What is a dictionary?• A book containing a selection of words of a language or of some special subjects arranged alphabetically with explanation about them.
• Unabridged Dictionaries: contains 265 000 of words and more.• Unabridged dictionaries are the most scholarly and comprehensive of all dictionaries, sometimes consisting of many volumes.• They emphasize the history of words and the variety of their uses.
Example of Unabridged Dictionaries• Webster’s 3rd new international dictionary. 1961• The random house dictionary.• The Oxford English Dictionary, (20 volumes)• The Random House Dictionary of the English Language• Websters Third New International Dictionary of the English Language
• Abridged dictionaries, often called desk dictionaries, list 150,000 to 250,000 words and concentrate largely on fairly common words and meanings. A good desk dictionary will serve most reference needs for writing or reading.
Example of Abridged dictionaries• The American heritage dictionary• Webster’s new collegiate dictionary• Webster’s new world dictionary of American language• The random house college dictionary
Reduced- Word dictionaries • Limited to under 60,000 wordsOxford American dictionary ( 30,000 WORDS)
SPECIALIZED DICTIONARES• specialized dictionary is a dictionary that covers a relatively restricted set of phenomena
EXAMPLE OF SPECIALIZED DICTIONARY• Dictionary of American regional English• The random house cross- word puzzle dictionary
Etymological/ diachronic dictionary• The diachronic or historical dictionary has a special class in it which can be called etymological.• Shows and gives history of words• An etymological dictionary traces a words development over time, giving historical examples to show changes.
Example of Etymological/ diachronic dictionary• Oxford English dictionary• Ancient Greek Etymological Dictionary• Afroasiatic Etymological Dictionary
Example of Etymological/ diachronic dictionary
Slang dictionaries• Reasons for importance• Indicates the variations of meanings of a given slang terms of words and to trace thier history• Defines all expression well• Aids authors in finding words which will covey the background , class, or occupation of a given character
• Just for pain curiosity and interest Example of slang dictionaries:• dictionary of American slang• Thesaurus of slang• New dictionary of American slang
Biographical sources• Biographical dictionaries – ESSAY FORM• Biographical directories – PROVIDE DATA
IMPORANT GENERAL SOURCES• CURRENT BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARIES • Current biography • The New York time biographical service • Newsmaker ( GALE RESEARCH CO.)
RETROSPECTIVE BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARIES• a work containing information about the lives and work of various persons, usually listed alphabetically; some dictionaries classify persons by time period or descriptive category.
EXAMPLE• MC gram hill encyclopedia of word biography• Webter’s new biographical dictionary• New century cyclopedia of names
Retrospective biographical dictionaries- NATIONAL• Dictionary of American Biography• Dictionary of American Negro Biography• Who Was Who – Britain• Who Was Who in America: Historical Volume 1607-1896
Retrospective biographical dictionaries- NATIONAL