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Part 3: Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World


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This a compilation from five years work

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Part 3: Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World

  1. 1. Part 3: Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World By An Admirer Of Nature
  2. 2. Water particles interact with light by absorbing certain wave lengths. First the reds and oranges disappear, later the yellows, greens and purples and last the blue.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Photocorynus spiniceps </li></ul><ul><li>The female may have as many as six males attached. The male is taken care of the rest of his life. </li></ul><ul><li>Female Ceratias holboelki weighed half a million times as its male. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Stages in the Life Cycle of a salmon (Salmo salar) </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs: Clear & translucent </li></ul><ul><li>Alevins : Eggs hatch into alevins </li></ul><ul><li>and feed off yolk sac </li></ul><ul><li>Fry : Young fish in its first year </li></ul><ul><li>Parr : Juvenile salmon in 2nd or 3rd year in freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>Smolts : Young one leaving fresh water for first visit to sea </li></ul><ul><li>Grilse : Young salmon that has spent 1 winter at sea </li></ul><ul><li>before returning to the river </li></ul><ul><li>MSW (Salmon): Multi Sea Winters fish (at sea more than one year) </li></ul><ul><li>Kelts : Salmon that have spawned </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Salmon : Salmon that have spent at least 2 years at sea and return to freshwater from Jan to May to spawn the next autumn. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Pacific species - Chinook Salmon </li></ul><ul><li>( Onchorhynchus tschawytscha) ( 45 kg) </li></ul><ul><li>A large salmon can make leap of 10 feet </li></ul><ul><li>FRESH WATER SEA WATER </li></ul><ul><li>ONWARD </li></ul><ul><li>RETURN </li></ul>Kelts Spawning Alevin Fry Birth & 3- 8 Years Smolts Feed & Grow (1- 6 Years) Grilse
  7. 7. <ul><li>Up to 50 miles a day, </li></ul><ul><li>salmon reach their </li></ul><ul><li>birth place covering </li></ul><ul><li>hundreds or even </li></ul><ul><li>thousands of miles to </li></ul><ul><li>find its birth place </li></ul><ul><li>Using Stars, Moon, Sun, or Earth Magnetic Field </li></ul><ul><li>However once they reach the mouth of the river, </li></ul><ul><li>they can find the actual headstream where </li></ul><ul><li>they were born by smell </li></ul><ul><li>Female digs shallow trench, deposits her eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Male fertilizes the eggs and female covers them with gravel. Male dies soon . Female guards the nests for few days and then die. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>SALMON MIGRATION </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Wells Dam is the first dam that over two million smolts must pass during annual out-migrations through the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>The smolt bypass system at Wells Dam is based on spill intake baffles </li></ul><ul><li>Diverting smolts from turbines will increase smolt survival rates </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>PRODUCERS OF SHOCKS </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRIC EEL ( Electrophorus electricus ) </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER ANGUILLIFORMES </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS PISCES </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM CHORDATA </li></ul><ul><li>Sea water Fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Migration (reverse of salmon) </li></ul><ul><li>The Electric eel is actually a fish that can reach 9 feet (2.7 m) in length and weigh more than 50 pounds (23 kg). The electricity comes from nerve ending cells in the tail that can produce from 600-1,000 volts at one time. Electric eels have 200-250 &quot;electric&quot; cells per centimeter. They are native to South American rivers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>ELECTRIC CAT FISH </li></ul><ul><li>Malapterurus electricus </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY MALAPTERURIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER SILURIFORMES </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS ACTINOPTERYGII </li></ul><ul><li>Native of river Nile </li></ul><ul><li>The electric organ, which is evolved from its pectoral muscle, surrounds the body </li></ul><ul><li>over most of the length of the fish </li></ul><ul><li>and is capable of discharging up to 350 V </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>COSTUME CHANGERS </li></ul><ul><li>CHAMELEON </li></ul><ul><li>Panther Chameleon </li></ul><ul><li>Chamaeleo pardalis </li></ul><ul><li>Family Chamaeleonidae </li></ul><ul><li>Order Squamata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Reptilia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Panther is native to the African island Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue, twice the length of the body , ends </li></ul><ul><li>in a muscular sticky tip. </li></ul><ul><li>Snatches the prey in 1/16 of a second </li></ul><ul><li>Skin contains cells of granules of colour pigment </li></ul><ul><li>Changes colour with surroundings, the nervous system and animal’s temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Each eye can move separately (2 things at a time) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Octopus bimaculoides </li></ul><ul><li>Family Octopodidae </li></ul><ul><li>Order Octopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Subclass Dibranchia </li></ul><ul><li>Class Cephalopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Mollusca </li></ul><ul><li>OCTOPUS O ver 100 different species </li></ul><ul><li>The Giant Octopus is 23 ft </li></ul><ul><li>from arm tip to arm tip </li></ul><ul><li>weighing up to 182 kg </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest is 3/8 inch </li></ul><ul><li>Californian octopus </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Octopus, squids & Cuttlefish change colour </li></ul><ul><li>Skin contains unique little sacs containing colour pigments. </li></ul><ul><li>After death skin cells remain alive for few </li></ul><ul><li>hours. Thus sensitive to light, even a dead octopus can performs visual magic </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>SEAHORSE Hippocampus kuda ( Fig . 1& 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Family Syngnathidae Order Syngnathiformes </li></ul><ul><li>Class Pisces Phylum Chordata </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Australian </li></ul><ul><li>Sea-dragon </li></ul><ul><li>Fleshy leaf-like </li></ul><ul><li>appendages look </li></ul><ul><li>like seaweed </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The female seahorse deposits up to 200 eggs into a brood pouch on the male, where they are fertilized. In the male's brood, the seahorse eggs hatch and develop into baby seahorses. After almost two to six weeks of being &quot;pregnant,&quot; the male &quot;gives birth&quot; to the baby seahorses. Labor can take up to three hours! Same thing for sea-dragon. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Common name: </li></ul><ul><li>White's Seahorse </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific name: </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus whitei hippo - horse (Greek) campos - sea animal (Greek) whitei - after John White </li></ul><ul><li>Family name: </li></ul><ul><li>Syngnathidae syn - together, with (Greek) gnathos - jaw (Greek) idae - suffix meaning that </li></ul><ul><li>Only found in Australia this a family name </li></ul>