Vitamins are organic compounds .
Required in small amount in diet to maintain normal
Vitamins are of widespread occurence in nature,both
plant & animal worlds.
All common food stuff contain more than one
Vitamins are nonantigenic.
Vitamins are effective when take orally.
All the cells of the body store vitamins to some
Vitamins carry out functions in very low
concentrations. Hence,total daily requirement is
Old people need about the same amounts of
vitamins as young people.
Vitamins are mainly classified into two types such
as fat soluble vitamins and water soluble vitamins.
Most vitamins have been artificially synthesized.
Synthetically made vitamins are just as
nutritionally good as natural vitamins.
FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS
These are oily substances,not readily soluble in water
They contain carbon,hydrogen and oxygen.
Fat soluble vitamins include vitamin A,D,E,&K.
Fat soluble vitamins can be regard as lipids
Vitamin A ,E &K are terpenoids
Vitamin D is a steroid
Also known as [A1]Retinol , [A2]Dehydroretinol
PROPERTIES OF VITAMIN A
Ordinarily retinol is a viscoid ,colourless oil.
Soluble in fats and fat solvents.
Insoluble in water.
Loss of vitamin A in cooking,canning and freezing of
foodstuffs is small.
Destroyed when exposure to sunlight
SOURCES OF VITAMIN A
VITAMIN A TABLETS
STRUCTURE OF VITAMIN A
Vitamin A is found in two forms A1 and A2.
β carotene is most potent form of vitamin A1
β carotene is made of eight 5-carbon isoprenoid
units,linked to form a long chain of 40 carbon atoms
with an ionone ring at each end.
It is an orange-red hydrocarbon and upon hydrolysis
yields 2 moles of vitamin A1
Vitamin A1is a complex primary alchohol called
It’s emperical formula is C20H29OH
The terminal hydroxyl group is ordinarily
esterified. It contains β-ionone ring.
Another form of vitamin A present in fresh water
fishes is known as vitamin A2
It posses an additional conjugate double bond
between carbon atoms 3 and 4 of the β-ionone
Vitamin A is perhaps the most important as it affects the
various metabolic processes in the body it has profound
effect on epithelial structures in general.vitamin A
deficiency leads to various diseases such as:
Major cause of blindness in childhood.
It is characterized by the drying of eyes
The lacrymal glands became stratified and keratinized and
cease to produce tears
This make external surface dry and dull.
Ulcers develops, eyelids became swell and sticky
This results in frequent exudation of blood causing severe
infection to the eye.
Corneal disease occurring in pre-school children of 3-4
At first cornea loses its lustre,undergoes necrosis and
Which later form large white ulcerative area.
The whole eyeball may shrink
Keratomalacia is still prevalent on a wide scale in many
parts of india and indonesia,africa,etc
It’s a skin lesion and is characterized by follicular
Forearms,elbows ,thighs becames rough and spiky.In
some cases trunk also affected.
There is a defective formation of enamel is occur and
the dentin is exposed.
Epithelial structures in diverse organs such as
eyes,respiratory tract often became infected.
RDA of vitamin A is about 5,000 international
Growing childrens,adults and pregnant women and
lactating mother require high doses upto 8,000 I.U.
Some individuals require more than the minimal
requirement due to either faulty absorption or some
Also known as sunshine vitamin or
Vitamin D is a white and colourless crystalline
Soluble in fat and fat solvents
Fairly heat resistant
Not affected by acids and alkalies.
SOURCES OF VITAMIN D
MUSHROOM COD LIVER OIL
STRUCTURE OF VITAMIN D
The transformation of ergosterol (C27H44O) TO active
form D2 takes place through a series of intermediates
Ergosterol Lumisterol Protachysterol
Tachysterol Precalciferol Calciferol
Cholecalciferol(C27H44O) is produced from
The most characteristic symptom of vitamin D
deficiency is the childhood disease known as
Deficiency of it in human adults leads to
‘Osteomalacia’, a condition that might also termed as
Disease of growing bones
Deposition of inorganic materials on the matrix of
bones fails to occur.
It may occur older children with malabsorption.
One of the early sign of rickets is Craniotabes, which
is due to thickening of outer table of the skull.
Rickets in itself is not a fatal disease but
complications and intercurrent infections such as
pneumonia,tuberculosis are more likely to cause
death in rachitic children than normal children.
Action of bones were similar as rickets
Bones become softer than rachitic bones.
Loss of calcium is greater than that of phosphrous
Prevalent in india,china and arab,particularly in
women because of the custom that keeps them indoor
and alsoprevents them from exposure to sunlight
Vitamin D requirement is gretly influenced by the
amount of ultraviolet light to which the individual is
Half an hour of direct sunlight on the cheeks of a
baby each day is sufficient to generate daily
requirement of vitamin D
For adults also,exposure to sunlight for 30 minutes a
day is believed to satisfy the daily requirement.
In some areas the sunshine is not
much beneficial so vitamin D is need
to include with diet.
400 IU is recommended for infants,lactating
mother,and pregnent women.
For adult also 400 IU is adequate.
Also known as antisterility factor
Vitamin E is a light yellow oil.
Resistant to heat and acids.
Acted upon alkalies.
Slowly oxidized and destroyed by UV rays.
STRUCTURE OF VITAMIN E
Vitamin E is the collective name for a group of
closely related lipids called Tocopherols.
The tocopherols are derivatives of 6-
hydrochroman bearing an isoprenoid side
chain at carbon 2
Premature, very low birth weight infants.
Impairment of the immune response .
Rare disorders of fat metabolism.
Fat malabsorption .
Daily requiremnt for adults is 30IU.
Pregnent and lactating mothers aso requires 30IU
The vitamin E requirement is at the rate of 1 to 1.25
IU per kilogram weight.
Also known as antihemorrhagic factor
It’s a yellow viscid oil.
Sensitive to light so that it is kept in dark bottles.
Destroyed by stong acids and alkalies and oxidizing
SOURCES OF VITAMIN K
SPINACH CORIANDER LEAFS CABBAGE
ALFALFA BROCOLI FRUITS
Beriberi is a neurological and cardiovascular disease
Dry beriberi is characterized principally by peripheral
neuropathy consisting of symmetric impairment of
sensory, motor, and reflex functions affecting distal more
than proximal limb segments and causing calf muscle
Wet beriberi is associated with mental confusion
• Infantile beriberi occurs in infants breast-fed by
thiamin-deficient mothers (who may show no sign
of thiamine deficiency). Infants may manifest
cardiac, aphonic, or pseudomeningitic forms of
the disorder. Infants with cardiac beriberi
frequently exhibit a loud piercing cry, vomiting,
and tachycardia.Convulsions are not uncommon,
and death may ensue if thiamine is not
• Gastrointestinal beriberi is associated with
nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and lactic
Deficiency causes ariboflavinosis.
Symptoms may include cheilosis (cracks in the lips),
high sensitivity to sunlight, angular
cheilitis,glossitis (inflammation of the
tongue),seborrheic dermatitis or pseudo-
syphilis (particularly affecting the or and
the mouth), pharyngitis (sore throat), hyperemia, and
edema of the pharyngeal and oral mucosa
The dietary allowance of B2 varies from 0.6 to1.7mg
for children and adults.
During pregnancy and lactation women require up
to2.0 mg daily.
Also known as yeast factor
It’s a pale yellow viscous oil
Soluble in water
Insoluble in chloroform
Destroyed by heating in acid and alkaline medium
Pellagra is the disease icaused by a severe and
prolonged deficiency of vitamin B3.
Characterized by bilateral dermatitis, dementia, and
A prolonged and severe niacin deficiency may cause
depression and neurasthenia (weakening of muscles).
The first signs of vitamin B5 deficiency are burning
sensations in the hands and feet and numbness
coupled with poor coordination.
This vitamin is extremely essential for acetylcholine
synthesis which is required for muscle contractions
and its deficiency can cause muscle cramps,
numbness, and tingling sensations of muscles which
make them very uncomfortable.
This vitamin also contributes to producing energy
inside the body. As a result, common symptoms of
vitamin B5 deficiency in the body are irritability,
fatigue, tiredness, and apathy.
Intestinal symptoms like diarrhea, vomiting, and
water retention are also other deficiency related
The RDA for children is about 8-15 mg
For men 15-20g
For women 13-15
For pregnant and lactating mothers 20 mg
Also known as antidermatitis factor
It’s a white crystalline substance
Soluble in water
Sensitive to light and ultraviolet rays
Resistant to acids and alkalies
SOURCES OF VITAMIN B6
Vitamin B6 deficiency in adults may cause health
problems affecting the nerves, skin, mucous membranes,
and circulatory system.
In children, the central nervous system is also affected
Deficiency can occur in people with kidney failure
complications, alcoholism, liver scarring, overactive
thyroid, problems with absorbing nutrients, and heart
failure, as well as those taking certain medications
Signs of ovitamin B7 (biotin) deficiency include hair
loss and a scaly red rash around the eyes, nose,
mouth, and genital area.
Neurologic symptoms in adults have included
depression, lethargy, hallucination, and numbness and
tingling of the extremities.
Individuals with hereditary disorders of biotin
metabolism show in addition impaired immune
system function and increased susceptibility to
bacterial and fungal infections.
Also known as liver lactobacillus casei factor
Follic acid is a yollow crysralline substance.
Soluble in water.
Insoluble in fat solvents.
Stable to heat in alkaline solution.
Inactivated by sunlight.
• Deficiency of vitamin B9 is generally indicated
by headache, nausea, and irritability.
• Other signs of vitamin B9 deficiency are fatigue,
acne, sore tongue, and cracks at the corner of the
• Signs of deficiency of vitamin B9 also include loss of
memory, restricted growth of the brain and nerves,
paranoia, weakness, and skin cracking.
Mood disorder and depression are also signs of
deficiency of vitamin B9.
Loss of appetite, inflamed tongue, gastrointestinal
problems, and diarrhea are the other common signs of
vitamin B9 deficiency.
Panting (shortness of breath)
Palpitations (disagreeable sensations of irregular or
heavy beating of the heart).
B12 deficiency anemia may also be caused by a lack
of intrinsic factor - pernicious anemia. The patient's
digestive system cannot absorb B12 properly
Pale or yellowish skin
Also known as antiscorbutic factor
Colourless and odourless crystalline substance.
Slightly sour substance optically active.
Soluble in water.
Drying of fruits and vegetables also results in loss of
It’s a powerful reducing agent.
Fatigue - Early on, someone with a vitamin C
deficiency will tend to get tired easily and experience
reduced energy. Because chronic fatigue is a symptom of so
many illnesses, it can be hard to catch a specific condition
based on this symptom.
Mood Changes - Individuals with a vitamin C
deficiency may become irritable or short tempered.
Weight Loss - As with other "wasting conditions" someone
with a vitamin C deficiency may experience sudden weight
Joint and Muscle Aches - Chronic pain in the limbs or
joints can be a symptom of a vitamin deficiency.
Bruising - Individuals with a vitamin C deficiency will tend
to bruise easily. Excessive bruising is a sign that the body's
chemistry needs to be improved.
Dental Conditions - Just as a healthy daily dose of
vitamin C contributes to healthy teeth and gums, a
deficiency can cause deterioration of the gums.
Periodontal problems are a symptom of a vitamin C
deficiency that has been allowed to develop to a
Dry Hair and Skin - A change in hair and skin
conditions can also signal that the body is not
getting enough of vitamin C and other essential
vitamins and minerals.
Infections - When an individual does not have
enough vitamin C over time, this can have a
negative impact on general healing of wounds and
the fighting of infections. Generally, the body's
immune system will be compromised.