Part 4: Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World


Published on

This is a compilation from five years work

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Part 4: Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World

  1. 1. Part: 4 Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World By An Admirer Of Nature
  2. 2. <ul><li>THE KING OF OCEAN AIR </li></ul><ul><li>ALBATROSS </li></ul><ul><li>Diomedea exulans </li></ul><ul><li>Family Diomedeidae </li></ul><ul><li>Order Procellariiformes </li></ul><ul><li>Class Aves </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Albatrosses travel over open </li></ul><ul><li>sea for months at a time </li></ul><ul><li>covering thousands of </li></ul><ul><li>miles. They can drink salt </li></ul><ul><li>water without harm. </li></ul><ul><li>These birds in fact spend most of their lives at sea coming to land only to breed </li></ul><ul><li>The wandering albatross Diomedea exulans has </li></ul><ul><li>the broadest wing span of any living bird up to </li></ul><ul><li>11.5 feet. A wandering albatross known to be </li></ul><ul><li>still feeding its chick, was seen 2640 miles from </li></ul><ul><li>its nest. Such a distance is not far for an albatross </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Albatross require a relatively high air speed </li></ul><ul><li>to function effectively. Therefore these birds are found in the southern oceans where the air flow is continuous. Designed </li></ul><ul><li>to glide effortlessly for days at a time </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>MIRACLE IN THE AIR </li></ul><ul><li>Hummingbird </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Trochilidae </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Trochiliformes </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Aves </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>There are around 330 species </li></ul><ul><li>All in America & Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>They feed on nectar </li></ul><ul><li>Ruby-throated Hummingbird </li></ul><ul><li>3 gm & 3” Archilochus colubris </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Bee Hummingbird </li></ul><ul><li>( Mellisuga helenae ) of Cuba is </li></ul><ul><li>the smallest bird in the world, </li></ul><ul><li>weighing 1.8 gm, one inch long </li></ul><ul><li>and its egg weighs 0.5 gm. </li></ul><ul><li>3300 times lighter than heaviest </li></ul><ul><li>egg produced by Ostrich. </li></ul><ul><li>Giant Hummingbird </li></ul><ul><li>( Patagona gigas ) </li></ul><ul><li>of Andes is 8” </li></ul><ul><li>long of in which </li></ul><ul><li>half is its tail </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Red-booted Racket-tail humming </li></ul><ul><li>Spathura rufocaligata </li></ul><ul><li>The hummingbird can stand still in </li></ul><ul><li>the air (hover), fly forward and </li></ul><ul><li>backward and fly upside down </li></ul><ul><li>The wing can actually twist at wrist </li></ul><ul><li>joint and can be moved through </li></ul><ul><li>the air in a “figure of eight” pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>This give the hummingbird its </li></ul><ul><li>helicopter- like maneuverability. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The wing of a small hummingbird beats 70 beats per second. For giant it is 8-10 beats per sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Albatross can glide for many hours without </li></ul><ul><li>flapping its wings once. For honeybee it is 250 </li></ul><ul><li>beats/sec. Midge flaps its minute wings 1000 times per second. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>MIGRATION </li></ul><ul><li>(Tundra Swans) </li></ul><ul><li>HIBERNATION </li></ul><ul><li>(Marmot, Rodent) </li></ul><ul><li>Food, water, protective cover, and a sheltered place to nest and breed are basic to survival. Changing seasons can transform a comfortable environment into an unlivable one -- the food and water supply can dwindle, plant cover can vanish, and competition with other animals can increase. Migration is mass movement </li></ul><ul><li>V- formation to reduce the stress of flight </li></ul><ul><li>HIBERNATION is deep sleep for many months </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>AMERICAN GOLDEN PLOVER </li></ul><ul><li>( Pluvialis dominica ) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-stop flight of about 4000 km in 48 hours </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>ARCTIC TERN ( Sterna paradisaea ) </li></ul><ul><li>Champion of long distance migration </li></ul><ul><li>Arctic to its winter </li></ul><ul><li>home Antarctic, </li></ul><ul><li>17,700 km in </li></ul><ul><li>90 days. Thus </li></ul><ul><li>travel every year </li></ul><ul><li>35,400 km. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>GRAY WHALE WHITE STORK </li></ul><ul><li>CRANE The position of the sun, </li></ul><ul><li>moon, stars, the earth temperature, </li></ul><ul><li>atmospheric pressure, and earth </li></ul><ul><li>magnetic field have all been </li></ul><ul><li>identified as playing a part in </li></ul><ul><li>migration </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Monarch Butterfly </li></ul><ul><li>Danaus plexippus </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Danaidae   </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Lepidoptera </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Insecta   </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Canada to Mexico is 1600 Km </li></ul><ul><li>Average speed is 17.5 Km/ hour </li></ul><ul><li>Height from ground is 5 Meter </li></ul><ul><li>Average daily distance covered is 120 Km </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Complete </li></ul><ul><li>M etamorphosis </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones circulating </li></ul><ul><li>within the body </li></ul><ul><li>trigger the changes </li></ul><ul><li>that occur during </li></ul><ul><li>metamorphosis </li></ul><ul><li>A month to go through the stages from egg to adult </li></ul><ul><li>The adults live another two to six weeks in the summer </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchs that migrate live all winter, or about six to nine months </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Many hundreds of thousands of Monarch Butterflies fly 2,500 miles in an arduous one month journey to arrive in Pacific Grove each fall with a great purpose . </li></ul><ul><li>But, first they must rest before they begin the regeneration of their amazing five generation annual life cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>In March when milkweed appears, the Monarchs begin a marvelous ritual, the crowning achievement of their great journey </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Eventually, they fly off in separate directions, and the male dies because he expended so much energy in the mating </li></ul><ul><li>The female flutters out to place her 400+ eggs on milkweed bushes all the way over in California's San Joaquin Valley. She will lay them one at a time, on the underside of a leaf. </li></ul><ul><li>After she has laid all her eggs, she dies </li></ul><ul><li>Four days after tiny caterpillar emerges </li></ul>
  17. 18. The caterpillar eats its shell and the leaf it was attached to. The milkweed leaf is poisonous to the Monarch's predators, so the newborn can develop without being eaten by a bird. After two weeks the caterpillar crawls up on a stem, or, a branch, and using its last two back legs, hangs upside down and becomes a butterfly chrysalis. When the new Monarch has formed, and splits the cocoon, it must remain still for two hours so its wings dry, and the veins harden .
  18. 19. <ul><li>Then strong enough to fly, it goes north to repeat the mating cycle. Four short (one-month) generations of Monarchs fly north (like a relay race) until the fourth generation reaches the last milkweed of autumn in Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>The fifth generation, the long-living (8 month) butterfly is born in Canada in late summer, and immediately migrates south to sanctuaries in California. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Milkweed family </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>A generation of Monarch butterflies hatched in Canada is able to find its way to winter roots in Mexico, used by their grandparents and ancestors before them. </li></ul><ul><li>The information is stored in their genes! </li></ul>
  21. 22. Pacific grove in California is proud of monarch and the whole town is sanctuary for them “ It is the duty of every citizen to protect the butterflies” is the town ordinance. Street signs are everywhere. “School children parade” is on a Saturday morning in early October every year
  22. 23. <ul><li>PRINCE OF NIGHT AIR </li></ul><ul><li>BAT </li></ul><ul><li>Nyctophilus geoffroyi </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Vespertilonidae </li></ul><ul><li>Order : Chiroptera </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Bat, only mammal that can fly </li></ul><ul><li>There are nearly 1000 living bat species </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all bats are nocturnal (active at night) or crepuscular (active during the twilight of dawn and dusk) </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Echolocation is a high pitched sound produced in the bat's larynx. The sound frequencies range from 11 kHz to 160 kHz. When these pulses strike an object, an echo of the sound returns and is collected by the bat's forward-facing ears. The echoes enable bats to judge the shape, texture and distance of any object such as a tree, building or insects. As the bat gets closer to its prey the frequency increases. </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>We are part of the natural world and are dependent </li></ul><ul><li>on it, and the natural world, since we have become the most powerful of all creatures, is now dependent upon us </li></ul><ul><li>Those who concern themselves solely with man and his works are cut off from the animal world of marvels and mysteries </li></ul>