Married to a victim6

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Married to a victim6

  1. 1. Married To A VictimWhen A Wife/Mother Has Been Affected byChildhood Sex Crimes and Trauma
  2. 2. • The statistics regarding the numbers of children that are hurt in a one year period of time are staggering. It is likely that a significant percentage of women entering marriage and family life will be dealing with the consequences of having been traumatized as a child.• In a one year period of time for children 17 or younger: • 60.6% experienced at least one direct victimization or witnessed someone else’s victimization, • 46.3% experienced a physical assault, • 24.6% were the victim of a property offense, • 10.2% were victims of child maltreatment, • 6.1% were victims of sex crimes. (NCVC, 2012).Choice of Topic
  3. 3. • In 80.7% of child abuse cases reported, parents or guardians were the perpetrators of the crimes (NCVC, 2012).• Most trauma is underreported, because there is a social stigma against accurate reporting of family violence (van der Kolk, 2005).• Nearly 57% of children will experience some form of physical violence during their lifetime (NCVC, 2012).• Most individuals with a trauma history have been exposed to violence multiple times, and rarely are victims exposed to violence only once (Cloitre et al., 2009).Choice of Topic
  4. 4. • Records from the Forum on Child and Family Statistics (2012) indicate the following percentages for racial breakdowns for trauma affecting children 17 years old and younger: • 54.8% White, non-Hispanic • 23.3% Hispanic • 14% Black • 4.3% Asian • 4.9% All other races• White, non-Hispanic, and Black percentages are projected to decline, and Hispanic percentages are projected to radically increase. Asian percentages are projected to increased nominally (Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2012).Diversity and EthnicityDifferences
  5. 5. • When children are the victims of trauma, especially when the perpetrators are parents or guardians, they have a greater tendency to develop Complex PTSD or Developmental Trauma Disorder and to develop negative symptoms in affective and interpersonal self-regulatory capacities (Cloitre et al., 2009).• Some of these symptoms are seen in adulthood as anxious arousal, anger management problems, dissociative symptoms, and either aggressive or socially avoidant behaviors (Cloitre et al., 2009).• If a woman enters marriage or family life with these issues unresolved, there are many negative consequences that may be experienced by all members of the family unit.Choice of Topic
  6. 6. • The research from Cloitre et al. (2009) indicates that exposure to multiple or repeated traumas in childhood result in symptoms that are not only more severe than experiencing a single childhood event or even multiple events in adulthood, but are qualitatively different in their tendency to affect multiple affective or interpersonal areas of functioning.• Children who are chronically traumatized, especially by attachment figures (parents / guardians) are in a category all of their own, due to the extreme nature of the symptoms that will develop for them (Cloitre et al, 2009).Brief Analysis of the Lit
  7. 7. • Regardless of the accumulated impact of childhood and adult trauma, trauma experienced in childhood is more likely to negatively impact a person due to the fact that it was experienced at critical developmental periods (Cloitre et al., 2009).• Research indicates that the impact of childhood trauma combined with the subsequent adult trauma that was experienced because child victims were more prone to revictimization, could possibly overwhelm self- regulatory systems (Cloitre et al, 2009).Brief Analysis of the Lit
  8. 8. • When self-regulation is impaired many additional symptoms develop such as: • emotionally, such as overactivation or deactivation/avoidance, • behaviorally, such as dysphoria, anger, or dissociation, or • relationally, such as aggression, dependence, distance, or avoidance. (Cloitre et al, 2009).• Many suffering from chronic childhood abuse will find that they suffer from co-occurring contradictory symptoms such as hyperarousal/emotional numbing and hypervigilance/poor concentration (Cloitre et al, 2009).Brief Analysis of the Lit
  9. 9. • At times while a person is experiencing trauma their mind is not able to handle the depth of the tragedy, and in a state of shock, a dissociation occurs which allows some feelings of detachment from the body, sense of self, or the world, thus ensuring survival during the traumatizing experience (Lyttle et al., 2010).• If a person suffers a tragedy extreme enough to result in some dissociation during the event they may find they develop more problems with processing through the memory of the event and understanding its meaning (Lyttle et al., 2010).Brief Analysis of the Lit
  10. 10. • This is especially troubling if the trauma were repeated in a chronic fashion, resulting in many layers of memories of trauma that have never been processed (Cloitre et al., 2009).• It is also troubling if the trauma was perpetrated by an attachment figure, resulting in an unbeknownst distortion of the meanings of the attachment figure’s role in the victim’s life (Cloitre et al., 2009).Brief Analysis of the Lit
  11. 11. • Memory is normally processed in order from the most basic information, such as chronological order of events, to the highest level, such as determining meaning (Lyttle et al., 2010).• Individuals who have been exposed to trauma may struggle with disjointed, disorganized, or detail-deficient memories, and those memories are sometimes remembered with distorted chronological ordering (Lyttle et al., 2010).Brief Analysis of the Lit
  12. 12. • Many people who have experienced trauma deal with intrusive memories of the trauma brought to mind by a triggering event such as a color, movement, smell, or context that is similar to their original sensory or emotional experience (Lyttle et al., 2010).• Some of those sensory experiences are so vivid and realistic that they seem to be reoccurring, and the victim may respond the same way she would have at the time (Lyttle et al., 2010).• At every reminder of any of the unprocessed trauma incidents stored in their memories their only option is to re-experience the event as if it was actually happening, resulting in retraumatization (van der Kolk, 2005).Brief Analysis of the Lit
  13. 13. • Parents are responsible to assist children with making sense of situations and developing a normal response, and when a parent is both the person inflicting the trauma and also the person helping the child to make sense of the event and develop a response, traumatized children are easily programmed by abusive parents / guardians into handling traumatic situations in a way that allows abusers to continue abusing (van der Kolk, 2005).• If children learn to regulate their behavior in anticipation of their caregiver’s responses, and the social environment is more important for childhood brain development than the physical environment, then the early patterns of repeated trauma at the hands of an attachment figure train those victims to become robotic (van der Kolk, 2005).Brief Analysis of the Lit
  14. 14. • They never learn a language to either process events and regulate themselves internally or communicate meaning and emotion externally (van der Kolk, 2005).• Instead those children fragment their sensations, affects, and cognitions and become unable to comprehend what is happening or devise and execute any appropriate plan of action (van der Kolk, 2005).• Children who learn to handle repeated trauma with no sense of control or stability become helpless, unable to grasp what is happening to them or to devise any plan of action to change their circumstances (van der Kolk, 2005).Brief Analysis of the Lit
  15. 15. • Each fearful stimulus is handled by freezing, fleeing, or fighting, and consequently these children never learn or grow from their experiences (van der Kolk, 2005).• Additionally, since there is no mental form for knowing how to understand and process novel experiences, traumatized individuals tend to stick with the familiar even if it is unsafe (van der Kolk, 2005).• This pattern will result in adult victims of childhood abuse continuing interpersonal and emotional patterns that allow them to be re-victimized throughout their adult lives (van der Kolk, 2005).Brief Analysis of the Lit
  16. 16. • Many adult survivors of complex and repeated traumas during childhood will end up being erroneously diagnosed with many psychiatric disorders that only describe their symptoms partially, will be exposed to many contradictory and even harmful treatment plans, and will be left feeling even more stigmatized and damaged by repeated psychiatric misdiagnosis (Cloitre et al, 2009).• Adult victims of repeated childhood trauma may find that a single diagnosis of Complex PTSD or Developmental Trauma Disorder and a single treatment plan will be more effective than multiple psychiatric diagnoses or treatment plans (Cloitre et al., 2009).Brief Analysis of the Lit
  17. 17. • Because former victims of childhood abuse have been conditioned to “fit” well with an abuser’s way of thinking and functioning, there is a tendency to form relationships with and eventually marry abusive men. Because that is what feels natural problems with physical, emotional, mental, or sexual abuse may develop in marriages or long term relationships.• Re-victimization can occur within the family, especially if the husband or children have tendencies to misuse power or roles.Implications to Marriageand Family Life
  18. 18. • Many former victims may still struggle with symptoms of PTSD, such as dissociation, re- experiencing, nightmares, psychosomatic body pain, and emotional flashbacks. These symptoms may help wives feel mentally incompetent or confused, and they may be tempted to shield their family from the true depth of their suffering. This could result in a husband or family who lacks understanding, develops assumptions, and consequently does not deal with her in a compassionate or understanding way, simply due to ignorance. Each symptom that remains for her will need to be explored together with the husband, and a joint plan will need to be developed. Conversely there may be wives who embrace a victim mentality and draw attention to their negative symptomology thus causing feelings of frustration to develop with husbands and family members.Implications to Marriageand Family Life
  19. 19. • Most former victims are likely to have sleep difficulties. Husbands and extended family members may need to be educated about sleep, sleep patterns, sleep disturbances, and methods that could be employed to assist in wakeful productivity.• Former victims may struggle with trusting others. This will significantly affect personal confidence, decision making, problem solving, sexual relationships, and parenting.Implications to Marriageand Family Life
  20. 20. • Most former victims lack a sense of personal safety, and they may develop inappropriate clinginess toward or isolation from their husbands or children.• Wives with this past may struggle with an inappropriate balance regarding Biblical submission. Wives with this past may appear to be appropriate in submission, but in actuality they may be simply robotically obeying without thinking. Husbands will need to help wives develop a more biblical view of submission, without taking advantage of their sometimes blind trust and obedience. Conversely, wives may struggle with over-independence and may struggle with Biblically appropriate submission toward their husbands.Implications to Marriageand Family Life
  21. 21. • Sexual problems are likely, and a wife will need patience, understanding, and gentle assistance from her husband to develop a mutually satisfying sexual relationship.• Pregnancy, childbirth, and early child rearing tasks may be especially difficult experiences, and husbands will need to be gentle, compassionate, and protective.• It may be hard for mothers to teach their children to be safe in interpersonal relationships or to know how to resist a sexual perpetrator, because topics of an interpersonal or sexual nature seem impossible to understand or navigate. They may also lack the knowledge that sexual safety is a topic that should be taught to their children.Implications to Marriageand Family Life
  22. 22. • Wives may develop either abusive patterns or indulgent patterns toward their husbands or children. Former victims may be extremely overprotective or detached or negligent about the safety of their husbands or children.• Because such vocabulary and communication delays exist, husbands, children, and extended family members will need to be patient as former victims struggle through learning to communicate in a language and method their family understands. Miscommunications because of language and vocabulary delays can tend to misrepresent intentions, meaning, or real situational truth, and feelings can be hurt, confusion may result, and tension and conflict may arise.Implications to Marriageand Family Life
  23. 23. • Wives who suffer from these issues could appear rigid or perfectionistic in their personal structure, how they run their household, and how they interact with family members. Wives with this type of upbringing may struggle when their sense of order or their standards of cleanliness are not upheld. When schedules, plans, or systems change this could be especially distressing. Conversely they could be extremely complacent about house rules and order.Implications to Marriageand Family Life
  24. 24. • Systems Theory is designed to inspect an organism as a whole, looking at all elements in the system to understand how their function affects the greater whole (Kefalas, 2011).• Relationships within the system are the bonds that link the independent components of the system together (Kefalas, 2011).• Symbiotic relationships indicate that the total sum of the parts is worth a great degree of value than the individuals components added together (Kefalas, 2011).Impact from a SystemsPerspective
  25. 25. • Special attention is paid to boundaries, environments, attributes, and feedback within those relationships (Kefalas, 2011).• When a marital / family relationship includes the wife and/or mother having been traumatized in childhood by a caregiver each component of the family system will be affected and possibly disrupted by her developmental delays.• The relationships within the marriage / family will be dramatically affected by her developmental delays, whether positively or negatively.Impact from a SystemsPerspective
  26. 26. • Any woman in this position believing that her past can be ignored or disregarded would be engaging in erroneous thinking. Any husband in this situation would need to be informed that he will need to be involved in his wife’s therapeutic endeavors, and that his involvement could so substantially impact the family that they experience symbiotic and exponential growth.Impact from a SystemsPerspective
  27. 27. • With Systems theory in mind, no wife/mother should assume that seeking therapy independent of some involvement of the other members of her family would be wise, ultimately most helpful, or destined to produce the greatest result. Wives / mothers should seek help for their personal background problems in the context of a loving family that will be involved in her overall progress.Impact from a SystemsPerspective
  28. 28. • My primary theoretical orientation is Biblical Counseling. I believe the Bible speaks God’s truth in a way that applies to even the most heinous crimes and difficult situations.• Counseling using this theoretical orientation would include carefully gathering data in a gentle and thorough manner (Prov 18:13), addressing the areas of weakness or developmental deficiency that are found in the client (2 Tim 3:16-17), and restoring the person to a right relationship with Christ and others (the book of Ephesians).Personal Theoretical Orientation
  29. 29. • The careful and loving nature of Christian therapeutic counseling relationships provides an environment that is conducive to gentle, gracious, and compassionate care (Col 1:12-13; James 1:27) focused on establishing justice for the oppressed (Jer 22:3; Zech 7:9-11; Malachi 3:5; James 1:27).• With the many errant definitions and meaning assumptions inherent in the life of a former victim the solidity and applicability of scriptural standards will be necessary (John 17:17).Personal Theoretical Orientation
  30. 30. • I also appreciate many of the key concepts present in Existential Therapy such as the dedication to discovering meaning and purpose in the physical, social, psychological, and spiritual dimensions as well as Cognitive Behavior Therapy’s focus on addressing dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and cognitions through a systematic and organized training approach.Personal Theoretical Orientation
  31. 31. • God clearly states that his disciples are known by their love for others and their repudiation of the use of hatred in relationships (Eph 4:1-3; John 13:34-35). Treatment must be the result of a loving therapeutic relationship designed to assist and compassionately care for the oppressed.• Scripture states that the oppressed are to be cared for in an especially compassionate manner that is focused on meeting needs, providing care, and seeking justice (Psalm 82:3; 89:14)Biblical Orientation to theTreatment
  32. 32. • Scripture also states that God’s follower are to hate violence, evil, and wickedness, especially when used against others to dominate and abuse them (Psalm 11:5; 72:14; Prov 3:31; Ecc 4:1- 3; Isaiah 33:15-16; Jer 22:3). Treatment would need to include education and reorientation to God’s views about violence and His commands that parents / guardians keep their children safe (Prov 11:29; Eph 6:1-4).• Scripture has many clear passages giving guidelines for appropriate patterns of thinking, processing, and speculation (2 Cor 10:3-5). These concepts must be taught in the treatment process.• The husband must learn his wife and be active in the process of helping her learn and grow past her traumatic issues of the past (Eph 5:25-33).Biblical Orientation to theTreatment
  33. 33. • Scripture also states that God loves clear vocabulary and precise communication (I Jn 1:5-10; Eph 4:15). This supports treatment goals designed to assist clients in obtaining developmentally and interpersonally appropriate vocabulary for clear inter and intrapersonal communication.• Scripturally accurate parent / child relationships are based on love not aggression (Eph 6:1-4), and education about what is a biblically appropriate parent / child relationship structure will be necessary, even if the topic is difficult (I Kings 2:1-4; Ex 20:12; Levitical law concerning parents; Ruth 2:11; Psalm 27:10; Prov 1:8; 30:11, 17; Matt 10:37; Gen 2:23-24; Matt 19:29; John 19:27; Col 3:20-21; I Thess 2:7; I Tim 1:8-10; 5:2)Biblical Orientation to theTreatment
  34. 34. • Using Scriptural truth to educate regarding emotional regulation will be necessary, since God’s goal for his followers is joy (Psalm 16:11; Gal 5:22, 23). Learning how to identify and regulate emotion using Biblical terminology will be solid and stable (Gal 5:22,23; Col 3:12-17).• Scripture also speaks to the importance of communicating in a way that is clear, loving, edifying, and focused on solving problems (Eph 4:29, 32). Treatment including biblical mandates regarding communication styles, patterns, and directives will be helpful for those former victims of child abuse that have been particularly affected in their verbal processes.Biblical Orientation to theTreatment
  35. 35. • Additional scriptural passages may be utilized which address: • conflict and problem solving (Matt 7:1-12, 18:15-19) • decision making and careful planning (Ecc 9:10; I Kings 6:38; I Chron 15:1; Esther 4:15, 5:1, 6:1; Prov 15:22; 16:3; 20:18; Is 29:15 32:8) • fear, anxiety, and worry (Psalm 23; 27; 33:18; 34:7; Matt 6:24-26;10:26-31; Phil 4:6-8; I Peter 5:6-8) • handling authority figures (I Peter 2:13-25)Biblical Orientation to theTreatment
  36. 36. • Rehabilitation for Complex PTSD and Developmental Trauma Disorder sufferers will follow a three step process including symptom reduction and life stabilization, processing of traumatic memories and emotions, and rehabilitation in areas of deficiency in life skills (van der Kolk & Courtois, 2005).• Treatment plans must include goals designed to complete the following tasks: • To process and resolve damaged interpersonal development • To heal attachment-related injuries • To rehabilitate developmental competencies • To teach a vocabulary that can be used to understand emotions and emotional management, • To deal with problems in interpersonal relationship functioning • To revise negative social perceptions (Cloitre et al., 2009).Goals
  37. 37. • Additionally, treatment plans must allow for the establishment of safe contexts where clients may practice observing accurately, contextualizing appropriately, learning to self- regulate, and communicate with others without returning to old negative fearful responses (van der Kolk, 2005).• Unresolved trauma must also be processed and understood without utilizing old fearful reactions, aggressive physical or sexual acting out, avoidance, or uncontrolled emotional reactions (van der Kolk, 2005).• There must also be opportunities to be in charge of situations, make decisions, and engage in goal oriented and evaluated endeavors (van der Kolk, 2005).Goals
  38. 38. • There is a need to provide settings where traumatized individuals learn to relax and handle situations without becoming either irritable or isolated (van der Kolk, 2005).• Psychoeducation regarding patient safety, affect regulation, coping and self-management skills must be offered (van der Kolk & Courtois, 2005)• Although the focus of much PTSD therapy simply involves the processing of memories, individuals with Developmental Trauma Disorder or Complex PTSD must first learn to process and think through complex matters before they can be expected to be able to assign meaning to unresolved sensory experiences related to memories from past trauma (van der Kolk & Courtois, 2005)Goals
  39. 39. • The most effective treatment begins with a good therapeutic relationship that is perceived to be safe and is absent of wrong therapist interpretations, abrupt shifts in relationship boundaries, therapist disbelief or minimization, disagreements over manipulation, and countertransference (Dalenberg, 2004).• Additional therapeutic interventions that may be helpful include Journaling specifically designed to capture data from spiritual, emotional, mental, relational, and physical domains that allow for orderly processing (Zappert & Westrup, 2008)Treatment Interventions
  40. 40. • Narrative therapy, which provides a context for clients to work through the events of their past and formulate subjective meanings, allows clients to not only formulate the events of their past into a story format but it also allows them to determine meaning for those events (Phipps & Vorster, 2009).• Additionally, Creative Arts, Music, and Movement Therapy Interventions may be found to be an effective means of processing for those who are new and ill- equipped to process difficult memories verbally (Stuckey & Nobel, 2010)Treatment Interventions
  41. 41. • There are several commonalities that will be true for most suffering from Complex PTSD or Developmental Trauma Disorder. These issues must be explored to deduce and determine whether they are applicable to a specific client. If the following issues apply to the client, psychoeducation and specific treatment must be provided to alleviate the negative symptomology.Addressing This Issue
  42. 42. • Children who have been traumatized by caregivers will likely suffer from distinct alterations in states of consciousness, such as amnesia, hypernesia, dissociation, depersonalization and derealization, flashbacks and nightmares, school problems, difficulties in attention regulation, disorientation to time and space, and sensorimotor developmental disorders (van der Kolk, 2005). Clients will need to be taught to control their thinking, stay present, learn concentration techniques, and remain oriented.Addressing This Issue
  43. 43. • Victims of repeated childhood trauma will also lack an understanding of their emotions or feelings and will lack a means of communication to describe their internal state (van der Kolk, 2005). Clients will need to be taught to understand and identify actual emotions and then accurately communicate their internal emotional states to others.Addressing This Issue
  44. 44. • Victims of repeated childhood trauma will lack a good sense of cause and effect, including an ability to evaluate the consequences of their own choices (van der Kolk, 2005). Clients will need to be taught to think through decisions, enact good choices, and process or evaluate decisions to make adjustments for the future. Clients will need to be taught wisdom instead of automatic and robotic reaction.• Because traumatized individuals do not have a good concept for who they are as individuals they will be unable to articulate their need for help or enlist others to help them, resulting in a life as a loner (van der Kolk, 2005). Clients will need to be taught to evaluate their own needs, communicate them accurately, effectively measure the safety of individuals, and then interact with them as appropriate for the relationship.Addressing This Issue
  45. 45. • Because these individuals lack the developmental ability to process through events and make sense of them, new things are likely to threaten them, resulting in individuals that appreciate safe, predictable, and orderly processes in life (van der Kolk, 2005). Clients will need to learn how to react to new events, process through them wisely, and keep themselves safe without allowing obsessive or compulsive patterns to develop.• Most individuals who have been traumatized as children will experience psychopathologies related to anxiety since they do not have any framework for how to deal with real or perceived fear (van der Kolk, 2005). Clients will need to be taught to deal with fear, anxiety, and worry in a healthy manner.Addressing This Issue
  46. 46. • When the trauma has included physical or sexual assault substance abuse, borderline or antisocial personality disorders, eating disorders, dissociative, affective, somatoform, cardiovasc ular, metabolic, immunological, and sexual disorders sometimes develop (van der Kolk, 2005). As these issues become apparent in a client’s life, they will need to be treated and resolved.• Because this trauma is experienced during key developmental times there may also be cognitive, language, motor, and socialization delays (van der Kolk, 2005). Additional developmental delays will need to be resolved as they are discovered.Addressing This Issue
  47. 47. • Developmental delays in the following areas must be treated: • affect regulation difficulty • rapid and/or regressive shifts in emotional states • attachment patterns being either too isolated or too clingy • lack of autonomy in decision making • aggressive behavior against self and others • damaged body regulation in sleep, eating behaviors, and self-care • a faulty understanding of the structure or framework of the world in which they live • trouble anticipating the behavior or expectations of others • somatic problems, from gastrointestinal distress to headaches • a lack of awareness of danger • self endangering behaviors • self-hatred and self-blame • chronic feelings of ineffectiveness (van der Kolk, 2005).Addressing This Issue
  48. 48. • Because safety is such a predominant concern for the woman affected by childhood trauma special care will need to be taken to provide a safe environment and adequate time conducive to building a therapeutic relationship that fosters the welfare of the client (ACA, 2005).• Additionally, there may be confidentiality concerns for clients who may have been forced to complete crimes under the control of their childhood attachment figures. Records will need to be kept in a complete and accurate manner while still maintaining the security of privileged communication that allows the client to feel secure sharing difficult and possibly implicating information from her past (ACA, 2005).Ethical Issues of Concern
  49. 49. • Because women with this past are so easily controlled, manipulated and taken advantage of the therapist working with her must be conscious of the possibility of a person with a strong or dominant personality easily taking the place of a former abuser which would violate the ethical mandate to avoid harming the client (ACA, 2005).• Because the client is likely to need lengthy services to fully resolve her developmental delays care must be paid to the establishment of prices for services, being mindful of the client’s ability to pay for services rendered, without the client becoming financially burdened by services she is being told to engage in but which she has no personal autonomous power to decline (ACA, 2005).Ethical Issues of Concern
  50. 50. • Care would be needed if the client exposed current child or elder abuse occurring within the same family relationship of her youth. Reports to authorities may need to be made regarding her own or others abuse (ACA, 2005).• Because women who were traumatized in their youth are so likely to cling to a safe relationship once it is found, therapists must work to avoid any number of inappropriate levels of involvement based on the client’s desire to be close them, such as the “savior complex,” inappropriate sexual relationships, and breaches of client / therapist boundaries (ACA, 2005).Ethical Issues of Concern
  51. 51. • Additionally, if the client’s husband who was not also a client were to attend counseling, careful consideration would be needed to determine the level of confidential and troubling information revealed during a session in which he was present (ACA, 2005).Ethical Issues of Concern
  52. 52. • Many resources exist for those working through childhood trauma and abuse. Depending on the specific need the following resources may be helpful: • National Association of Nouthetic Counselors - Biblical Counselors can be searched according to geographic location at www.nanc.org • Vision of Hope Residential Treatment Center – Faith based residential treatment designed to help women between the ages of 14-28 dealing with the long term effects of trauma and abuse at www.vohlafayette.org • Pure Life Ministries – Faith based counseling services who are dealing with sexual problems www.purelifeministries.com • National Center for PTSD – United States Department of Veterans Affairs website with information regarding trauma and PTSD www.ptsd.va.org • National Institute of Mental Health – PTSD information page http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder- ptsd/index.shtmlResources
  53. 53. • The implications regarding the millions of individuals affected by childhood trauma on marriages, families, social systems, and communities are staggering.• The many women affected by childhood trauma, especially those whose trauma was inflicted by attachment figures, will be likely to suffer significantly, and that suffering can dramatically impact both individual health and the health their marriage and family.• However, the assistance that is available from therapeutic interventions, specifically Biblical counseling along with existential and cognitive behavior concepts, could offer significant resolutions for their perceived developmental delays.Conclusions
  54. 54. American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author. Retrieved from http://counseling.org/Resources/CodeOfEthics/TP/Home/CT2.aspxCloitre, M., Stolbach, B. C., Herman, J. L., Kolk, B., Pynoos, R., Wang, J., & Petkova, E. (2009). A developmental approach to complex PTSD: Childhood and adult cumulative trauma as predictors of symptom complexity. Journal Of Traumatic Stress, 22(5), 399- 408. Retrieved at www.ebsco.comDalenberg, C. J. (2004). Maintaining the safe and effective therapeutic relationship in the context of distrust and dnger: Countertransference and complex crauma. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 41(4), 438-447. doi:10.1037/0033-3204.41.4.438Forum On Child and Family Statistics. (2012). America’s children: Key national indicators of well-being, 2011. Retrieved at http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/demo.aspKefalas, A. G. (2011). On systems thinking and the systems approach. World Futures: The Journal Of General Evolution, 67(4/5), 343-371. doi:10.1080/02604027.2011.585911Kessler, R. C. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder: The burden to the individual and to society. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61 (Suppl 5), 41-12. Retrieved at www.ebsco.comLyttle, N., Dorahy, M. J., Hanna, D., & Huntjens, R. C. (2010). Conceptual and perceptual priming and dissociation in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 119(4), 777-790. doi:10.1037/a0020894Sources
  55. 55. Phipps, W. D., & Vorster, C. (2009). Narrative therapy: a return to the intrapsychic perspective?. South African Journal Of Psychology, 39(1), 32-45.van der Kolk, B. A. (2005). Developmental Trauma Disorder: Toward a rational diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories. Psychiatric Annals, 35(5), 401-408.Stuckey, H. L., & Nobel, J. (2010). The Connection Between Art, Healing, and Public Health: A Review of Current Literature. American Journal Of Public Health, 100(2), 254-263.The National Center for Victims of Crime (2012). Child victimization. Retreived from http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=38709van der Kolk, B. A., & Courtois, C. A. (2005). Editorial comments: Complex developmental trauma. Journal Of Traumatic Stress, 18(5), 385-388. Retrieved from www.ebsco.comZappert, L. N., & Westrup, D. (2008). Cognitive processing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in a residential treatment setting. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45(3), 361-376. doi:10.1037/0033-3204.45.3.361Sources

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