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Reptiles Birds Mammals

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Reptiles Birds Mammals

  1. 1. Reptiles <ul><li>Dry, scaly skin </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Ectotherms </li></ul>
  2. 2. Adaptations for Success on Land: <ul><li>Well developed lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Double-loop circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Water conserving excretory system </li></ul><ul><li>Strong limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Shelled eggs </li></ul>www.iberianature.com www.iberianature.com
  3. 3. Evolution of Reptiles <ul><li>Swamps dried up  less habitat for water dependent amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>215mya Dinosaurs </li></ul><ul><li>Mass extinction 65mya (end of Cretaceous period)  opened niches for modern reptiles </li></ul>www.sunstar-solutions.com
  4. 4. Feeding <ul><li>Multiple modes of feeding </li></ul>www.arkive.org reptilis.net/ index4/swallow3.jpg
  5. 5. Respiration <ul><li>Spongy lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles to expand and collapse chest cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Urine produced by kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Urine contains ammonia (water) or uric acid (land) </li></ul>Excretion
  6. 6. Circulation <ul><li>Double-loop circulatory system </li></ul>academic.emporia.edu/ sievertl/verstruc/turtfr.JPG <ul><li>Blood to and from lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Blood to and from body </li></ul><ul><li>2 atria and 1 ventricle separated by a septum </li></ul><ul><li>Alligators and Crocodiles (2 atria and 2 ventricles) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Response <ul><li>Cerebrum and Cerebellum larger than amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>Color vision </li></ul><ul><li>Good sense of smell </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical receptors in mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrations sensed in skull bones </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared radiation (0.4 0 F) </li></ul>sacs.vetmed.ufl.edu
  8. 8. Reproduction <ul><li>Internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Embryos covered with 4 layers of membranes and a leathery shell </li></ul><ul><li>Most are oviparous </li></ul><ul><li>Amniotic eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature Dependent Sex Determination </li></ul>
  9. 9. Amniotic Egg Shell Allantois Embryo Amnion Chorion Yolk Sac Gas exchange Food supply Cushions embryo Stores waste products/ functions in respiration
  10. 10. How do the parts of the amniotic egg enable it to survive on land? <ul><li>Shell- retains moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Allantois and Chorion - gas exchange and waste storage </li></ul><ul><li>Yolk Sac - food for embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Amnion - watery environment to cushion embryo </li></ul>http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/ce/eek/critter/reptile/images/turtleHatching.jpg
  11. 11. Groups of Reptiles <ul><li>Lizards and Snakes </li></ul><ul><li>Crocodilians </li></ul><ul><li>Turtles and Tortoises </li></ul><ul><li>Tuatara </li></ul>www.chelsea.co.nz/.../ Tuatara%20close%20up.jpg reptilis.net/ index4/afang.jpg www.backfromthebrink.org/ www.african-safari-pictures.com
  12. 12. Lizards and Snakes <ul><li>Order Squamata: Scaly Reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>Lizards: legs, clawed toes, external ears, movable eyelids </li></ul><ul><li>Snakes: legless, DO have backbones </li></ul><ul><li>More Americans die from bee stings than snake bites! </li></ul>http://www.sloanmonster.com/images/coral.jpg http://www.stetson.edu/~pmay/quiz/images/Quiz1A.jpg http://kaweahoaks.com/html/bluebelly_scales.jpg web.ukonline.co.uk
  13. 13. Crocodilians <ul><li>Order Crocodilia </li></ul><ul><li>Crocodiles, Alligators, Caiman, Gavials </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores </li></ul><ul><li>Very protective of young </li></ul>images.encarta.msn.com/.../ pho/t025/T025245A.jpg http://www.nps.gov/ever/eco/compare.htm http://www.nps.gov/ever/eco/compare.htm Crocodile Alligator http://www.honoluluzoo.org/gharial.htm
  14. 14. Turtles and Tortoises <ul><li>Order Testudines </li></ul><ul><li>Turtle: water </li></ul><ul><li>Tortoise: land </li></ul><ul><li>Terrapin: turtle found in salty water </li></ul><ul><li>2 part shell built into skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carapace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastron </li></ul></ul>http://www.tortoise.org/images/yucatan4.jpg herpcenter.ipfw.edu/. ../wood_turtle.jpg http://terrapindiary.org/lewis01/gallery/06-03-3.jpg
  15. 15. Tuataras <ul><li>Resemble lizards but lack external ears & have primitive scales </li></ul><ul><li>“Third eye”- complex organ located on top of brain </li></ul>http://www.askshagg.com/images/comics/0.188190917537~tuatara.gif
  16. 16. Birds <ul><li>Reptile-like animals </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a constant body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Feathers </li></ul><ul><li>2 legs with scales for walking or perching </li></ul><ul><li>Front limbs modified into wings </li></ul>www.richard-seaman.com http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/~mgb/penguin.jpg
  17. 17. Feathers <ul><li>Contour feathers : provide lifting force and balance needed for flight </li></ul><ul><li>Down feathers : trap air close to the body to keep birds warm </li></ul>http://www.paulnoll.com/Oregon/Birds/feather-contour-s.jpg
  18. 18. Evolution of Birds <ul><li>Likely evolved from dinosaurs </li></ul>http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/images/Archaeopteryx0.jpg
  19. 19. Feeding <ul><li>Birds eat to increase metabolism  heat </li></ul><ul><li>Beaks adapted to type of food </li></ul>http://www.k12.de.us/warner/beaks.jpg
  20. 20. Digestion <ul><li>Lack teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Food moistened & stored in crop </li></ul><ul><li>Gizzard: part of the stomach with stones for grinding food </li></ul>www.birdcareco.com/.../ Inside_out_bird.jpg
  21. 21. Respiration <ul><li>One way flow of air  lungs constantly exposed to oxygen-rich air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air sacs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables flight at high altitudes </li></ul></ul>http://w3.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/44/images/ch44c7.gif
  22. 22. Circulation Complete division Left ventricle Left atrium Right atrium Right ventricle Heart <ul><li>Double loop circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>4 chambered heart </li></ul>
  23. 23. Response <ul><li>Large cerebellum compared to reptiles  coordinates flight </li></ul><ul><li>Large cerebrum  flying, nest building, care of young, courtship, mating, song </li></ul><ul><li>Well developed eyes/color vision </li></ul>http://www.wtamu.edu/~rmatlack/pigeon_dissection/brain.jpg
  24. 24. Movement <ul><li>More rigid skeleton than reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>Bones anchor muscles used for flight </li></ul><ul><li>Bones are less dense than mammal bones </li></ul>a-s.clayton.edu/.../ bird/bird-lateral.jpg
  25. 25. Mammals <ul><li>Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Mammary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Breathe air </li></ul><ul><li>4 chambered hearts </li></ul><ul><li>Endotherms </li></ul>www.richard-seaman.com http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/~mgb/dolphin.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemming
  26. 26. Body Temperature Control <ul><li>Endotherms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High metabolic rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shivering </li></ul></ul>http://www.mccullagh.org/db9/10d-16/italian-greyhound-panting.jpg
  27. 27. Feeding <ul><li>10X as much food as reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores : sharp canines, incisors, short digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores : flat molars, rumen </li></ul>www.bbc.co.uk ag.ansc.purdue.edu
  28. 28. Respiration <ul><li>All mammals use lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs controlled by two sets of muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm : powerful muscle </li></ul>whyfiles.org www.bajawhales.com
  29. 29. Circulation <ul><li>Closed </li></ul><ul><li>Two loops </li></ul><ul><li>4 chambered heart </li></ul>news.bbc.co.uk/.../ heart_diagram.gif
  30. 30. Response <ul><li>Well developed cerebral cortex - center of thinking and complex behavior </li></ul>www.uoguelph.ca
  31. 31. Movement <ul><li>Wide variation of limb bones and muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diggers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swimmers </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Reproduction <ul><li>Monotremes : lay eggs; cloaca </li></ul><ul><li>Marsupials : bear live young; develop in pouch </li></ul><ul><li>Placental mammals : nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes exchanged through placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Parental care </li></ul>www.science-frontiers.com/ sf074/p074-07.gif
  33. 33. Primates <ul><li>Binocular Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Well developed cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Fingers and toes </li></ul><ul><li>Arms that rotate in shoulder joints </li></ul>www.primates.com/ babchimp.jpg
  34. 34. Recap <ul><li>List the main characteristics of reptiles. </li></ul><ul><li>List 5 ways that reptiles are adapted to dry land. </li></ul><ul><li>How does a lizard control its body temperature? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the characteristics of birds. </li></ul><ul><li>List 3 ways that birds are well adapted to flight. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the characteristics of mammals? </li></ul>

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