What is a “dictionary”? A book containing a selection of words of a language or a some special subjects arranged alphabetically with explanation about them. a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically, with usage information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information.
a dictionary may be regarded as a lexicographical product thatis characterized by three significant features: (1) it contains data that have been selected for the purpose of fulfilling those functions; and (2) its lexicographic structures link and establish relationships between the data so that they can meet the needs of users and fulfill the functions of the dictionary. (3) it has been prepared for one or more functions;
USES Define or translate words verify spelling syllabication or pronunciation check on usage (prescriptive and descriptive) to determine the etymological history of a word to an extent, standardize the language
3 types of Dictionary: COMPACT is, naturally, a small pocket sized variety thatis somewhat limited in the scope of its content.
GENERAL lies somewhere between specialized and compactdictionary. the most common version that people would have intheir home and is the best for everyday use.
FUNCTIONS: to provide definitions, proper pronunciation, correct spelling and derivations any restrictive labels attached to a word.
1. Unabridged Dictionaries contains 265 000 of words and more. Unabridged dictionaries are the most scholarly and comprehensive of all dictionaries, sometimes consisting of many volumes. They emphasize the history of words and the variety of their uses.
Examples of Unabridged Dictionary• Webster’s 3rd new international dictionary. 1961• The random house dictionary.• The Oxford English Dictionary, (20 volumes)• The Random House Dictionary of the English Language• Websters Third New International Dictionary of the English Language
2. Abridged Dictionaries often called desk dictionaries, list 150,000 to 250,000 words and concentrate largely on fairly common words and meanings. A good desk dictionary will serve most reference needs for writing or reading.
Examples of Abridged Dictionaries The American heritage dictionary Webster’s new collegiate dictionary Webster’s new world dictionary of American language The random house college dictionary The American heritage dictionary
3. Reduced-Word Dictionaries Limited to under 60,000 words Example: Oxford American dictionary ( 30,000 WORDS)
(Specialized Dictionaries) specialized dictionary is a dictionary that covers a relatively restricted set of phenomena. an exhaustive volume that specialises in the history of words. It enlarges on where words come from and how they acquired their present meaning.
Example of Specialized Dictionaries Dictionary of American regional English The random house cross- word puzzle dictionary
Etymological/Diachronic Dictionary The diachronic or historical dictionary has a special class in it which can be called etymological. Shows and gives history of words An etymological dictionary traces a words development over time, giving historical examples to show changes.
Example of Etymological/ diachronic dictionary Oxford English dictionary Ancient Greek Etymological Dictionary Afroasiatic Etymological Dictionary
Slang dictionariesReasons for importance: Indicates the variations of meanings of a given slang terms of words and to trace thier history Defines all expression well Aids authors in finding words which will covey the background , class, or occupation of a given character
Just for pain curiosity and interest Example of slang dictionaries: dictionary of American slang Thesaurus of slang New dictionary of American slang
Synonyms and Antonyms Synonym- a word with the same/similar meaning Antonym- words that mean the opposite
Example: Roget’s international thesaurus Roget’s thesaurus of English of words and phrases Webster collegiate thesaurus Webter’s new dictionary for synonym
Dictionaries of Abbreviations and Acronyms Subject Dictionaries Explain particular meanings for particular words/ terms for professions, occupation, or areas of subject interest.
Example: Harrod’s Librarians Glossary Terms ALA Glossary of Librarian and Information Science
Foreign Language Dictionaries: The cassel’s series Dictionary of foreign phrases and abbreviations Larrousse also publishes dictionaries
Biographical Dictionary Biographical dictionaries – ESSAY FORM type of encyclopedic dictionary limited to biographical information – have been written in many languages. Many attempt to cover the major personalities of a country (with limitations, such as living persons only, in Whos Who, or deceased people only, Example: Dictionary of National Biography
Current Biographical Dictionariesare published at regular intervals and provideinformation about contemporaries, for example,biographical works of the “Who’s Who” type.
Example: Current Biography The New York Times Biographical Service Newsmakers (Gale Research Co.)
Retrospective Biographical Dictionaries:a work containing information about the lives and workof various persons, usually listed alphabetically; somedictionaries classify persons by time period or descriptivecategory.
Example: MC gram hill encyclopedia of word biography Webter’s new biographical dictionary New century cyclopedia of names
Retrospective Biographical Dictionaries: National Dictionary of American Biography Dictionary of American Negro Biograph Who Was Who – Britain Who Was Who in America: Historical Volume 1607- 1896