Theory of Plato’s Idea


Published on

Published in: Data & Analytics
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Theory of Plato’s Idea

  1. 1. THEORY OF PLATO’S IDEA • Plato’s primary philosophy is “Theory of Idea”. It was intuition answer of spesific question “What is truly real?”. • To answer the question, Plato made syntesis between Heraclitus Becoming and Parmenidean Being--to integrate them a new the dualistic synthesis of being and becoming. The syntesis was; there are particular idea (always change and nothing at rest) and Universal idea (full, complete, immortal and independent existence)-- required by The Ideas.
  2. 2. Plato’s Idea is immortal or eternal. To unserstand it, we need general word, e,g. “This is a cat”. What do we mean by “cat?”. In perception, the syllable is opinion (sensory). Obviously something different from each particular cat. Logically, Language cannot get on without general words such as “cat”, and clear—the words are not evidently something which is not this or that cat, but some kind of “Universal Cattyness (knowledge)”. The Cattyness has not position in space or time, it is eternal. In the metaphysical meaning, “The Cat’ means certain ideal (Ideal Cat) has created by God. The particular cat can partake the nature of cat, but imperfectly, the imperfection that there can be many of them. The cat is real, particular cat only appearent.
  3. 3. Principally, the general theme’s of Plato’s Idea which was expressed in the three parth themes of duality. Duality of ephistemology (particular opinion and universal knowledge), duality of methapysical (Reality and fenomena) and Ethical duality (Ideal value and fenomenal value).
  4. 4. In the area of ephistemology, Plato distinguished two basic approaches: “Sense and Intellect”. Sense perception concerned in changing, relative, and particular object, which appear in different way. He concluded that sensation only fallible opinion and can’t be real knowledge. Intellect concerned in absolute, immortal, independent and universal object can only be understanding. Understanding the higest universal obyect is the higest kind of knowledge, and perception of the lowest particular object is the lowest kind of opinion.
  5. 5. In area of metaphysical, Plato distinguished two radically different entities; reality and fenomena. Understanding knows reality, sense perseption grasp phenomena. The validity of true knowledge requires intelligible realities or ideas to which universal concept objectively refer. The phenomenal object of the senses are real and rational in sofar as they participate in the fully real and truly intelligibles ide.
  6. 6. In the area of ethic,Plato distinguished duality; “Ideal value and phenomenal value” Plato’s speculative find their practical application and extension in his theory of individual and social values. The more One strifes to make his conduct participate in ethical Ideas; The more he actualizes in his own life real values such as justice and courage. The more he pursues the irrational passions of the appetitive parts of the soul, bodily pleasures, and riches; the more his life is unreal and untrue.
  7. 7. When did Origin Idea begin to stand? “The Allegory of Cave”— Knowledge hierarchy—related with Soul hierarchy
  8. 8. The Allegory of Cave symbolized four grades of knowledge (Ideas): • The man in chain:Conjecture, illustrated the first grade of knowledge. The shadow and echoes are only reflection on other thing. • The man unbound in the cave; illustrated the second stage of knowledge; Belief. The direct and experimental perception of things involves a comparatively spontanous and firm assent to whatever One sees or hear or feel, it called Belief. • The men out of Cave; Reasoning. The man leaves the cave of pre-scientific sense experience and ascend to the region of sun-clear intelligible, dionessis-reasoning. • The man fully liberated: Understanding. Man who fully free their mind from the bonds of changing sensibles and of particular mathematical intelligible are ascend to the highest grade of knowledge— noesis—understanding.
  9. 9. Noesis-Understanding reveals to The Supreme Idea, Good, who symbol is the sun and in who intelligibility and clarity all others object participate in decreasing degrees. Noetic vision—the mind understand reality in true perspective, realizing that Divine Ideas are the archetype of all other object, which in turn, are image of ideas or shadows of the image. The highest knowledge where the mind reason “from idea, through idea and in idea.”
  10. 10. The Triparti of Soul (Three element of Soul) In the hierarchy of Soul, Plato made symbol with three element. First; Human as element of Reason (Higest soul). Second; Lion as element of spirit (high sense). Third, Snake with many heads as lower soul (nafsu-physic emotion). The task of human (reason) is to involve lion (spirit) in controlling of snake (nafsu- physic emotion) to make harmony. Human must control both of spirit and physic emotion.
  11. 11. Method: • Empirical starting-Point: Beginning from definite situation or sense observation of particular fact to see reality (sense perception / opinion). • Conversion; from sensible to inteligible. Dissatisfied with shadowy sense particular to higher realities only by intellectual an moral conversion (purification). • Hyphotesis: to transcend and explain sense phenomena to higher realities. He focused in mathematic—by deduction to demonstrate the truth to be valid-with the real object of his thought. • Myth: Urged on by Eros (love) toward the true and good, Plato found in myth an intelligible that very mysterious in human being, so human must focus to morally responsible for conduct, thereby strongly motivating him to lead good life (eschatologys). • Dialectic: still drawn by eros toward a vision of the most sublime intelligible realities, conversion, hyphotesis and intuitif power of myth.Its mean dialectic method.
  12. 12. Plato’s Idea in Ibnu ‘Arabi’s Spiritual Journey • Ibnu ‘Arabi had expressed seven stages in spiritual hierarchy. 1. Ahadiyah (The Unity)—God Existence, No Human in this position. 2. Wahdah (The universe is still global, no differentiate between each other) 3. Wahidiyah ( The Universe has differentiated and position, but in the sacre (hakekat) meaning. 4. Ruh Universe ( All creation has gave powerty/ruh to be Being) 5. Amtsal Universe (Idea or imagination Universe) 6. Ajsam Universe (physic powerty as medium of ruh and idea) 7. Insan Kamil (Being, is in evolution proses--Perfect Human Being) Only human in “spiritual mechanisme” will get the jouney systematically. After in Insan Kamil (Perfect Human Being) position, God Saints must come to turn up in the fourth stage (Wahidiyah) because all parth of physic, intellectual, moral and spiritual faculty has understood their life roles.
  13. 13. Plato’s Idea in Muhammad Journey (Mi’raj) (Physical and Spiritual / Internal Heavens) 1. Adam as, as symbol of passed away from the smallest particel (soul potension in atom) 2. Isa as, as symbol of passed away from nabaty (soul potension to growth) 3. Yusuf as, as symbol of passed away from animal (totally free from lower soul (nafsu) 4. Idris as, as symbol of passed away from human (Reason potension) 5. Harun as, as symbol of passed away from the origin substance (malaikat (spiritual medium) potension) 6. Musa as, as symbol of passed away from The Unity 7. Ibrahim as, as symbol of passed away from ego of the unity 8. God Slaves From first to fourth is physical revolution (Unseen universe-- ghaib), from five to seven is spiritual evolution (real universe- syahadah), Qs.Al Khasyr;22-24.
  14. 14. Plato’s Idea in Modern Culture There is fundamental question for us; What side effect when human can’t born the origin idea as Plato, teosoft or many Sufits?.Absolutely, it will express fallace conception in life or many realities but not real as the real reality. Many truth expression but not similar with the real of the truth. So, it important to aculture the origin idea in the real reality, for all harmony, in relation of God, nature and human being. If no harmony, we just prejudice with all our actual idea or reason will renovate the real reality, it will happen “The fall” --Contra-productive action.