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Literature case study - Druk White Lotus School

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Literature case study of Druk White Lotus School, Ladakh
Climatology
Acharya's NRV School of Architecture

Published in: Design, Technology, Business
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Literature case study - Druk White Lotus School

  1. 1. DRUK WHITE LOTUS SCHOOL Leh Ladakh NainaDeshmukh Class2010 Acharya’sNRVSchoolof Architecture
  2. 2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION  Type: Urban planning design strategy Landscape design Interior design Industrial/product design Architecture  Mission/Goal: Increase awareness of the environment and/or address climate change Respond to our growing need for clean water, power, shelter, healthcare, education  Details: Project Location: Shey, Ladakh, in northern India Project Phase: Complete Client: the people of Ladakh User Client: Infants and Children Concept/Lead Architect(s)/Designer(s): Arup and Ove Arup & Partners
  3. 3.  Founder The 12th Gyalwang Drukpa  Patrons The 14th Dalai Lama The 2nd Thuksey Rinpoche  Description: The Druk White Lotus School is located in Shey, Ladakh, in northern India. The school was started at the request of the people of Ladakh who wanted a school that would help maintain their rich cultural traditions, based on Tibetan Buddhism, while equipping their children for a life in the 21st century. The master plan and school buildings, designed by architects and engineers from Arup and Ove Arup & Partners, combine local building techniques and materials with leading edge environmental design to make them effective in the extreme climate. Sustainable design examples include ventilation-improved pit latrines, passive solar heating, a gravity feed water system and seismic safety designs.
  4. 4. LOCATION  Shey, Leh Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir 194101, India  Coordinates: 34°08′43.43″N 77°34′03.41″E  Altitude: 3500m
  5. 5. Druk white lotus school
  6. 6. LADAKH  constitutes the eastern-most part of the state of Jammu & Kashmir  area: 97,000 sq km  out of which nearly 38,000 sq. km are under Chinese Occupation since 1962  population - 2,70,126  density - 3 /km 2 (8 /sq m)  average altitude - 12,000 feet (3659m)  one of the highest places on earth  described as the 'roof of the world'  includes the Karakoram Range and the upper Indus River valley  it hardly rains here because of the lofty surrounding mountain ranges  average temperature in the summer season: -3° C to 30° C  average temperature in the winter season: -20° C to 15° C
  7. 7. CLIMATE  Ladakh lies on the rain shadow side of the Himalayan. Where dry monsoon winds reach Leh after being robbed of its moisture in plains and the Himalayan mountain.  The district combines the condition of both arctic and desert climate. Therefore Ladakh is often called “COLD DESERT”  Exceptionally harsh cold desert climatic conditions  Mean temperature  Summer midday: 17 to 24 ºC  Summer night: 4 to 11 ºC  Winter midday: –7 to –8 ºC  Winter night: –14 to –0 ºC
  8. 8. PARAMETERS  Climatic context cold and dry zone  Temperature wide diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in temperature with -30°C in Winter and + 35°C in Summer  Precipitation very low with annual precipitation of 10cm mainly in the form of snow  Air very dry  Relative humidity ranges from 10% - 50%  Solar radiation due to high altitude and low humidity the radiation level is very high. The global solar radiation is as high as 6-7 Kwh/mm (which is among the highest in the World)
  9. 9.  Dust storms very common in the afternoon  Sky fairly clear throughout the year with cloud cover less than 50%  Soil thin, sandy and porous  Vegetation devoid of any natural vegetation  Irrigation mainly through channels from the glacier-melted snow
  10. 10. COMFORT ZONE CHART
  11. 11. ANNUAL SOLAR RADIATION CHART
  12. 12. DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION CHART ON MARCH 21ST
  13. 13. DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION CHART ON JUNE 21ST
  14. 14. DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION CHART ON DEC 22ND
  15. 15. MAHONEY TABLES
  16. 16. THE SCHOOL  To reinforce the sense of community, architects clustered its buildings.  In this way, classrooms, a dining hall, kitchen, clinic, dormitories for residential students and homes for teachers also serve as buffers against the climatic extremes.  Planners also wanted a school that could operate year- round in a region known for its extreme climates. Ladakh has temperatures as low as -22 Fahrenheit to -56 Fahrenheit, frequent earth tremors and because of snowfall in the mountain passes, is physically inaccessible for months on end.  Such an environment required unique solutions to problems of fresh food, clean water, fuel and building materials.
  17. 17.  The walls of the Druk School therefore are not made of concrete, but of granite with a mud core, a traditional material that ensures adequate insulation and offers natural appeal in the mountain setting.  Using the latest in green technology and building design, students will grow food in a system of indoor cottage gardens; energy will produced by solar power, which also will pump fresh ground water that later will be recycled.
  18. 18. PLAN
  19. 19. TROMBE WALL UNDER CONSTRUCTION
  20. 20. USE OF CLERESTORY TO ENHANCE LIGHTING
  21. 21. POPLAR AND WILLOW ROOF
  22. 22. PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING  Ladakh is hot in summer and very cold in winter. But even in winter, there is often intense sunlight and the teaching spaces heat quickly thanks to their optimal 30° south-east orientation, combined with fully-glazed solar façades that gather the sun‟s energy and store heat in high thermal mass walls.  The Residences are oriented due south, and use Trombe Walls, which are coated externally with dark, heat- absorbing material and are faced with a double layer of glass. Heat is stored in the wall and conducted inwards to the dormitories at night-time.
  23. 23. TROMBE WALLS  A Trombe wall is a sun-facing wall separated from the outdoors by glass and an air space, which absorbs solar energy and releases it selectively towards the interior at night.  The simplest form of Trombe wall consists of a glass pane held against a wall with an air space behind it. Connecting this air space with the inner room are two vents, one at the top and one at the bottom of the air space.  During the day the Sun heats first the air in this space, then the solid wall behind. Once the air is heated it rises and enters into the room, giving it additional heat. Also the rising air pulls in cooler air from the room below to then be heated. But for sometime after the sun goes down the now hot wall will still keep heating air and exchanging that heat into the room.
  24. 24.  To stop the trombe walls from heating up the room in summer, the roof overhang is used. If it is deep enough, the higher summer sun will be able to heat the glass.  Guidelines  The space between the thermal mass wall and the glass should be a minimum of 4 inches.  Vents used in a thermal mass wall must be closed at night.  Thermal wall thickness should be about 10-14 inches for brick, 12-18 for concrete, 8-12” for adobe or other earth material and at least 6 inches for water.  Trombe walls can also be used to create ventilation in sub floor spaces. If there is adequate height in the sub floor space set it up so that the top vent goes into the sub floor space and that the bottom is open to the outside (instead of the inside). In effect a solar chimney is created, feeding into the sub floor space. This will raise the average temperature in the sub floor area that should lower the relative humidity.
  25. 25. TROMBE WALLS THAT ABSORB THE SUN'S ENERGY DURING THE DAYTIME TO WARM THE DORMITORIES AT NIGHT
  26. 26. SOUTH FACING RESIDENCES WITH ANTI-SEISMIC CROSS BRACING AND TROMBE WALLS
  27. 27. VENTILATION IMPROVED PIT LATRINES  Traditional dry latrines have been enhanced to „VIP latrines‟. These eliminate fly and odour problems and most importantly in a desert environment - do not require water. A double chamber system with an integrated solar flue allows their operation as composting toilets and produces humus that can be used as fertiliser.  The latrine blocks are clad in solar panels that dry human waste, permitting it to be compacted into an all but odourless fertilizer. Fresh air is drawn through the latrine blocks, to dissipate an unpleasant odour, which in turn discourages flies and other disease-carrying insects.  The architects particularly are pleased with the design of the latrines, which could help to revolutionize health in much of the developing world.
  28. 28. VIP LATRINE UNDER CONSTRUCTION WITH METAL CLADDING BEING PAINTED BLACK TO ABSORB HEAT AND CAUSE FUMES TO RISE
  29. 29. CONSTRUCTING COMPOSTING BAYS FOR A VIP LATRINE
  30. 30. ENERGY  The school aims to manage the electricity demand within the constraints of solar energy  As the school expands and electricity demand increases, they will need to increase installed capacity of both photovoltaic panels and inverters.  Around half of the initial investment in solar energy was co-financed by carbon-offset funds
  31. 31. PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY FROM SUNLIGHT, COMMISSIONED OCTOBER 2008
  32. 32. CARBON-OFFSET  The mains electricity supply in Ladakh is highly unreliable and therefore the school was previously forced to use a diesel generator to produce power to run lights, computers and the office equipment.  However, the generator was polluting a fragile environment and the school therefore determined to become energy self-sufficient through the use of solar energy.  Stage 1 was achieved in 2008 with the installation of photovoltaic panels and inverters, but it is necessary to increase the capacity to meet the demands of the expanding school.  The solar scheme was independently audited and approved by TICOS, the Travel Industry Carbon Offset Service, and travellers may offset their carbon travel footprint via their travel agent and TICOS.
  33. 33. WATER  Water supply in the Leh Valley comes from snow-melt. The volume of water potentially available at any time depends on the amount of accumulated ice stored in glaciers and permafrost, and on snowfall each winter.  Through spring and summer, the snow and ice gradually melt, and the water runs down numerous channels and eventually joins the Indus River that runs through Ladakh and into Pakistan.  Weather patterns seems to be shifting and glaciers are tending to recede. Therefore water supply could be at risk in some areas in the medium-term.  The solar pumps raise water from a depth of about 30 metres into above-ground reservoirs at the top of the campus, from where water is distributed under gravity through separate potable and irrigation systems.  Grey water is used for irrigation, including for willow saplings.
  34. 34. SEISMIC DESIGN & SAFETY  The major October 2005 earthquake in adjacent Pakistan was a „wake-up call‟ concerning such risks in Ladakh  Druk White Lotus building structures use timber frames to resist seismic loads and ensure life safety in the event of an earthquake. The timber frames are independent of the walls, and steel connections and cross-bracing provide earthquake stability.
  35. 35. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ANTI-SEISMIC CROSS-BRACING, WITH SUMMER FLOWERS
  36. 36. 2-STOREY JUNIOR BLOCK; EARLY STAGE PLANTING OF FRUIT TREE SAPLINGS IN COURTYARD
  37. 37. OVERVIEW  The Himalayan region is one of the most disaster prone and ecologically vulnerable ecosystems in the world. For nearly six months of the year, the valley is cut off by prolonged snowfall.  Under the patronage of His Holiness, the fourteenth Dalai Lama, the Drupka Trust, which commissioned the school, wanted to help Ladakhi youth negotiate India‟s rigorous national exam system successfully while allowing them to maintain a deep connection to the traditional cultures and fragile ecosystem of the Himalayas. It is exactly the challenge all economically poor communities face: how to survive in a modern world that increasingly renders traditional, low-impact lifestyles unviable.  Galeazzi and her design team at Arup Associates chose an approach that was both innovative and low tech for building the school. The team prioritized simplicity, robustness, adaptability, and appropriateness. Given the fragility of the ecosystem, the they planned for a nearly zero-impact system for water, energy and waste management.
  38. 38.  The buildings needed to be able to respond to drought, retreating glaciers and less predictable weather patterns, as well as be easy to operate and maintain. These principles are in clear contrast to the high- tech approach adopted in the area in recent years, where buildings produced are difficult to use and expensive to maintain.  The real challenge for the design team arose each time the analysis results had to be translated into construction techniques. Designing for Ladakh, with its unreliable power supplies and consequent limitations on the use of machinery, meant that materials had to be simple to procure and buildings simple to build and run.  Because Ladakh is a highly seismic zone, the engineers used the latest analysis software to develop earthquake-resistant construction. Passive solar-energy systems, the optimum use of natural ventilation, daylight and double glazing are systemic.  Most of the materials - stone, mud mortar, mud bricks, timber, and grass are indigenous to Ladakh. Using these materials enabled to severely limit reliance on imported products. Trombe walls were adapted from vernacular practice for the residences This increases the efficiency of the system and ensures that the rooms are constantly kept comfortable even when outdoor temperatures drop well below zero. There is no need of the burning stoves or gas heaters commonly used in Ladakh households. In a location that would otherwise be a desert, the water cycle of the site relies on a solar-powered pump that delivers potable groundwater by gravity feed.
  39. 39.  The team was inspired by the superbly rendered mud-brick and stone construction of the ancient monasteries. The buildings, designed to recall the region's monasteries, open onto tree-lined avenues, gardens and small, stone-paved streets or squares. Weather permitting, instruction takes place out of doors, a boon for students used to outdoor life.  Architects say that the Druk School demonstrates an alternative to the crude interpretations of Western design and building methods that prevail in so much of the developing world and that produce brutal, ugly and dysfunctional landscapes.  The overall result is a school that a Ladakhi child and parent can immediately recognize as being connected to their culture and way of life. It is this sense of belonging that invites them to learn from the radical propositions that culminate in the building‟s efficiency and structural logic and that promise survival in a mountainous region racked with earthquakes, retreating glaciers, and spontaneous floods. Interpreting these local conditions in a responsive and appropriate way and furthering innovation and improvement without depriving the design of its indigenous roots are the principles of an extraordinary partnership that can provide a model for other fragile communities and cultures under pressure to change.
  40. 40. RESIDENT ARCHITECT JAKE ARMITAGE WITH CONSTRUCTION MANAGER SONAM WANGDUS
  41. 41. AWARDS  Design for Asia Grand Award, 2009  Award for „Inspiring Design - International‟ from the British Council for School Environments, 2009  Sinclair Knight Merz Award, 2005  BCCB - Large Consultancy Firm of the Year, 2003  World Architecture Awards, 2002  Best Green Building:  The environmental strategy maximizes the site's solar potential. The heavy mass of the buildings act as a thermal buffer to mitigate the variations in external temperatures. All materials are local and, where possible, from renewable sources.  Best Asian Building:  The whole project is conceived as a model of appropriate and sustainable design. Building materials are mostly indigenous to Ladakh, with careful auditing of sustainable resource supplies. There is also no imported energy. None of this is achieved by compromising the quality of the architecture or of the interior spaces."  Best Education Building:  The teaching and play spaces area arranged around a central tree-planted courtyard that is divided with low benches that provide seating as well as demarcating outside teaching areas. The classrooms are well lit and ventilated+. The simple building techniques used mean that children will easily understand how the school was constructed. The jury felt this added a level of richness to the scheme.

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