types of CPU’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before unix vendors commonly wrote their own Operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which ran just on their own CPU’s and equipment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unix was written to be able to run on many different types of CPU’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unix was one of the first OS to supply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a simple programmers environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a simple user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simple utilities or commands that can be combined to perform powerful functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a permanent hierarchical file system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simple interface to connect new devices to the OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multi-user functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multi-process system functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which was architecturally independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of which was permanent and transparent to the user. </li></ul></ul>Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e
    5. 5. 1991 - Creation of Linux <ul><li>Linus Torvalds did not write an entire operating system </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote a full complete version of a kernel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which he called Linux. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He chose a Penguin to represent his kernel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s main advantage is it’s - Compatibility for Intel systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This meant it could be run on any generic PC computer systems . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Linux Kernel is written and distributed as an opensource product. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linus Torvals is part of the opensource community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And as he believes in their opensource philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The linux kernel was created with the input from many other developers around the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opensource community believe in collaboration for the open development of products and distribution of all sourcecode . </li></ul>Linux Penguin
    6. 6. Idea of the Opensource came from The Free Software Foundation <ul><li>Richard Stallman started the … </li></ul><ul><li>Free Software Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>FSF is a non profit organization designed to protect and promote: </li></ul><ul><li>freedom for both the user and the IT industry. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The term free software, refers to S/W freedom, not price. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FREEDOM of Distribution NOT Free price </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic Philosophy : </li></ul><ul><li>People who put their software under the GPL believe in ‘Free Distribution’ </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning that they believe that the source code for the software cannot be withheld. </li></ul><ul><li>It does not mean that they or companies cannot charge for it. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Richard Stallman also started the GPL Software License <ul><li>Software which is put under a GPL Software License is called “Opensource Software” </li></ul><ul><li>Software which is placed under the GPL is designed to give people: </li></ul><ul><li>The right to …. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>receive the source code or have the right to get it if you want it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They can charge for this service if they wish. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And the new user can copy or change the existing software code to suit their needs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or even use pieces of it, in any new GPL free programs they design. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But because it originally came from a GPL software they are now obligated to place their new S/W under GPL as well and make their sourcecode available for others. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Open Source Software (FLOSS) <ul><li>This type of software uses a GPL or opensource licences. </li></ul><ul><li>What it gives you? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to examine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to redistribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to modify </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What it doesn’t let you do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deny these freedoms to anyone else </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. GNU/Linux <ul><li>1990 Richard Stallman </li></ul><ul><li>One of the people who started this “open” philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>Has nearly completed his new GNU operating system based on the UNIX system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He had most of the modules but was still missing the main part ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The kernel. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1991 Linus Torvalds creates the kernel then releases it out on an internet FTP server for everyone else’s opinion & help. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When complete Linux kernel was released under the GPL license. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowly but steadily news of Linux spread and work continued. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1992 The Linux kernel is combined with the already created GNU modules & utilities and now becomes a fully useable operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributions of Linux start appearing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are now about 1000 Linux Users </li></ul><ul><li>Footnote: These figure are based on the OS Revolution movie </li></ul>
    10. 10. The 1990’s <ul><li>1993 Internet explosion starts and there’s also an ISP explosion which </li></ul><ul><li>cause’s the 1st viable Linux commercial application. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Apache Web Server . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are now about 500,000 Linux Users </li></ul><ul><li>1997 Eric Raymond writes a paper called the ‘ Catheral & Baazar ’ in which he </li></ul><ul><li>analyzes the development & differences of the </li></ul><ul><li>‘ proprietary’ software model verse the ‘opensource’ software models. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The article takes the IT industry by storm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eric Raymond becomes a front man for the new opensource movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape director reads the article and in direct response freely releases the source code of the Navigator software. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape is the 1 st large company to go opensource. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>There are now about 800,000 Linux Users </li></ul>
    11. 11. Many Linux Distributions Appear
    12. 12. There are many Linux Distributions
    13. 13. Lates 1990’s <ul><li>1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linus, Linux & the opensource movement starts becoming commonly known. And gaining momentum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linus appears on TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the front of the Forbes Business Magazine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM, Oracle, Compaq, SAP + others announce their support for Linux. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are now about 1.5 million Linux Users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1999 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Linux World Conference – 6000 people attend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linus delivers the opening and keynote presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Hat goes public </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The 2000’s <ul><li>2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Hat splits into 2 versions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RHEL - their enterprise/business version with which you purchase support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fedora – their home version with no support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell buys SuSE Linux for $210 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM is now the most powerful backer of Linux. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To counterbalance the world of Linux they make a 50 million dollar investment in Novell. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SuSE becomes the major enterprize competitor to Red Hat. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SLES - their enterprise/business version with which you purchase support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opensuse – their home version with no support </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Using Linux <ul><li>Original Linux Kernel uses Command Line Interface </li></ul><ul><li>CLI ( Command Line Interface ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Interface ( Administrative tool ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GUI ( Graphical User Interface ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks different on each version of linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All are great customizable desktop’s with good looking desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to adopt and control by users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy controls and applicable tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy use of Multimedia contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great opensource GUI applications available </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. The command line <ul><li>Common environment available in all distributions. </li></ul><ul><li>Works about 95% the same in all distributions. </li></ul>
    17. 17. CL Interface is not new ! Windows The DOS Prompt Linux The BASH Shell
    18. 18. Linux GUI Environments <ul><li>Most distributions ship with a GUI </li></ul><ul><li>But they can be very different from each other. </li></ul><ul><li>There are competing GUI environments in Linux: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU Object Model Environment (GNOME) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kommon Desktop Environment (KDE) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But the Core component of a linux GUI is called X Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XWindows is the just the engine on which a desktop manager runs and supplies the GUI desktop. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The GUI environment is created by X Windows in combination with a window manager and desktop environment </li></ul>
    19. 19. June 6, 2009 suse
    20. 20. GNOME Desktop A Linux graphical user interface
    21. 21. KDE Desktop
    22. 22. KDE Desktop
    23. 23. GNOME Web Site Http://
    24. 24. Today many b usiness environments are commonly using Linux servers to provide their Networking Services <ul><li>Network Services are all available </li></ul><ul><li>And most are inbuilt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roaming user profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared network locations for file sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Printing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proxy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DHCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FTP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Desktop applications <ul><li>Linux also has many applications available </li></ul><ul><li>Many of them are inbuilt applications </li></ul><ul><li>Word processing (OpenOffice, Koffice) </li></ul><ul><li>Programming (C, C++, Perl, Python, Java, PHP) </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics (GIMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Web browsers (Mozilla, Konquerer) </li></ul><ul><li>Email (Evolution, Mozilla, KMail) </li></ul><ul><li>Audio (amarok) </li></ul><ul><li>Games (MAME) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See for lots of opensource software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All available as opensource applications. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Openoffice <ul><li>Many companies are now using linux on their desktops as their Office productivity suite: </li></ul><ul><li>Openoffice supplies the following inbuilt applications </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writer = word processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calc = spreadsheets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impress = slide show’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base = database </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Linux ends the monopoly…
    28. 28. Linux Today <ul><li>2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Linux has gone fully mainstream !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Today Linux has grown from being a hacker / home developed OS to being accepted world wide. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is highly regarded and runs many many major enterprises. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many sites are now also using it on their client machines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux currently has an estimated user figures ranging from 20 to 30 million. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And growing! </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Linux Tomorrow! <ul><li>Many countries / governments are going fully opensource </li></ul><ul><li>Especially in the developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>USA government is moving towards opensource </li></ul><ul><li>USA regularly holds conferences with the opensource community to discuss the impact that the opensource community has on the use of future IT. </li></ul><ul><li>All the major opensource IT companies are involved </li></ul><ul><li>First - Microsoft chose to ignore opensource. </li></ul><ul><li>Hoped it would go away – Then tried to make it go away! </li></ul><ul><li>But now even Microsoft attends the conferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft has even be known to have a stand at the Linux Trade Shows </li></ul>
    30. 30. How FOSS is changing things <ul><li>Now lets watch this documentary </li></ul><ul><li>The International Open Source Network (IOSN), UNDP Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme (UNDP-APDIP), International Development Research Centre of Canada and UNESCO have participated in the production of a documentary. </li></ul><ul><li>It investigates how developing countries are using FOSS applications and includes stories and interviews from around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>This 40-minute version of The Codebreakers is now available for free download online. </li></ul><ul><li>The Codebreakers is now available under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 license . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>