VITAMINS: Water Soluble


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VITAMINS: Water Soluble

  1. 1. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINVitamin B1 (Thiamine),antineuretic factor, anti-beri-beri factorFunctions: It plays an important role in helping the body metabolize carbohydrates and fat to produce energy. It is essential for normal growth and development and helps to maintain proper functioning of the heart and the nervous and digestive systems.
  2. 2. SOURCES: Green peas, Spinach, liver, Beef, Pork, Navy beans, Nuts, Pinto beans, Bananas, Soybeans, Goji berries, Whole-grains, Breads, Yeast, Aleurone layer of unpolished rice, LegumesTOXICITY: Large doses (5,000 to 10,000 mg) can cause headaches, irritability, rapid pulse, and weakness. DEFICIENCY: Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Beriberi neurodegeneration ABSORPTION: - upper & lower small intestine, some are in the liver, heart, kidney
  3. 3. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin,vitamin G,lactoflavin,hepatoflavin,ovoflavin) FUNCTIONS: It plays a key role in energy metabolism, and is required for the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. SOURCES:  Cheese  egg yolks  almonds  organ meats  whole grains  wild rice  soybeans  milk  spinach  mushrooms  almonds  poultry
  4. 4.  TOXICITY: Riboflavin is not toxic when taken orally, as its low solubility keeps it from being absorbed in dangerous amounts from the gut. Although toxic doses can be administered by injection, any excess at nutritionally relevant doses is excreted in the urine, imparting a bright yellow color when in large quantities. DEFICIENCY:  Ariboflavinosis  Symptoms of significant deficiency syndromes include sore throat, swelling of mucous membranes, mouth or lip sores, anemia, and skin disorders. ABSORPTION: Most dietary riboflavin is efficiently absorbed by a saturable carrier mechanism primarily in the proximal small intestine.
  5. 5. Vitamin B3 (Niacin,nicotinamide acid,pellagra- preventive factor) FUNCTIONS: • Energy Production • Metabolism of Fats SOURCES: ~Animal products: liver, heart and kidney; chicken; beef; fish: tuna, salmon; milk eggs ~ Fruits and vegetables: leaf, vegetables, broccoli, tomatoes, carrots , dates, sweet potatoes, asparagus, avocados ~ Seeds:nuts, whole grain products, legumes, saltbush seeds ~ Fungi: mushrooms brewers yeast
  6. 6.  TOXICITY: Due to high doses , effects: an imbalance of other important B vitamins  liver damage and stomach ulcers  "niacin flush“ DEFICIENCY:  First symptoms  Muscular weakness  Inability to eat  Indigestion  Skin problems  Canker sores  Vomiting  Depression  Worst form of deficiency  Pellagra ABSORPTION: Niacin is rapidly absorbed in the proximal small intestine by passive diffusion. Being a water-soluble vitamin it is not stored in the body. Niacin can be synthesized from tryptophan with vitamins B1, B2, and B6 as essential cofactors.
  7. 7. Vitamin B5 (Panthothenic Acid ) OTHER NAME: “Anti-Stress vitamin” FUNCTIONS:  Assists in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fatty acids.  Essential for cell metabolism.  Works in the synthesis of cholesterol metabolism, hormone production and hemoglobin . SOURCES: Peas and beans (except green beans) , lean meat, Organ meat (liver and kidney), Poultry, Fish, Shellfish, Yeast, Cauliflower, Kale, Broccoli, Tomatoes, Lobsters, Lentils, Avocado, Mushrooms, Sweet potatoes, Whole- grain cereals and bread, Sunflower seeds
  8. 8.  TOXICITY: - Because the B5 vitamin is water soluble, toxicity is extremely uncommon. - Vitamin could possibly cause diarrhea if the vitamin is taking in excessive amounts. DEFICIENCY: - Paresthesia - Vitamin B5 deficiency causes depression, personality changes, heart problems, increased risk of infections, fatigue, abdominal pains, sleep disturbances, numbness and altered sensation in the arms and legs, muscle weakness, cramps, increased sensitivity to insulin, decreased blood cholesterol levels and decreased potassium levels in the body. ABSORPTION: Vitamin B5 is easily absorbed from the intestines and is distributed to all tissues in the body. The body does not break down Vitamin B5 and excretes large amounts of this vitamin in the urine.
  9. 9. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine ) FUNCTION:  Helping amino acid and protein metabolism  Enabling red blood cell metabolism  Helping the nervous system function efficiently  Helping the immune system function efficiently  Converting tryptophan (an amino acid) to niacin (a vitamin)  Enabling the breakdown of glycogen to glucose  Aiding in the metabolism, transportation, and distribution of selenium  Assisting in the metabolism of calcium and magnesium
  10. 10.  SOURCES:  Fortified breakfast cereal  Oatmeal, instant  Potato, baked with skin  Banana  Chicken breast, roasted, no skin  Garbanzo beans  Tomato paste  Pork loin, broiled  Top sirloin, broiled  Halibut, broiled  Rainbow trout, cooked  Brown rice, cooked  Sweet potato, baked with skin  Sunflower seeds, dry roasted  Avocado  Kidney beans, cooked  Lentils, cooked  Tuna  Peanut butter  Lima beans  Soybeans, cooked
  11. 11.  TOXICITY:  Too much vitamin B6 can result in nerve damage to the arms and legs. It can also result in increased urinary excretion of other B vitamins, leading to imbalances.  Symptoms of vitamin B6 toxicity include:  Muscle incoordination  Numbness of the hands and feet  Impaired reflexes  Abnormal plasma amino acid levels
  12. 12.  DEFICIENCY:  Skin inflammation and irritation  Glossitis (sore or inflamed tongue)  Confusion  Depression  Irritability and nervousness  Fatigue and sleepiness  Convulsions  Anemia (microcytic type) ABSORPTION:  Cheilosis (cracking and scaling of the lips)  The forms of vitamin B6 found in food are converted to active forms in the liver.  Vitamin B6 is readily absorbed in the upper small intestine by simple diffusion.
  13. 13. Vitamin B7 (Biotin) OTHER NAME: Vitamin H, anti-eggwhite injury factor FUNCTIONS:  It helps our bodys cells produce energy.  It does this by working with four essential enzymes that break down fat, carbohydrate, and protein to yield energy.  Biotin also plays a role in the synthesis and function of DNA.
  14. 14.  SOURCES:  Eggs, Liver, yeast breads, whole grains, sardines, legumes, mushrooms, cereals, cauliflower, peanuts, cheese TOXICITY: There have been no reports of adverse effects due to eating too much biotin. DEFICIENCY:  Abnormal heart action,dermatitis, enteritis,hair loss(alopecia),depression,muscle pain,weakness,fatigue,nausea  A biotin deficiency is rare in healthy people who eat a healthful diet, since we usually get enough from the bacteria living in our digestive tracts. ABSORPTION: Biotin absorption takes place in the proximal small intestine.
  15. 15. Vitamin B8 (Myo-Inositol) OTHER NAME: Inositol, Inositol Monophosphate, and Inositol Hexaphosphate FUNCTION:  Inositol as the basis for a number of signaling and secondary messenger molecules, is involved in a number of biological processes, including:  Insulin signal transduction  Cytoskeleton assembly  Nerve guidance (Epsin)  Intracellular Calcium (Ca2+) concentration control  Cell membrane potential maintenance  Serotonin activity modulation  Breakdown of fats and reducing blood cholesterol  Gene expression
  16. 16.  SOURCES:  Fresh Vegetables oats and bran  Fruits   milk  Beans  yogurt  Grains  Nuts TOXICITY: No toxic effects are known, but diarrhea has been noted with the intake of very high dosage of inositol, as well as an increased secretion of creatine.
  17. 17.  DEFICIENCY:  Inositol deficiency is not common.  Deficiency symptoms that do occur, are:  constipation  eczema  elevated cholesterol levels  hair loss ABSORPTION:  Inostiol has no known interactions with drugs. However, when inositol combines with minerals, especially calcium, zinc, and iron, the phytic acid may hinder mineral absorption in the intestine.
  18. 18. Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid,folate,vitamin M,vitamin Bc,pteroylglutamic acid) FUNCTIONS:  Maintain healthy skin and muscle tone  Enhance immune and nervous system function  Promote cell growth and division — including that of the red blood cells that help prevent anemia.  Reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer SOURCES:  Leafy greens such as spinach and turnip greens  Broccoli  Asparagus  Mushrooms  Liver  Dry beans and peas  Fortified cereals and grain products  Fortified juices
  19. 19.  TOXICITY:  High doses (above 15 mg) can cause:  stomach problems,  sleep problems,  skin reactions  Seizures DEFICIENCY:  Deficiency results in a megaloblastic or macrocytic anemia, and elevated levels of homocysteine  Folate deficiency can cause diarrhea,  anemia,  loss of appetite,  weight loss,  sore tongue ABSORPTION: Folic acid also assists in digestion, and the nervous system, and works at improving mental as well as emotional health. This nutrient may be effective in treating depression and anxiety.
  20. 20. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin,cyanocobalamin,anti- pernicious anemia factor)* FUNCTIONS:  also keeps your central nervous system healthy  works with folic acid to produce healthy red blood cells SOURCES:  Meat  Milk products  Eggs  Cheese  Chicken  Fish
  21. 21.  TOXICITY: - Vitamin B12 has a very low potential for toxicity. DEFICIENCY:  Pernicious anemia - Vitamin B12 deficiency impairs the body’s ability to make blood, accelerates blood cell destruction, and damages the nervous system. - B12 deficiency can cause a type of anemia marked by fewer but larger red blood cells thats called pernicious anemia ABSORPTION: - The absorption of dietary vitamin B12 occurs in the small intestine.
  22. 22. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, anti-scorbutic factor) FUNCTIONS:  helps to heal wounds  prevent cell damage,  promote healthy gums and teeth,  strengthen the immune system.  It also helps the body absorb iron SOURCES:  Citrus juices and fruits  Tomatoes  Berries  Potatoes with skins  Green and red peppers  Broccoli  Spinach
  23. 23.  TOXICITY:  High intake of vitamin C (more than 1500 mg) may decrease the absorption of copper in the intestine.  Excessive doses of vitamin C can cause diarrhea,nausea,abdominal cramps,headache,fatigue,insomnia,hot flashes,rashes in the skin,aggravation of gout symptoms,excessive urination,kidney stones,interference with medical tests DEFICIENCY: Scurvy ABSORPTION: Vitamin C, travel through the bloodstream.