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Building the Mobile Internet

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This presentation is based on the book "Building the Mobile Internet", the central theme being that the lack of a true session layer in the TCP/IP stack causes problems with mobility. The presentation addresses different ways of dealing with that problem on the various layers of the TCP/IP stack.

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Building the Mobile Internet

  1. 1. Building the Mobile InternetKlaas Wierenga <klaas@cisco.com>Consulting Engineer, Office of the CTOApril, 2012
  2. 2. Agenda §  Introduction Trends, The Mobile Internet, Mobility §  Challenges Sessions, Locators and Identifiers §  Solutions Nomadicity, Data, Network, Transport, Application, Locator- Identifier Separation §  Conclusions §  QuestionsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
  3. 3. Content of this presentation based on: Cisco Press, January 2011, ISBN-10: 1-58714-243-0, ISBN-13: 978-1-58714-243-7Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
  4. 4. Agenda §  Introduction Trends, The Mobile Internet, Mobility §  Challenges Sessions, Locators and Identifiers §  Solutions Nomadicity, Data, Network, Transport, Application, Locator- Identifier Separation §  Conclusions §  QuestionsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4
  5. 5. Media Rich Mobile Tablets and Devices— Everyone’s Got One50% of Fortune 500 are testing or No Wiresdeploying iPads*By 2015, tablets will constitute50% of laptop sales** ORGANIZATION TIME Source: *Apple Inc, Quarterly Financial Report, **The US PC Consumer Market in 2015 – Forrester Research Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
  6. 6. The Mobile Internet is Changing Everything New Devices More Broadband New New Pricing Applications Video will be 66% of mobile traffic by 2014. Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
  7. 7. Scaling the Mobile Internet Delivering 39 fold increase in Supply 39x Growth Macro 1000 Capacity Average Macro Cell 100 Growth Efficiency 10 Spectrum 1 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Source: AgilentBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
  8. 8. All WAN Radio Technologies Leading to IP… 4G 3.5G 2G 3G GSM Edge LTE LTE-A 802.11 CDMA WCDMA HSPA, EVDO IP WiMAX WiMAX 802.16m 802.16eBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
  9. 9. The Mobile Internet §  … is not a new Internet, but rather an evolution (again) to deal with changed usage patterns §  “a pervasive Internet Protocol-based network that links fixed and mobile nodes, whether they are sensors or servers, standalone, distributed, battery, or line powered” §  Mobility is a central conceptBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9
  10. 10. What is Mobility? Client Mobility •  Subscriber mobility across different radio towers •  Subscriber mobility across radio technologies (WiFi/WiMAX/EVDO/LTE) Device Mobility •  Access services across multiple devices •  Access services across multiple operator domains Content Mobility •  Intelligent pre-positioning of content based on subscriber trends •  Content routing for efficient distribution of high-bandwidth content Services Mobility •  Network cloud model – virtualized services offered through the network •  Network Services available to all subscribers (wired, wireless) Application Mobility •  Cloud computing environment •  Software-as-a-Service models for subscriber base Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
  11. 11. Session Persistency §  Mobility events do not impact user traffic and allow sessions to be maintained §  There is persistent and there is persistent…. No perception of change by user Application stall and resume Application stall and no recovery §  Some applications are more sensitive than others, in the sense that user experience is degradedBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
  12. 12. Summary §  Number of devices increasing §  New types of devices §  Use of mobile data increasing §  No single radio network can support all demand Capacity Cost Coverage §  Roaming between radio technologies necessary §  User Experience must not suffer Session PersistencyBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
  13. 13. Agenda §  Introduction Trends, The Mobile Internet, Mobility §  Challenges Sessions, Locators and Identifiers §  Solutions Nomadicity, Data, Network, Transport, Application, Locator- Identifier Separation §  Conclusions §  QuestionsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
  14. 14. The TCP/IP 5 Layer Model Application SMTP, HTTP, SIP, etc. Transport TCP, UDP, SCTP, MPTCP Network IPv4, IPv6, MIP, LISP Link Ethernet, 3G, WiFi Physical Fiber, Copper, Wireless Note: No Session Layer!Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
  15. 15. What is a Session? §  "Shared State between Communication Endpoints that is not specific to the Network Path” §  TCP/IP Networks don’t implement a Session Layer, instead they use the Socket API Abstract endpoint for a communication session called “socket” TCP session: {local IP, local port, remote IP, remote port, socket id}Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
  16. 16. Socket API Application SMTP, HTTP, SIP, etc. Socket API {local IP, remote IP,..} Transport TCP, UDP, SCTP, MPTCP Network IPv4, IPv6, MIP, LISP Link Ethernet, 3G, WiFi Physical Fiber, Copper, WirelessBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
  17. 17. The Locator-Identifier Problem §  IP-address functions as: Destination for an IP-packet Identifier of a communication session (as part of the TCP 5-tuple) §  So when a mobile node changes its Point of Attachment (PoA), the session breaks! §  Solving the mobility problem is about ignoring, solving or circumventing the Locator-Identifier Separation problem At different layersBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17
  18. 18. Agenda §  Introduction Trends, The Mobile Internet, Mobility §  Solutions Nomadicity, Data, Network, Transport, Application, Locator- Identifier Separation §  Conclusions §  QuestionsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18
  19. 19. Nomadicity §  Use the Internet and its services regardless of location and time §  Roaming/Federated access to networks and services Not operated by the “home” operator §  Key challenge: Authentication, Authorization and Accounting in a roaming situation §  Examples: Network: 3GPP Roaming, WiFi Roaming (eduroam) Application: SAML, IMS, DDNS basedBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19
  20. 20. Most Mobile Internet Usage Takes Place in Fixed Locations ( Enterprise is a key location ) Percent of U.S. Mobile Internet Usage Taking Place in Each Location 38% 46 minutes On the Go 56% § Email 27% 33 minutes § Search In an Office 10% § Maps § IM At Home 34% 35% 43 minutes § Web Browsing § Entertainment Infrequent User Everyday User 76 minutes of data activity per week per user can be offloaded through Fixed-Mobile Convergence solutions Source: Cisco IBSG, 2009 Base: U.S. Mobile Internet users BRKSPM-1002_C1 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 20
  21. 21. Mobile Data Occurs at Home and Work§  44% of data usage on smartphones occurs at home1§  60% of mobile data traffic will be generated in the home by 20132 ( Infra for SP and teleworker become the same )§  36% of mobile calls are initiated at home One number; one address book The mobile phone Other 19% competes in the home Car with the PC & TV 13% Public Home Transport 36% 1 Nokia smartphone survey, Dec 2007 8% 2 Informa Telecoms and Media, Work Mobile Broadband Access at Home report, Aug 2008 24%Source: Analysys Research 2006Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21
  22. 22. Roaming/Federation §  Authentication Relying Party §  Federation Trust (roaming agreement) §  Attribute Exchange §  API Identity Transitive trust Provider Trust (authentication) ClientBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22
  23. 23. WiFi Access with 802.1X (EAP+RADIUS) Supplicant Authenticator RADIUS server (AP or switch) University A User DB user@university_a.nl Internet Employee Commercial VLAN VLAN Student VLAN signaling data Courtesy: SURFnetBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23
  24. 24. EAP for Authentication EAP Peer Authentication Server EAP Method EAP MethodEAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS,EAP-FAST EAP-FASTEAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, etc EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, etc EAP Framework EAP Framework EAP Logical Connection Supplicant EAP Authenticator RADIUS Transport-Layer Authentication RADIUS Transport-Layer RADIUS Method Protocol (EAPoL) Transfer EAP authentication parameters Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24
  25. 25. eduroam Supplicant Authenticator RADIUS server RADIUS server (AP or switch) University A User University B User DB DB Visiting useruser@university_b.nl SURFnet Employee Commercial VLAN VLAN Central .nl RADIUS Student Proxy server VLAN §  Authentication: EAP §  Authorization: Implicit (+VLANs) §  Attributes: RADIUS signalling data §  Federation: RADIUS hierarchy Courtesy: SURFnet Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25
  26. 26. Why (not) stick to Nomadicity? §  Allows for nomadic access §  Many applications are (or should be) tolerant to changing PoA But: §  No seamless mobility §  Many applications are not tolerant to changing PoA §  Requires operator involvement Or accounts with many operatorsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26
  27. 27. Agenda §  Introduction Trends, The Mobile Internet, Mobility §  Challenges Sessions, Locators and Identifiers §  Solutions Nomadicity, Data, Network, Transport, Application, Locator- Identifier Separation §  Conclusions §  QuestionsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27
  28. 28. Data Layer Mobility §  Below the IP-layer §  In Data Layer domain (Ethernet) Ethernet bridging DHCP WLAN mobility §  Across Data Layer domains Behave like a Data Layer domain Using tunneling §  Examples: CAPWAP, GTP, PMIPv4, PMIPv6Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28
  29. 29. WiFi Mobility Core Tier Distribution Tier Access Tier AP#1 AP#2 AP#3 AP#4 ü ûBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29
  30. 30. Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP) Conventional “fat” Wireless LAN Access Point IEEE 802.11 Station “Wireless LAN IEEE 802.11 “Light Weight Access Station Access Point” Controller”Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 30
  31. 31. Inter-WLC Mobility Controller #1 Controller managing #2 AP#1 managing AP#2 AP#1 on different IP AP#2 on different IP Subnet than Subnet than Controller#1 Controller#2 Common Extended BSS Client moves from AP#1 à AP#2Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31
  32. 32. Why (not) Data Layer Mobility? §  Solving mobility below IP-layer §  IP PoA stable §  Location Privacy But: §  Scalability Issues Tunnels §  Mutual trust between operators needed §  Heterogeneous access networks Virtual Interface Adaptors §  Location changes invisibleBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32
  33. 33. Agenda §  Introduction Trends, The Mobile Internet, Mobility §  Challenges Sessions, Locators and Identifiers §  Solutions Nomadicity, Data, Network, Transport, Application, Locator-Identifier Separation §  Conclusions §  QuestionsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33
  34. 34. Network Layer Mobility §  Endpoint changes point of attachment §  Two options: Mobile node keeps IP-address Hierarchical structure of IP-addressing doesn’t map to the topology, so network can not properly route Mobile node changes IP-address All TCP sessions break §  Solution: separate IP address space for routing and for end-point identification §  Examples: Mobile IPv4, Mobile IPv6, Dual Stack Mobile IP, IKEv2 Mobility and Multihoming, VPN solutions with Auto-reconnectBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34
  35. 35. Mobile IPv4 §  2 IP “Layers” Endpoint Identifiers Routing §  Mobile Node has a persistent IP-address in the home network (Home Address) §  Mobile Node informs the home network of the IP- address of the current PoA (Care of Address) §  Traffic is tunneled between home network and Mobile Node Either all traffic or just Correspondent Node originatedBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35
  36. 36. Mobile IPv4 routing with FA CoA Home Agent 10.1.1.254Mobile Node A Foreign AgentHome Address 10.1.1.1 192.168.1.254 Visited Network A Home Network Local Network B Correspondent Node 192.168.1.0/24 10.1.0.0/16 172.16.1.1 Mobile Node to Correspondent Node Source IP Destination IP 10.1.1.1 172.16.1.1 Foreign Agent to Mobile Node Home Agent to Foreign Agent CoA Correspondent Node to Home Agent Source IP Destination Outer Outer Inner Source Inner Source IP Destination IP Source IP Destination IP Destination IP IP IP 172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.254 192.168.1.25 172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 4 Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 36
  37. 37. Mobile IPv4 routing with CCoA Home Agent 10.1.1.254Mobile Node A Foreign AgentHome Address 10.1.1.1 192.168.1.254CCoA 192.168.1.1 Visited Network A Home Network Local Network B Correspondent Node 192.168.1.0/24 10.1.0.0/16 172.16.1.1 Mobile Node to Correspondent Node Source IP Destination IP 10.1.1.1 172.16.1.1 Home Agent to Foreign Agent CoA Correspondent Node to Home Agent Outer Outer Inner Inner Source IP Destination Source IP Destination Source IP Destination IP IP IP 172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.254 192.168.1.1 172.16.1.1 10.1.1.1 Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37
  38. 38. Why (not) Network Layer Mobility? §  Endpoint has stable rendezvous point TCP sessions can be maintained Provides for location privacy But §  Requires Layer 2 interactions Proxy ARP Gratuitous ARP §  Granularity smaller than whole node difficult §  TunnelsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38
  39. 39. Agenda §  Introduction Trends, The Mobile Internet, Mobility §  Challenges Sessions, Locators and Identifiers §  Solutions Nomadicity, Data, Network, Transport, Application, Locator- Identifier Separation §  Conclusions §  QuestionsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39
  40. 40. Transport/Session Layer Mobility §  Main protocols: TCP and UDP TCP mostly relevant because of connection oriented character §  This layer is aware of changing PoA and can deal with it §  TCP assumes stable end2end path for congestion control §  Required functions: Reconfiguration of host for new network (Examples: DHCP, IP auto-config) Ensuring reachability for new connections (Example: Dynamic DNS) Updating existing connections and bindings (Examples: SCTP, MPTCP, MSOCKS, Migrate Internet Project, SLM)Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 40
  41. 41. Stream Control Transmission Protocol §  General purpose transport layer protocol that can be used instead of TCP or UDP §  Any application that runs over TCP also runs over SCTP §  Similar to TCP (Point-to-point, connection oriented, reliable delivery, congestion control, packet loss recovery, rate adaption) §  But different: multipath, multihomingBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41
  42. 42. SCTP Multistream Stream Client Stream Client Non-Sequenced Data Flow Stream Client Stream Client Sequenced Data Flow Stream Client Stream Client Sequenced Data Flow SCTP SCTP Protocol Reliable Delivery, Congestion Control Protocol Packet Loss Recovery, Rate Adaptation IP IP Protocol Packet Delivery ProtocolBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 42
  43. 43. SCTP Multihoming Client Server Application Layer App App App App App App Application Layer Session Layer Session Layer Transport Layer SCTP SCTP Association SCTP Transport Layer Network Layer IP1 IP2 IP Network Layer Datalink Layer INT1 INT2 INT Datalink Layer Backup Path Primary PathBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 43
  44. 44. SCTP and Mobility §  Dynamic Address Reconfiguration Changing Primary Address Add or Delete Addresses §  SCTP ADDIP Set Primary Address Add IP Address Delete IP AddressBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 44
  45. 45. Why (not) Transport Layer Mobility? §  Inherent route optimization No reliance on tunnels No obscuring of changing PoA No triangular routing §  Inherent travel of security elements No topologically incorrect source addresses (CoA) showing up at firewalls etc. §  Ability to pause transmissions during temporary disconnection §  Ability to apply per flow optimization §  Ability to tailor transport characteristics to application needs But: §  Solutions require kernel changes §  Reliance on lower layers “Connection Manager”Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45
  46. 46. Agenda §  Introduction Trends, The Mobile Internet, Mobility §  Challenges Sessions, Locators and Identifiers §  Solutions Nomadicity, Data, Network, Transport, Application, Locator- Identifier Separation §  Conclusions §  QuestionsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 46
  47. 47. Application Layer Mobility §  Lower layer solutions use IP-addresses as endpoint identifiers §  Application mobility uses non-IP identifiers §  User-Centric Mobility Device Orientation => Person Orientation Session Continuity across devices §  Basic functionality needed: Authentication Registration Rendezvous Service §  Examples: DDNS, SIP REFER, HTTP cookies, Adaptive VideoBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 47
  48. 48. SIP Architecture Location Server SIP SIP Redirect Registrar Server SIP SIP SIP SIP User SIP SIP User Agent Proxy Agent Server RTP based MediaBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 48
  49. 49. SIP Registration Charlie’s SIP Registrar Phone SIP REGISTER Request SIP REGISTER Response 200 (OK)Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 49
  50. 50. SIP Digest Authentication SIP User SIP Agent Registrar SIP REGISTER Request SIP REGISTER Response 401 (Unauthorized) WWW-Authenticate header SIP REGISTER Request Authorization header SIP REGISTER Response 200 (OK)Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 50
  51. 51. SIP Rendezvous Charlie’s SIP User Harry’s Agent SIP Proxy SIP User Agent SIP INVITE Request (SDP Offer) SIP INVITE Request (SDP Offer) 180 Ringing 180 Ringing 200 OK (SDP Answer) 200 OK (SDP Answer) ACK RTP Media BYE 200 OKBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 51
  52. 52. SIP REFER Charlie’s Mobile Phone SIP Proxy Harry’sCharlie’s PC SIP User Agent INVITE/200OK/ACK RTP Media REFER/202 Accepted REFER/202 Accepted INVITE INVITE BYE/200 OK BYE/200 OK 200 OK 200 OK ACK ACK RTP Media NOTIFY (refer success)/200 OK NOTIFY (refer success) /200 OK Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 52
  53. 53. Why (not) Application Layer Mobility? §  Does not need kernel changes §  Allows for “User-Centric Mobility” §  Correspondent node aware of changes in IP- address of Mobile Node Geo-Location based services possible But: §  Has to be done for each and every application §  When combined with Geo-location privacy concerns may ariseBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53
  54. 54. Agenda §  Introduction Trends, The Mobile Internet, Mobility §  Challenges Sessions, Locators and Identifiers §  Solutions Nomadicity, Data, Network, Transport, Application, Locator- Identifier Separation §  Conclusions §  QuestionsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 54
  55. 55. Locator-Identifier Separation §  Two broad categories Introduce an extra layer to hold the Endpoint Identifier (encapsulated within packets with Routing Locators) Split IPv6 Address Space into part that has topological meaning and part that identifies host §  Both categories can be further divided into approaches that act at the host and those that act at the border between site and core networks §  Examples: HIP (extra layer at host) LISP-MN (extra layer at border) ILNP (address split at host) NPTv6 (NAT66) (address space split at border)Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 55
  56. 56. Network Prefix Translation IPv6 §  Address independence between local and core network IPv6 addresses ‘inside’ don’t have to change if the prefix announced to the outside world changes §  Stateless No port mapping Default mapping mechanism of addresses §  IP header changes Security mechanisms that provide header protection still fail §  Works particularly well for site mobilityBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 56
  57. 57. NPTv6 Operation Internal External Prefix: Prefix FD01:0203:0 2001:0DB8:0 405:/48 001:/48 Internet Core NAT66 device Source Address: Dest Address: FD01:0203:0405:0001::1234 2001:0DB8:5555:0001::1234FD01:0203:0405:0001::1234 -> 2001:0DB8:001:D550::1234 -> 2001:0DB8:001:D550::1234 -> 2001:0DB8:5555:0001::1234 2001:0DB8:5555:0001::1234 2001:0DB8:5555:0001::12342001:0DB8:5555:0001::1234-> 2001:0DB8:5555:0001::1234-> 2001:0DB8:5555:0001::1234-> FD01:0203:0405:0001::1234 2001:0DB8:001:D550::1234 2001:0DB8:001:D550::1234Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 57
  58. 58. Why (not) introducing Locator-Identifier Separation? §  Separation of Endpoint Identifiers and Routing Locators But: §  “Flag Day” not realistic Incremental beneficial deployment §  May require changes in hosts and/or core networksBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 58
  59. 59. Agenda §  Introduction Trends, The Mobile Internet, Mobility §  Challenges Sessions, Locators and Identifiers §  Solutions Data, Network, Transport, Application, Locator-Identifier Separation §  Conclusions §  QuestionsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 59
  60. 60. Conclusion One size does not fit all §  Nomadicity: Necessary precondition, sometimes sufficient No session continuity §  Data layer: Fast, invisible to upper layers Not scalable, no visibility of lower layers §  Network layer: Scales well, support multiple data links, application independent §  Transport/Session layer: Route and flow optimization Requires kernel changes, requires lower layer involvement §  Application layer: User-centric mobility, geo-tagging Application specific, location privacy §  Locator-Identifier Separation: Addresses fundamental flaw Hard to deployBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 60
  61. 61. Agenda §  Introduction Trends, The Mobile Internet, Mobility §  Challenges Sessions, Locators and Identifiers §  Solutions Data, Network, Transport, Application, Locator-Identifier Separation §  Conclusions §  QuestionsBuilding the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 61
  62. 62. Ask klaas@cisco.com or read…. ;-)Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 62
  63. 63. <klaas@cisco.com>Building the Mobile Internet © 20112Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 63

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