Pathogens can be transmitted through: Direct contact between broken or Cerebrospinal fluid chaffed skin and infected body fluids Pleural fluid Needle stick injuries from infected hypodermic needles or sharps or Vaginal secretions shared drug needles Amniotic fluid Sexual contact Pericardial fluid Blood Semen Synovial fluid Peritoneal fluid Saliva (containing blood)
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)o Direct contact between broken or chaffed skin and infected body fluids. • Needle stick injuries from infected hypodermic needles or sharps • Shared drug needles • Sexual contacto Hepatitis B can also be transmitted through caked, dried blood, and contaminated surfaces.o The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) attacks the liver. HBV can cause: • Active hepatitis B, a flu-like illness that can last for months. • A chronic carrier state, the person may have no symptoms, but can pass HBV infection.
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)o The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) also attacks the liver. Symptoms of active infection are milder than those of HBV and may not even be present. But, HCV is more likely to cause: • A chronic carrier state, • Cirrhosis, liver cancer, and deatho The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes AIDS. HIV attacks the immune system, making the body less able to fight off infections. In most cases, these infections eventually prove fatal.
Hospital Exposure Control Plano Universal or standard precautionso Work practices, including the use of protective clothing, that eliminate or minimize associate exposureo Housekeeping procedures to ensure cleanliness and sanitationo Hepatitis B vaccination for associates at risko Exposure evaluation and follow-up for exposure incidentso Hazardous material container warnings such as biohazard labels.o Confidential, accurate associate medical records
Take special care when you collect, handle, store, or transport blood or other potentially infectious materials. Use only leak-proof (and, if necessary, puncture-proof) containers. If the outside of the container is contaminated, place it in a second leak-proof container. If a container becomes contaminated, decontaminate it- or at least label it “Contaminated” so no one will use it accidentally. Notify your supervisor. To make sure you know what you’re handling, OSHA requires containers of potentially infectious materials to be red, or labeled clearly in orange or orange-red with the biohazard symbol, or both.
Take Precautionso Universal Precautions means you treat all blood and other potentially infectious body fluids as if they are infected.o Wash hands and exposed skin with soap and water immediately after exposure to infectious materials or after taking off gloves or other personal protective equipment.o Use antiseptic or cleansers or towelettes only if washing facilities are not available.o Minimize splashing, spraying, or spattering of blood or other potentially infectious materials.o Place contaminated sharps in assigned labeled, puncture- resistant, leak-proof containers.
DON’To Don’t shear or break contaminated needles or other sharps, and don’t bend, recap, or remove unless specifically instructed.o Don’t keep food or drink in work areas with exposure potential.o Don’t eat, drink, smoke, apply cosmetics or lip balm, or handle contact lenses in work areas with exposure potential.o Don’t pipette or suction potentially infectious material with your mouth.
Proper Protective Equipmento Gloves prevent hand contact with infectious materials.o Replace disposable gloves after each use – immediately if they’re torn or punctured.o Don’t wash or decontaminate disposable gloves.o You can decontaminate and reuse utility gloves if they’re not cracked, torn, or otherwise unable to protect you.o Masks, face shields or goggles, or glasses with solid side shields prevent splashes, spray, or spatters in your eyes, nose, mouth, or face.o Gowns, aprons, or similar clothing, and sometimes surgical caps or hoods and /or shoe covers or boots, protect your body.
Proper Protective Equipmento Before you put on protective clothing, make sure it’s in good condition. Don’t wear anything that’s damaged.o After exposure, remove protective clothing to avoid contaminating yourself. Place it in the assigned area or container for decontamination, washing, storage, or disposal.
Hepatitis B Vaccineo There’s a vaccine that helps protect against hepatitis B, and OSHA requires employers to provide it -free- to employees at risk of exposure.o When an exposure has occurred, timely reporting of the event may influence the treatment given.
Remember: There are no vaccines for HCV or HIV and no cures. Even if you are vaccinated against HBV, you must still follow universal precautions to stay safe on the job! Medication is available that may decrease your chance of contracting HIV, should the source be positive, but it must be started very quickly. For that reason it is very important to both report and seek treatment immediately after an exposure to blood or body fluids. If equipment or clothing is contaminated, follow proper cleaning, decontamination, and/or disposal procedures. Report any exposure to infectious materials immediately – and cooperate with medical efforts to discover sources of infection and to begin treatment.