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Classification of Water-
Soluble Vitamins
• B-Complex
• Vitamin C
Quick Facts...
• B-complex vitamins and vitamin C are water-
soluble vitamins that are not stored in the body and
must be ...
B-complex Vitamins
Eight of the water-soluble vitamins are known
as the vitamin B-complex group:
• thiamin (vitamin B1)
• ...
Thiamin: Vitamin B1
• Helps to release energy from foods, promotes
normal appetite, and is important in
maintaining proper...
Chemical Structure
Thiamine hydrochloride
Thiamine pyrophosphate
Food Sources for Thiamin
• Pork, liver and legumes
• whole grains and fortified grain products such as cereal
• enriched p...
Riboflavin: Vitamin B2
• Helps to release energy from foods, promotes
good vision, and healthy skin. It also helps to
conv...
Chemical Structure
Rivoflavin
Food Sources for Riboflavin
• Organ meats such as liver
• Dark green vegetables and legumes
• Milk products (opaque contai...
Niacin: Vitamin B3, Nicotinamide,
Nicotinic Acid
• It is involved in energy production, normal
enzyme function, digestion,...
Chemical Structure
Niacin
Nicotinic acid
Niacinamide
Food Sources for Niacin
• Liver
• Fish
• Poultry
• Meat
• Peanuts
• Whole and enriched grain products.
 The Recommended D...
Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal,
Pyridoxamine
• Aids in protein metabolism and red blood cell
formation.
• It is also in...
Chemical Structure
Pyrodoxine hydrochloride
Pyridoxal Pyrodoxamine
Food Sources for Vitamin B6
• Pork
• Meats
• Whole grains and cereals
• Legumes, and green, leafy vegetables
 The Recomme...
Folate: Folic Acid, Folacin
• Aids in protein metabolism, promoting red
blood cell formation, and lowering the risk for
ne...
Chemical Structure
Folic acid
Xanthopterin
Food Sources for Folate
• Liver
• Kidney
• Meats
• Fish
• Legumes
• Citrus fruits
• Whole grains
• Fortified grains and
ce...
Vitamin B12: Cobalamin
• Aids in the building of genetic material,
production of normal red blood cells, and
maintenance o...
Chemical Structure
• Cyanocobalamin
Food Sources for Vitamin B12
• Meats
• Liver
• Kidney
• Fish
• Eggs
• Milk and milk products
• Oysters
• Shell fish.
• Som...
Biotin
• Helps release energy from carbohydrates and
aids in the metabolism of fats, proteins and
carbohydrates from food.
Chemical Structure
Biotin
Food Sources for Biotin
• Liver
• Kidney
• egg yolk
• Milk
• Most fresh vegetables
• Yeast breads and cereals
• Intestinal...
Pantothenic Acid
• Involved in energy production, and aids in the
formation of hormones and the metabolism of
fats, protei...
Chemical Structure
Pantothenic acid
Food Sources for Pantothenic Acid
• Liver
• Kidney
• Meats
• Egg yolk
• Whole grains
• Legumes
• Intestinal bacteria
 The...
Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbate
What is Vitamin C
• Help us to remain in proper working
condition.
• It benefits the b...
• Since our bodies cannot produce or store vitamin
C, an adequate daily intake of this nutrient is
essential for optimum h...
Chemical Structure
Food Sources for Vitamin C
• Consuming vitamin C-rich foods is the best method to
ensure an adequate intake of this vitami...
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Water-Soluble
Vitamins
Solubility Stability
Thiamine
(vitamin B1)
Soluble in water; sligh...
Pantothenic acid
(vitamin B5)
Soluble in water, ethanol,
alkali carbonate hydroxide
solution and alkali
solution;
insolubl...
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Classification of w s-vit andong

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Classification of w s-vit andong

  1. 1. Classification of Water- Soluble Vitamins • B-Complex • Vitamin C
  2. 2. Quick Facts... • B-complex vitamins and vitamin C are water- soluble vitamins that are not stored in the body and must be replaced each day. • These vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage and preparation. • The B-complex group is found in a variety of foods: cereal grains, meat, poultry, eggs, fish, milk, legumes and fresh vegetables. • Citrus fruits are good sources of vitamin C. • Using mega doses of multivitamins or supplements is not recommended.
  3. 3. B-complex Vitamins Eight of the water-soluble vitamins are known as the vitamin B-complex group: • thiamin (vitamin B1) • riboflavin (vitamin B2) • niacin (vitamin B3) • vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) • folate (folic acid) • vitamin B12 • biotin • pantothenic acid
  4. 4. Thiamin: Vitamin B1 • Helps to release energy from foods, promotes normal appetite, and is important in maintaining proper nervous system function. • Enzyme cofactor in energy metabolism: Carbohydrates and BCAA. • Supports normal appetite and nervous system function.
  5. 5. Chemical Structure Thiamine hydrochloride Thiamine pyrophosphate
  6. 6. Food Sources for Thiamin • Pork, liver and legumes • whole grains and fortified grain products such as cereal • enriched products like bread, pasta, rice, and tortillas  The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for thiamin: 1.2 mg/day for adult males 1.1 mg/day for adult females.
  7. 7. Riboflavin: Vitamin B2 • Helps to release energy from foods, promotes good vision, and healthy skin. It also helps to convert the amino acid tryptophan (which makes up protein) into niacin. • Enzyme cofactor in energy metabolism: Fatty acid oxidations.
  8. 8. Chemical Structure Rivoflavin
  9. 9. Food Sources for Riboflavin • Organ meats such as liver • Dark green vegetables and legumes • Milk products (opaque container for milk to prevent vitamin loss) • Whole and enriched grain products such as bread, cereal and pasta  The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for riboflavin: 1.3 mg/day for adult males 1.1 mg/day for adult females.
  10. 10. Niacin: Vitamin B3, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic Acid • It is involved in energy production, normal enzyme function, digestion, promoting normal appetite, healthy skin and nerves. • Enzyme cofactor in energy metabolism: amino acids, fatty acids and glucose • Support steroid synthesis of the skin, nervous system and digestive system.
  11. 11. Chemical Structure Niacin Nicotinic acid Niacinamide
  12. 12. Food Sources for Niacin • Liver • Fish • Poultry • Meat • Peanuts • Whole and enriched grain products.  The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for niacin: 16 mg/day for adult males 14 mg/day for adult females.
  13. 13. Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine • Aids in protein metabolism and red blood cell formation. • It is also involved in the body’s production of chemicals such as insulin and hemoglobin.
  14. 14. Chemical Structure Pyrodoxine hydrochloride Pyridoxal Pyrodoxamine
  15. 15. Food Sources for Vitamin B6 • Pork • Meats • Whole grains and cereals • Legumes, and green, leafy vegetables  The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin B6: 1.3 mg/day for adult males and females through age fifty. For infants, breast milk and most infant formulas contain enough vitamin B6.
  16. 16. Folate: Folic Acid, Folacin • Aids in protein metabolism, promoting red blood cell formation, and lowering the risk for neural tube birth defects. • Folate may also play a role in controlling homocysteine levels, thus reducing the risk for coronary heart disease. • Nucleic acid synthesis: new cells synthesis • Cofactor in amino acid metabolism
  17. 17. Chemical Structure Folic acid Xanthopterin
  18. 18. Food Sources for Folate • Liver • Kidney • Meats • Fish • Legumes • Citrus fruits • Whole grains • Fortified grains and cereals • Dark green leafy vegetables The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for folate: 400 mcg/day for adult males and females Pregnancy will increase the RDA for folate to 600 mcg/day
  19. 19. Vitamin B12: Cobalamin • Aids in the building of genetic material, production of normal red blood cells, and maintenance of the nervous system. • Cofactor in energy fatty acids and amino acids metabolism. • Synergies with folic acids.
  20. 20. Chemical Structure • Cyanocobalamin
  21. 21. Food Sources for Vitamin B12 • Meats • Liver • Kidney • Fish • Eggs • Milk and milk products • Oysters • Shell fish. • Some fortified foods may contain vitamin B12  The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin B12: 2.4 mcg/day for adult males and females
  22. 22. Biotin • Helps release energy from carbohydrates and aids in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates from food.
  23. 23. Chemical Structure Biotin
  24. 24. Food Sources for Biotin • Liver • Kidney • egg yolk • Milk • Most fresh vegetables • Yeast breads and cereals • Intestinal bacteria  The Adequate Intake (AI) for Biotin: 30 mcg/day for adult males and females
  25. 25. Pantothenic Acid • Involved in energy production, and aids in the formation of hormones and the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates from food.
  26. 26. Chemical Structure Pantothenic acid
  27. 27. Food Sources for Pantothenic Acid • Liver • Kidney • Meats • Egg yolk • Whole grains • Legumes • Intestinal bacteria  The Adequate Intake (AI) for Pantothenic Acid: 5 mg/day for both adult males and females
  28. 28. Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbate What is Vitamin C • Help us to remain in proper working condition. • It benefits the body by holding cells together through collagen synthesis. • Aids in wound healing, bone and tooth formation, strengthening blood vessel walls, improving immune system function, increasing absorption and utilization of iron, and acting as an antioxidant.
  29. 29. • Since our bodies cannot produce or store vitamin C, an adequate daily intake of this nutrient is essential for optimum health. • Vitamin C works with vitamin E as an antioxidant, and plays a crucial role in neutralizing free radicals throughout the body. • An antioxidant can be a vitamin, mineral, or a carotenoid, present in foods, that slows the oxidation process and acts to repair damage to cells of the body. • Studies suggest that vitamin C may reduce the risk of certain cancers, heart disease, and cataracts.
  30. 30. Chemical Structure
  31. 31. Food Sources for Vitamin C • Consuming vitamin C-rich foods is the best method to ensure an adequate intake of this vitamin. While many common plant foods contain vitamin C, the best sources are citrus fruits. For example, one orange, a kiwi fruit, 6 oz. of grapefruit juice or 1/3 cup of chopped sweet red pepper each supply enough vitamin C for one day.  The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Vitamin C: 90 mg/day for adult males and 75 mg/day for adult females For those who smoke cigarettes, the RDA for vitamin C increases by 35 mg/day, in order to counteract the oxidative effects of nicotine.
  32. 32. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Water-Soluble Vitamins Solubility Stability Thiamine (vitamin B1) Soluble in water; slightly soluble in ethanol; insoluble in ether and benzene. Stable in acidic solution, unstable in light or being heated. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) Soluble in basic aqueous solution; slightly soluble in water and ethanol; insoluble in chloroform and ether Unstable in light, and heating; slightly unstable in basic solution Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) Soluble in water, ethanol, and glycerol. Stable in acidic and basic solutions; stable when exposed to airNicotinic acid (vitamin B3) Soluble in water
  33. 33. Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) Soluble in water, ethanol, alkali carbonate hydroxide solution and alkali solution; insoluble in ether. Unstable in acidic and basic solutions; unstable when heated; calcium salt is stable Pyridoxine/ pyridoxal hydrochloride (vitamin B6 ) Soluble in water, ethanol, methanol, and acetone; insoluble in ether and chloroform Stable in acid solution; unstable in alkali solution. Folic acid (vitamin B9) Soluble in alkali solution; slightly soluble in methanol; insoluble in water and ethanol. Stable when exposed to air; unstable when exposed to light. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) Soluble in water; slightly soluble in ethanol; insoluble in ether Unstable when exposed to air Cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) Soluble in water and ethanol; insoluble in ether, acetone, and chloroform Unstable in alkali and strong acid solutions

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