THEORY OF PLATO’S IDEA
• Plato’s primary
philosophy is “Theory of
Idea”. It was intuition
answer of spesific
question “What is truly
• To answer the question,
Plato made syntesis
integrate them a new
the dualistic synthesis of
being and becoming.
The syntesis was; there
are particular idea
(always change and
nothing at rest) and
Universal idea (full,
complete, immortal and
required by The Ideas.
Plato’s Idea is immortal or eternal. To unserstand it, we need
general word, e,g. “This is a cat”. What do we mean by
“cat?”. In perception, the syllable is opinion (sensory).
Obviously something different from each particular cat.
Logically, Language cannot get on without general words
such as “cat”, and clear—the words are not evidently
something which is not this or that cat, but some kind of
“Universal Cattyness (knowledge)”. The Cattyness has not
position in space or time, it is eternal.
In the metaphysical meaning, “The Cat’ means certain ideal
(Ideal Cat) has created by God. The particular cat can
partake the nature of cat, but imperfectly, the imperfection
that there can be many of them. The cat is real, particular
cat only appearent.
Principally, the general theme’s of Plato’s Idea
which was expressed in the three parth
themes of duality. Duality of ephistemology
(particular opinion and universal knowledge),
duality of methapysical (Reality and
fenomena) and Ethical duality (Ideal value and
In the area of ephistemology, Plato distinguished two
basic approaches: “Sense and Intellect”.
Sense perception concerned in changing, relative, and
particular object, which appear in different way. He
concluded that sensation only fallible opinion and can’t
be real knowledge.
Intellect concerned in absolute, immortal, independent
and universal object can only be understanding.
Understanding the higest universal obyect is the higest
kind of knowledge, and perception of the lowest
particular object is the lowest kind of opinion.
In area of metaphysical, Plato
distinguished two radically different entities;
reality and fenomena. Understanding knows
reality, sense perseption grasp phenomena.
The validity of true knowledge requires
intelligible realities or ideas to which
universal concept objectively refer.
The phenomenal object of the senses are
real and rational in sofar as they participate
in the fully real and truly intelligibles ide.
In the area of ethic,Plato distinguished duality;
“Ideal value and phenomenal value”
Plato’s speculative find their practical application
and extension in his theory of individual and social
The more One strifes to make his conduct
participate in ethical Ideas; The more he
actualizes in his own life real values such as
justice and courage.
The more he pursues the irrational passions of the
appetitive parts of the soul, bodily pleasures, and
riches; the more his life is unreal and untrue.
When did Origin Idea begin to
“The Allegory of Cave”—
with Soul hierarchy
The Allegory of Cave symbolized four grades of
• The man in chain:Conjecture,
illustrated the first grade of
knowledge. The shadow and
echoes are only reflection on
• The man unbound in the cave;
illustrated the second stage of
knowledge; Belief. The direct
and experimental perception of
things involves a
comparatively spontanous and
firm assent to whatever One
sees or hear or feel, it called
• The men out of Cave;
Reasoning. The man leaves
the cave of pre-scientific sense
experience and ascend to the
region of sun-clear intelligible,
• The man fully liberated:
Understanding. Man who fully
free their mind from the bonds
of changing sensibles and of
intelligible are ascend to the
highest grade of knowledge—
Noesis-Understanding reveals to The Supreme Idea, Good,
who symbol is the sun and in who intelligibility and clarity all
others object participate in decreasing degrees.
Noetic vision—the mind understand reality in true
perspective, realizing that Divine Ideas are the archetype of
all other object, which in turn, are image of ideas or
shadows of the image. The highest knowledge where the
mind reason “from idea, through idea and in idea.”
The Triparti of Soul
(Three element of Soul)
In the hierarchy of Soul, Plato made
symbol with three element. First; Human
as element of Reason (Higest soul).
Second; Lion as element of spirit (high
sense). Third, Snake with many heads as
lower soul (nafsu-physic emotion).
The task of human (reason) is to involve
lion (spirit) in controlling of snake (nafsu-
physic emotion) to make harmony. Human
must control both of spirit and physic
• Empirical starting-Point: Beginning from definite situation or sense
observation of particular fact to see reality (sense perception /
• Conversion; from sensible to inteligible. Dissatisfied with shadowy
sense particular to higher realities only by intellectual an moral
• Hyphotesis: to transcend and explain sense phenomena to higher
realities. He focused in mathematic—by deduction to demonstrate
the truth to be valid-with the real object of his thought.
• Myth: Urged on by Eros (love) toward the true and good, Plato
found in myth an intelligible that very mysterious in human being,
so human must focus to morally responsible for conduct, thereby
strongly motivating him to lead good life (eschatologys).
• Dialectic: still drawn by eros toward a vision of the most sublime
intelligible realities, conversion, hyphotesis and intuitif power of
myth.Its mean dialectic method.
Plato’s Idea in Ibnu ‘Arabi’s Spiritual Journey
• Ibnu ‘Arabi had expressed seven stages in spiritual hierarchy.
1. Ahadiyah (The Unity)—God Existence, No Human in this position.
2. Wahdah (The universe is still global, no differentiate between
3. Wahidiyah ( The Universe has differentiated and position, but in
the sacre (hakekat) meaning.
4. Ruh Universe ( All creation has gave powerty/ruh to be Being)
5. Amtsal Universe (Idea or imagination Universe)
6. Ajsam Universe (physic powerty as medium of ruh and idea)
7. Insan Kamil (Being, is in evolution proses--Perfect Human Being)
Only human in “spiritual mechanisme” will get the jouney
systematically. After in Insan Kamil (Perfect Human Being)
position, God Saints must come to turn up in the fourth stage
(Wahidiyah) because all parth of physic, intellectual, moral and
spiritual faculty has understood their life roles.
Plato’s Idea in Muhammad Journey (Mi’raj)
(Physical and Spiritual / Internal Heavens)
1. Adam as, as symbol of passed away from the smallest
particel (soul potension in atom)
2. Isa as, as symbol of passed away from nabaty (soul
potension to growth)
3. Yusuf as, as symbol of passed away from animal (totally free
from lower soul (nafsu)
4. Idris as, as symbol of passed away from human (Reason
5. Harun as, as symbol of passed away from the origin
substance (malaikat (spiritual medium) potension)
6. Musa as, as symbol of passed away from The Unity
7. Ibrahim as, as symbol of passed away from ego of the unity
8. God Slaves
From first to fourth is physical revolution (Unseen universe--
ghaib), from five to seven is spiritual evolution (real universe-
syahadah), Qs.Al Khasyr;22-24.
Plato’s Idea in Modern Culture
There is fundamental question for us; What side
effect when human can’t born the origin idea as
Plato, teosoft or many Sufits?.Absolutely, it will
express fallace conception in life or many
realities but not real as the real reality. Many
truth expression but not similar with the real of
the truth. So, it important to aculture the origin
idea in the real reality, for all harmony, in relation
of God, nature and human being. If no harmony,
we just prejudice with all our actual idea or
reason will renovate the real reality, it will
happen “The fall” --Contra-productive action.