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Part 3: Beauty Botany


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Collections from three years work

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Part 3: Beauty Botany

  1. 1. Part 3: BEAUTIFUL AND WONDERFUL BOTANY By An Admirer Of Nature
  2. 2. <ul><li>350 species of Aristolochia </li></ul><ul><li>Aristolochia fimbriata </li></ul><ul><li>Dutchman's pipe native to Argentina. </li></ul><ul><li>Small flies landing on the erect upper </li></ul><ul><li>calyx lobe slip down into the inflated, </li></ul><ul><li>pipe-like chamber below. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Dutchman's pipe </li></ul><ul><li>( Aristolochia californica ) </li></ul><ul><li>A native to the Coast Ranges </li></ul><ul><li>of Central and Northern </li></ul><ul><li>California, and the foothills </li></ul><ul><li>of the Sierra Nevada. </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Aristolochiaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Order : Aristolochiales </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Magnoliopsida </li></ul><ul><li>Division : Magnoliophyta </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Small flies after landing slip down </li></ul><ul><li>Wax granules on the inner surface </li></ul><ul><li>Dense, downward pointing hairs </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisoned flies get rationed nector </li></ul><ul><li>Male anthers release pollen several </li></ul><ul><li>days after the female stigma </li></ul><ul><li>becomes no longer receptive </li></ul><ul><li>Hairs wilt and flower tilts horizontally </li></ul><ul><li>Flies walk out for cross pollination after </li></ul><ul><li>getting fresh pollen all over the body </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The bizarre flower of a </li></ul><ul><li>Brazilian Dutchman's pipe </li></ul><ul><li>Aristolochia gigantea </li></ul><ul><li>The front view (left) shows a </li></ul><ul><li>central yellow spot where an </li></ul><ul><li>opening leads into an enclosed </li></ul><ul><li>pouch. The back view (right) </li></ul><ul><li>superficially resembles a pair of </li></ul><ul><li>lungs with a canal leading into </li></ul><ul><li>an inflated, stomach-like pouch. </li></ul><ul><li>The blossom is over 14 inches </li></ul><ul><li>(36 cm) long. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>  Carnivorous Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Plants that eat animals </li></ul><ul><li>Insectivorous plants </li></ul><ul><li>Moor lands or in logy places </li></ul><ul><li>Soil lack nitrogen and other minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Aldrovanda, Byblis, Cephalotus, Darlingtonia, Dionaea, Drosera, Drosophyllum, Genlisea, Heliamphora, Nepenthes, Pinguicula, Sarracenia, Triphyophyllum and Utricularia. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Nepenthes leaf Normal leaf </li></ul><ul><li>The basic structure of Nepenthes pitchers </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Nepenthes rajah </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of holding 2.5 litres of digestive fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Pitcher is Up to 35 cm high and 18 cm wide </li></ul><ul><li>Largest pitcher plant </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Karst limestone cliffs off the east coast of </li></ul><ul><li>Misool (one of the four big islands of </li></ul><ul><li>the Raja Ampat group) are the native </li></ul><ul><li>habitat to Nepenthes treubiana </li></ul><ul><li>Pitcher plants:- 100 species </li></ul><ul><li>S E Asia, Madagascar, Australia & N. America </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Nepenthes albomarginata </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Nepenthes refflesiana </li></ul><ul><li>A female inflorescence & two male flowers (top) </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Nepenthaceae Order : Nepenthales </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Magnoliopsida Division : Magnoliophyta </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Saracenia: North American pitcher plants </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>VENUS FLY TRAP Dionaea muscipila </li></ul><ul><li>Ever green , Insectivorous and Perennial </li></ul><ul><li>Rosettes of six or more with spreading leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf with two hinged lobes and 15-20 stiff spines </li></ul><ul><li>Small winter leaf and large summer leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves: 3” long with 1” trap in winter </li></ul><ul><li>6” long with 1.25” trap in summer </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Taking just a tenth of a second, the snapping mechanism that a Venus fly trap uses to capture its prey is one of the fastest movements in the plant kingdom. Scientists have long wondered how the plant manages such a feat without muscles or nerves. The answer, according to results published in the journal Nature , is by shape-shifting. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>When trigger hairs on the leaves are disturbed, the plant moves moisture in the leaf in response. </li></ul><ul><li>This, in turn, affects the leaf's curvature. A leaf stretches until reaching a point of instability where it can no longer maintain the strain. </li></ul><ul><li>Like releasing a reversed plastic lid or part of a cut tennis ball, each leaf folds back in on itself, and in the process of returning to its original shape, ensures the victim in the middle. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Dionaea muscipula </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Droseraceae Order : Nepenthales </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Magnoliopsida Division : Magnoliophyta </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>SUNDEW Drosera capensis </li></ul><ul><li>Evergreen, Insectivorous and Perennial </li></ul><ul><li>Rosettes of narrow leave with red tiny tentacles </li></ul><ul><li>If any fly that lands on the hairy leaves of the </li></ul><ul><li>sticky sundew its legs are entangled in the </li></ul><ul><li>glue produced by the sundew’s hairs </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Drosera capensis </li></ul><ul><li>6” 6-12” </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Droseraceae Order : Nepenthales </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Magnoliopsida Division : Magnoliophyta </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Cobra Lilies </li></ul><ul><li>Darlingtonia californica </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Sarraceniaceae Order : Sarraceniales </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Magnoliopsida Division: Magnoliophyta </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Opening is at the bottom of the hood </li></ul><ul><li>Insect enters the chamber through this opening </li></ul><ul><li>Truly translucent patches are called fenestrations </li></ul><ul><li>Fenestrations provide more light to the trap </li></ul><ul><li>Insect tries to leave through more light which is not the exit but to the trap. A small amount of </li></ul><ul><li>liquid is retained at the base of the pitcher </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Darlingtonia </li></ul><ul><li>californica </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Sarraceniaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Order : Nepenthales </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Magnoliopsida </li></ul><ul><li>Division : Magnoliophyta </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>BLADDERWORT Utricularia vulgaris </li></ul><ul><li>DECIDUOUS, PERENNIAL AND </li></ul><ul><li>FREE FLOATING WATER PLANT </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY : LENTIBULARIACEAE </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER : LAMIALES </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS : MAGNOLIOPSIDA </li></ul><ul><li>DIVISION : MAGNOLIOPHYTA </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Utricularia vulgaris </li></ul><ul><li>MINUTE BLADDERS, EACH 2 – 5 mm ACROSS </li></ul><ul><li>EACH BLADDER HAS INSIDE OPENING LID </li></ul><ul><li>PARTIAL VACUUM INSIDE </li></ul><ul><li>INSECT ONCE ENTERED CANNOT ESCAPE </li></ul><ul><li>TINY GLANDS INSIDE THE BLADDER </li></ul><ul><li>ABSORB THE INTERNAL WATER AND </li></ul><ul><li>EXPEL IT ON THE OUTSIDE </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Utricularia vulgaris </li></ul><ul><li>The bladder traps which </li></ul><ul><li>are up to 5mm in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>are activated by tiny </li></ul><ul><li>trigger-hairs at the entrance </li></ul><ul><li>to the trap. On touching </li></ul><ul><li>these trigger hairs insects are </li></ul><ul><li>sucked into the trap by a vacuum at speeds of up to 1/15,000th of a second. Digestive juices released inside the bladders absorb nutrients before the empty insect husk is ejected. Glands inside the bladders then absorb water out of the interior to create a vacuum and thus reset the trap. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>COMMON BUTTERWORT Pinguicula vulgaris </li></ul><ul><li>PERENNIAL AND INSECTIVOROUS </li></ul><ul><li>YELLOW GREEN LEAVES ( 1 – 2”) WITH ROLLED EDGES </li></ul><ul><li>LEAVES SECRETE STICKY FLUID THAT CATCHES INSECT </li></ul><ul><li>SINGLE PURPLE FLOWER , 3 LOBED LOWER LIP </li></ul><ul><li>AND 2 LOBED UPPER LIP </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>FAMILY : LENTIBULARIACEAE </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER : PERSONALES </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS : MAGNOLIOPSIDA </li></ul><ul><li>DIVIOSION : MAGNOLIOPHYTA </li></ul><ul><li>HABITAT:- NORTHERN HEMISPHERE </li></ul>