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In the 1880’s hundreds of Mennonites from South Russia migrated to the Silk Road kingdom of Khiva. Their leaders, including Claas Epp Jr., taught that Central Asia would be the the promised refuge from the Tribulation, and the place of the Second Coming of Christ in 1889. Those who remained in Khiva long after the prophecies failed had a modernizing influence in the khanate. They also formed long-term, positive relationships among the Khiva’s elite. A dichotomy has emerged in how these Mennonites are regarded. For more than a century, Mennonites in the North America have portrayed the migration to Central Asia as a cautionary tale against radical eschatology. However, some historians now also view the Mennonites of Khiva as modernizers and an example of Europeans who came not to conquer, but to share their friendship and knowledge with their Muslim neighbors.